SQL SERVER – 2008 – Introduction to Snapshot Database – Restore From Snapshot

Posted by pinaldave on SQL Authority See other posts from SQL Authority or by pinaldave
Published on Mon, 05 Apr 2010 01:30:40 +0000 Indexed on 2010/04/05 1:33 UTC
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Snapshot database is one of the most interesting concepts that I have used at some places recently.

Here is a quick definition of the subject from Book On Line:

A Database Snapshot is a read-only, static view of a database (the source database). Multiple snapshots can exist on a source database and can always reside on the same server instance as the database. Each database snapshot is consistent, in terms of transactions, with the source database as of the moment of the snapshot’s creation. A snapshot persists until it is explicitly dropped by the database owner.

If you do not know how Snapshot database work, here is a quick note on the subject. However, please refer to the official description on Book-on-Line for accuracy. Snapshot database is a read-only database created from an original database called the “source database”. This database operates at page level. When Snapshot database is created, it is produced on sparse files; in fact, it does not occupy any space (or occupies very little space) in the Operating System. When any data page is modified in the source database, that data page is copied to Snapshot database, making the sparse file size increases. When an unmodified data page is read in the Snapshot database, it actually reads the pages of the original database. In other words, the changes that happen in the source database are reflected in the Snapshot database.

Let us see a simple example of Snapshot. In the following exercise, we will do a few operations. Please note that this script is for demo purposes only- there are a few considerations of CPU, DISK I/O and memory, which will be discussed in the future posts.

  • Create Snapshot
  • Delete Data from Original DB
  • Restore Data from Snapshot

First, let us create the first Snapshot database and observe the sparse file details.

USE master
GO
-- Create Regular Database
CREATE DATABASE RegularDB
GO
USE RegularDB
GO
-- Populate Regular Database with Sample Table
CREATE TABLE FirstTable (ID INT, Value VARCHAR(10))
INSERT INTO FirstTable VALUES(1, 'First');
INSERT INTO FirstTable VALUES(2, 'Second');
INSERT INTO FirstTable VALUES(3, 'Third');
GO
-- Create Snapshot Database
CREATE DATABASE SnapshotDB ON
(Name ='RegularDB',
FileName='c:\SSDB.ss1')
AS SNAPSHOT OF RegularDB;
GO
-- Select from Regular and Snapshot Database
SELECT * FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
SELECT * FROM SnapshotDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO

Now let us see the resultset for the same.

Now let us do delete something from the Original DB and check the same details we checked before.

-- Delete from Regular Database
DELETE FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO
-- Select from Regular and Snapshot Database
SELECT * FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
SELECT * FROM SnapshotDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO

When we check the details of sparse file created by Snapshot database, we will find some interesting details. The details of Regular DB remain the same.

It clearly shows that when we delete data from Regular/Source DB, it copies the data pages to Snapshot database. This is the reason why the size of the snapshot DB is increased.

Now let us take this small exercise to  the next level and restore our deleted data from Snapshot DB to Original Source DB.

-- Restore Data from Snapshot Database
USE master
GO
RESTORE DATABASE RegularDB
FROM DATABASE_SNAPSHOT = 'SnapshotDB';
GO
-- Select from Regular and Snapshot Database
SELECT * FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
SELECT * FROM SnapshotDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO
-- Clean up
DROP DATABASE [SnapshotDB];
DROP DATABASE [RegularDB];
GO

Now let us check the details of the select statement and we can see that we are successful able to restore the database from Snapshot Database.

We can clearly see that this is a very useful feature in case you would encounter a good business that needs it.

I would like to request the readers to suggest more details if they are using this feature in their business. Also, let me know if you think it can be potentially used to achieve any tasks.

Complete Script of the afore- mentioned operation for easy reference is as follows:

USE master
GO
-- Create Regular Database
CREATE DATABASE RegularDB
GO
USE RegularDB
GO
-- Populate Regular Database with Sample Table
CREATE TABLE FirstTable (ID INT, Value VARCHAR(10))
INSERT INTO FirstTable VALUES(1, 'First');
INSERT INTO FirstTable VALUES(2, 'Second');
INSERT INTO FirstTable VALUES(3, 'Third');
GO
-- Create Snapshot Database
CREATE DATABASE SnapshotDB ON
(Name ='RegularDB',
FileName='c:\SSDB.ss1')
AS SNAPSHOT OF RegularDB;
GO
-- Select from Regular and Snapshot Database
SELECT * FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
SELECT * FROM SnapshotDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO
-- Delete from Regular Database
DELETE FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO
-- Select from Regular and Snapshot Database
SELECT * FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
SELECT * FROM SnapshotDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO
-- Restore Data from Snapshot Database
USE master
GO
RESTORE DATABASE RegularDB
FROM DATABASE_SNAPSHOT = 'SnapshotDB';
GO
-- Select from Regular and Snapshot Database
SELECT * FROM RegularDB.dbo.FirstTable;
SELECT * FROM SnapshotDB.dbo.FirstTable;
GO
-- Clean up
DROP DATABASE [SnapshotDB];
DROP DATABASE [RegularDB];
GO

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)


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