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  • Solaris 10 branded zone VM Templates for Solaris 11 on OTN

    - by jsavit
    Early this year I wrote the article Ours Goes To 11 which describes the ability to import Solaris 10 systems into a "Solaris 10 branded zone" under Oracle Solaris 11. I did this using Solaris 11 Express, and the capability remains in Solaris 11 with only slight changes. This important tool lets you painlessly inhaling a Solaris Container from Solaris 10 or entire Solaris 10 systems ("the global zone") into virtualized environments on a Solaris 11 OS. Just recently, Oracle provided Oracle VM Templates for Oracle Solaris 10 Zones to let you create Solaris 10 branded zones for Solaris 11 even if you don't currently have access to install media or a running Solaris 10 system. To use this, just download the Oracle VM Template for Oracle Solaris Zone 10 from OTN at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/server-storage/solaris11/downloads/virtual-machines-1355605.html. This page contains images of Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 (the recent update to Solaris 10) in SPARC and x86 formats suitable for creating branded zones. The same page also has a VirtualBox image you can download for a complete Solaris 10 install in a guest virtual machine you can run on any host OS that supports VirtualBox. Both sets of downloads provide a quick - and extremely easy - way to set up a virtual Solaris 10 environment. In the case of the Oracle VM Templates, they illustrate several advanced features of Solaris 11. To start, just go to the above link, download the template for the hardware platform (SPARC or x86) you want, and download the README file also linked from that page. Install prerequisites The README file tells you to install the prerequisite Solaris 11 package that implements the Solaris 10 brand. Then you can install instances of zones with that brand. # pkg install pkg:/system/zones/brand/brand-solaris10 Packages to install: 1 Create boot environment: No Create backup boot environment: Yes DOWNLOAD PKGS FILES XFER (MB) Completed 1/1 44/44 0.4/0.4 PHASE ACTIONS Install Phase 74/74 PHASE ITEMS Package State Update Phase 1/1 Image State Update Phase 2/2 That took only a few minutes, and didn't require a reboot. Install the Solaris 10 zone Now it's time to run the downloaded template file. First make it executable via the chmod command, of course. I found that (unlike stated in the README) there was no need to rename the downloaded file to remove the .bin. When you run it you provide several parameters to describe the zone configuration: -a IP address - the IP address and optional netmask for the zone. This is the only mandatory parameter. -z zonename - the name of the zone you would like to create. -i interface - the package will create an exclusive-IP zone using a virtual NIC (vnic) based on this physical interface. In my case, I have a NIC called rge0. -p PATH - specifies the path in which you want the zoneroot to be placed. In my case, I have a ZFS dataset mounted at /zones, and this will create a zoneroot at /zones/s10u10. Kicking it off, you will see a copyright message, and then messages showing progress building the zone, which only takes a few minutes. # ./solaris-10u10-x86.bin -p /zones -a 192.168.1.100 -i rge0 -z s10u10 ... ... Checking disk-space for extraction Ok Extracting in /export/home/CDimages/s10zone/bootimage.ihaqvh ... 100% [===============================] Checking data integrity Ok Checking platform compatibility The host and the image do not have the same Solaris release: host Solaris release: 5.11 image Solaris release: 5.10 Will create a Solaris 10 branded zone. Warning: could not find a defaultrouter Zone won't have any defaultrouter configured IMAGE: ./solaris-10u10-x86.bin ZONE: s10u10 ZONEPATH: /zones/s10u10 INTERFACE: rge0 VNIC: vnicZBI13379 MAC ADDR: 2:8:20:5c:1a:cc IP ADDR: 192.168.1.100 NETMASK: 255.255.255.0 DEFROUTER: NONE TIMEZONE: US/Arizona Checking disk-space for installation Ok Installing in /zones/s10u10 ... 100% [===============================] Using a static exclusive-IP Attaching s10u10 Booting s10u10 Waiting for boot to complete booting... booting... booting... Zone s10u10 booted The zone's root password has been set using the root password of the local host. You can change the zone's root password to further harden the security of the zone: being root, log into the zone from the local host with the command 'zlogin s10u10'. Once logged in, change the root password with the command 'passwd'. The nifty part in my opinion (besides being so easy), is that the zone was created as an exclusive-IP zone on a virtual NIC. This network configuration lets you enforce traffic isolation from other zones, enforce network Quality of Service, and even let the zone set its own characteristics like IP address and packet size. Independence of the zone's network characteristics from the global zone is one of the enhancements in Solaris 10 that make it easier to consolidate zones while preserving their autonomy, yet provide control in a consolidated environment. Let's see what the virtual network environment looks like by issuing commands from the Solaris 11 global zone. First I'll use Old School ifconfig, and then I'll use the new ipadm and dladm commands. # ifconfig -a4 lo0: flags=2001000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 rge0: flags=1004943<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,PROMISC,MULTICAST,DHCP,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 0:14:d1:18:ac:bc vboxnet0: flags=201000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4,CoS> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168.56.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.56.255 ether 8:0:27:f8:62:1c # dladm show-phys LINK MEDIA STATE SPEED DUPLEX DEVICE yge0 Ethernet unknown 0 unknown yge0 yge1 Ethernet unknown 0 unknown yge1 rge0 Ethernet up 1000 full rge0 vboxnet0 Ethernet up 1000 full vboxnet0 # dladm show-link LINK CLASS MTU STATE OVER yge0 phys 1500 unknown -- yge1 phys 1500 unknown -- rge0 phys 1500 up -- vboxnet0 phys 1500 up -- vnicZBI13379 vnic 1500 up rge0 s10u10/vnicZBI13379 vnic 1500 up rge0 s10u10/net0 vnic 1500 up rge0 # dladm show-vnic LINK OVER SPEED MACADDRESS MACADDRTYPE VID vnicZBI13379 rge0 1000 2:8:20:5c:1a:cc random 0 s10u10/vnicZBI13379 rge0 1000 2:8:20:5c:1a:cc random 0 s10u10/net0 rge0 1000 2:8:20:9d:d0:79 random 0 # ipadm show-addr ADDROBJ TYPE STATE ADDR lo0/v4 static ok 127.0.0.1/8 rge0/_a dhcp ok 192.168.1.3/24 vboxnet0/_a static ok 192.168.56.1/24 lo0/v6 static ok ::1/128 Log into the zone The install step already booted the zone, so lets log into it. Notice how you have to be appropriately privileged to log into a zone. This is my home system so I'm being a bit cavalier, but in a production environment you can give granular control of who can login to which zones. Voila! a Solaris 10 environment under a Solaris 11 kernel. Notice the output from the uname -a and ifconfig commands, and output from a ping to a nearby host. $ zlogin s10u10 zlogin: You lack sufficient privilege to run this command (all privs required) [email protected]:~$ sudo zlogin s10u10 Password: [Connected to zone 's10u10' pts/5] Oracle Corporation SunOS 5.10 Generic Patch January 2005 # uname -a SunOS s10u10 5.10 Generic_Virtual i86pc i386 i86pc # ifconfig -a4 lo0: flags=2001000849 mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 vnicZBI13379: flags=1000843 mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.100 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 2:8:20:5c:1a:cc # bash bash-3.2# ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849 mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 vnicZBI13379: flags=1000843 mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.100 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 2:8:20:5c:1a:cc bash-3.2# ping 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.2 is alive For fun, I configured Apache (setting its configuration file in /etc/apache2) and brought it up. Easy - took just a few minutes. bash-3.2# svcs apache2 STATE STIME FMRI disabled 12:38:46 svc:/network/http:apache2 bash-3.2# svcadm enable apache2 Summary In just a few minutes, I built a functioning virtual Solaris 10 environment under by Solaris 11 system. It was... easy! While I can still do it the manual way (creating and using a system archive), this is a low-effort way to create a Solaris 10 zone on Solaris 11.

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  • Best Practices - updated: which domain types should be used to run applications

    - by jsavit
    This post is one of a series of "best practices" notes for Oracle VM Server for SPARC (formerly named Logical Domains). This is an updated and enlarged version of the post on this topic originally posted October 2012. One frequent question "what type of domain should I use to run applications?" There used to be a simple answer: "run applications in guest domains in almost all cases", but now there are more things to consider. Enhancements to Oracle VM Server for SPARC and introduction of systems like the current SPARC servers including the T4 and T5 systems, the Oracle SuperCluster T5-8 and Oracle SuperCluster M6-32 provide scale and performance much higher than the original servers that ran domains. Single-CPU performance, I/O capacity, memory sizes, are much larger now, and far more demanding applications are now being hosted in logical domains. The general advice continues to be "use guest domains in almost all cases", meaning, "use virtual I/O rather than physical I/O", unless there is a specific reason to use the other domain types. The sections below will discuss the criteria for choosing between domain types. Review: division of labor and types of domain Oracle VM Server for SPARC offloads management and I/O functionality from the hypervisor to domains (also called virtual machines), providing a modern alternative to older VM architectures that use a "thick", monolithic hypervisor. This permits a simpler hypervisor design, which enhances reliability, and security. It also reduces single points of failure by assigning responsibilities to multiple system components, further improving reliability and security. Oracle VM Server for SPARC defines the following types of domain, each with their own roles: Control domain - management control point for the server, runs the logical domain daemon and constraints engine, and is used to configure domains and manage resources. The control domain is the first domain to boot on a power-up, is always an I/O domain, and is usually a service domain as well. It doesn't have to be, but there's no reason to not leverage it for virtual I/O services. There is one control domain per T-series system, and one per Physical Domain (PDom) on an M5-32 or M6-32 system. M5 and M6 systems can be physically domained, with logical domains within the physical ones. I/O domain - a domain that has been assigned physical I/O devices. The devices may be one more more PCIe root complexes (in which case the domain is also called a root complex domain). The domain has native access to all the devices on the assigned PCIe buses. The devices can be any device type supported by Solaris on the hardware platform. a SR-IOV (Single-Root I/O Virtualization) function. SR-IOV lets a physical device (also called a physical function) or PF) be subdivided into multiple virtual functions (VFs) which can be individually assigned directly to domains. SR-IOV devices currently can be Ethernet or InfiniBand devices. direct I/O ownership of one or more PCI devices residing in a PCIe bus slot. The domain has direct access to the individual devices An I/O domain has native performance and functionality for the devices it owns, unmediated by any virtualization layer. It may also have virtual devices. Service domain - a domain that provides virtual network and disk devices to guest domains. The services are defined by commands that are run in the control domain. It usually is an I/O domain as well, in order for it to have devices to virtualize and serve out. Guest domain - a domain whose devices are all virtual rather than physical: virtual network and disk devices provided by one or more service domains. In common practice, this is where applications are run. Device considerations Consider the following when choosing between virtual devices and physical devices: Virtual devices provide the best flexibility - they can be dynamically added to and removed from a running domain, and you can have a large number of them up to a per-domain device limit. Virtual devices are compatible with live migration - domains that exclusively have virtual devices can be live migrated between servers supporting domains. On the other hand: Physical devices provide the best performance - in fact, native "bare metal" performance. Virtual devices approach physical device throughput and latency, especially with virtual network devices that can now saturate 10GbE links, but physical devices are still faster. Physical I/O devices do not add load to service domains - all the I/O goes directly from the I/O domain to the device, while virtual I/O goes through service domains, which must be provided sufficient CPU and memory capacity. Physical I/O devices can be other than network and disk - we virtualize network, disk, and serial console, but physical devices can be the wide range of attachable certified devices, including things like tape and CDROM/DVD devices. In some cases the lines are now blurred: virtual devices have better performance than previously: starting with Oracle VM Server for SPARC 3.1 there is near-native virtual network performance. There is more flexibility with physical devices than before: SR-IOV devices can now be dynamically reconfigured on domains. Tradeoffs one used to have to make are now relaxed: you can often have the flexibility of virtual I/O with performance that previously required physical I/O. You can have the performance and isolation of SR-IOV with the ability to dynamically reconfigure it, just like with virtual devices. Typical deployment A service domain is generally also an I/O domain: otherwise it wouldn't have access to physical device "backends" to offer to its clients. Similarly, an I/O domain is also typically a service domain in order to leverage the available PCI buses. Control domains must be I/O domains, because they boot up first on the server and require physical I/O. It's typical for the control domain to also be a service domain too so it doesn't "waste" the I/O resources it uses. A simple configuration consists of a control domain that is also the one I/O and service domain, and some number of guest domains using virtual I/O. In production, customers typically use multiple domains with I/O and service roles to eliminate single points of failure, as described in Availability Best Practices - Avoiding Single Points of Failure . Guest domains have virtual disk and virtual devices provisioned from more than one service domain, so failure of a service domain or I/O path or device does not result in an application outage. This also permits "rolling upgrades" in which service domains are upgraded one at a time while their guests continue to operate without disruption. (It should be noted that resiliency to I/O device failures can also be provided by the single control domain, using multi-path I/O) In this type of deployment, control, I/O, and service domains are used for virtualization infrastructure, while applications run in guest domains. Changing application deployment patterns The above model has been widely and successfully used, but more configuration options are available now. Servers got bigger than the original T2000 class machines with 2 I/O buses, so there is more I/O capacity that can be used for applications. Increased server capacity made it attractive to run more vertically-scaled applications, such as databases, with higher resource requirements than the "light" applications originally seen. This made it attractive to run applications in I/O domains so they could get bare-metal native I/O performance. This is leveraged by the Oracle SuperCluster engineered systems mentioned previously. In those engineered systems, I/O domains are used for high performance applications with native I/O performance for disk and network and optimized access to the Infiniband fabric. Another technical enhancement is Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV), which make it possible to give domains direct connections and native I/O performance for selected I/O devices. Not all I/O domains own PCI complexes, and there are increasingly more I/O domains that are not service domains. They use their I/O connectivity for performance for their own applications. However, there are some limitations and considerations: at this time, a domain using physical I/O cannot be live-migrated to another server. There is also a need to plan for security and introducing unneeded dependencies: if an I/O domain is also a service domain providing virtual I/O to guests, it has the ability to affect the correct operation of its client guest domains. This is even more relevant for the control domain. where the ldm command must be protected from unauthorized (or even mistaken) use that would affect other domains. As a general rule, running applications in the service domain or the control domain should be avoided. For reference, an excellent guide to secure deployment of domains by Stefan Hinker is at Secure Deployment of Oracle VM Server for SPARC. To recap: Guest domains with virtual I/O still provide the greatest operational flexibility, including features like live migration. They should be considered the default domain type to use unless there is a specific requirement that mandates an I/O domain. I/O domains can be used for applications with the highest performance requirements. Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) makes this more attractive by giving direct I/O access to more domains, and by permitting dynamic reconfiguration of SR-IOV devices. Today's larger systems provide multiple PCIe buses - for example, 16 buses on the T5-8 - making it possible to configure multiple I/O domains each owning their own bus. Service domains should in general not be used for applications, because compromised security in the domain, or an outage, can affect domains that depend on it. This concern can be mitigated by providing guests' their virtual I/O from more than one service domain, so interruption of service in one service domain does not cause an application outage. The control domain should in general not be used to run applications, for the same reason. Oracle SuperCluster uses the control domain for applications, but it is an exception. It's not a general purpose environment; it's an engineered system with specifically configured applications and optimization for optimal performance. These are recommended "best practices" based on conversations with a number of Oracle architects. Keep in mind that "one size does not fit all", so you should evaluate these practices in the context of your own requirements. Summary Higher capacity servers that run Oracle VM Server for SPARC are attractive for applications with the most demanding resource requirements. New deployment models permit native I/O performance for demanding applications by running them in I/O domains with direct access to their devices. This is leveraged in SPARC SuperCluster, and can be leveraged in T-series servers to provision high-performance applications running in domains. Carefully planned, this can be used to provide peak performance for critical applications. That said, the improved virtual device performance in Oracle VM Server means that the default choice should still be guest domains with virtual I/O.

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  • Mixed Solaris 10 and 11 versions in logical domains on the same server

    - by jsavit
    One question that comes up frequently is whether you can mix Solaris 10 and Solaris 11 in different logical domains under Oracle VM Server for SPARC. The answer is yes depending only on the system software requirements for the underlying hardware platform. Different versions of Solaris 10 and 11 can exist side-by-side on the same server and can act as control, service, I/O or guest domains subject only to the minimum software levels documented in the System Requirements section of the Oracle VM Server for SPARC Release Notes. Here's an example just taken from a running system. First, here's the control domain, which is running Solaris 10. I've highlighted a guest running Solaris 11. # uname -a SunOS atl-sewr-24 5.10 Generic_147440-01 sun4v sparc SUNW,SPARC-Enterprise-T5220 # ldm -V Logical Domains Manager (v 2.1) Hypervisor control protocol v 1.7 Using Hypervisor MD v 1.3 System PROM: Hypervisor v. 1.10.0 @(#)Hypervisor 1.10.0 2011/04/27 16:19\015 # ldm list NAME STATE FLAGS CONS VCPU MEMORY UTIL UPTIME primary active -n-cv- SP 16 4G 1.6% 120d 17h atl-sewr-pool-148 active -n---- 5001 8 2G 0.1% 119d 21h atl-sewr-pool-152 active -n---- 5000 8 4G 0.2% 112d 19h atl-sewr-pool-154 active -n---- 5002 8 2G 0.1% 120d 15h atl-sewr-pool-155 active -n---- 5003 16 2G 0.0% 26d 14h 30m This system is running Oracle VM Server 2.1 with a Solaris 10 control domain. Hmm, I should update this machine to 2.2 when I get a few free moments. Upgrading is very straightforward. Here's a display logging into the highlighted guest: Last login: Mon May 21 10:18:16 2012 from dhcp-adc-twvpn- Oracle Corporation SunOS 5.11 11.0 November 2011 [email protected]:~$ uname -a SunOS atl-sewr-pool-152 5.11 11.0 sun4v sparc SUNW,SPARC-Enterprise-T5220 [email protected]:~$ cat /etc/release Oracle Solaris 11 11/11 SPARC Copyright (c) 1983, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assembled 18 October 2011 [email protected]:~$ sudo virtinfo -ct Password: Domain role: LDoms guest Control domain: atl-sewr-24 [email protected]:~$ That's running the GA version of Solaris 11, so I probably should update that some time too. Note the use of the virtinfo -ct command that lets the guest get information about the hosting environment. Summary You can mix and match versions of Solaris in logical domains. All the different combinations work: Solaris 10 and/or Solaris 11 control and service domains with Solaris 10 and/or Solaris 11 guests. Mixing different guest OS levels on the same server is one of the traditional reasons for using virtual machines in the first place since virtual machines were invented some 40 years ago, used to run production and test systems in parallel while upgrading OS levels. This can easily be done with Oracle VM Server for SPARC (Logical Domains).

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  • Best Practices - Core allocation

    - by jsavit
    This post is one of a series of "best practices" notes for Oracle VM Server for SPARC (also called Logical Domains) Introduction SPARC T-series servers currently have up to 4 CPU sockets, each of which has up to 8 or (on SPARC T3) 16 CPU cores, while each CPU core has 8 threads, for a maximum of 512 dispatchable CPUs. The defining feature of Oracle VM Server for SPARC is that each domain is assigned CPU threads or cores for its exclusive use. This avoids the overhead of software-based time-slicing and emulation (or binary rewriting) of system state-changing privileged instructions used in traditional hypervisors. To create a domain, administrators specify either the number of CPU threads or cores that the domain will own, as well as its memory and I/O resources. When CPU resources are assigned at the individual thread level, the logical domains constraint manager attempts to assign threads from the same cores to a domain, and avoid "split core" situations where the same CPU core is used by multiple domains. Sometimes this is unavoidable, especially when domains are allocated and deallocated CPUs in small increments. Why split cores can matter Split core allocations can silenty reduce performance because multiple domains with different address spaces and memory contents are sharing the core's Level 1 cache (L1$). This is called false cache sharing since even identical memory addresses from different domains must point to different locations in RAM. The effect of this is increased contention for the cache, and higher memory latency for each domain using that core. The degree of performance impact can be widely variable. For applications with very small memory working sets, and with I/O bound or low-CPU utilization workloads, it may not matter at all: all machines wait for work at the same speed. If the domains have substantial workloads, or are critical to performance then this can have an important impact: This blog entry was inspired by a customer issue in which one CPU core was split among 3 domains, one of which was the control and service domain. The reported problem was increased I/O latency in guest domains, but the root cause might be higher latency servicing the I/O requests due to the control domain being slowed down. What to do about it Split core situations are easily avoided. In most cases the logical domain constraint manager will avoid it without any administrative action, but it can be entirely prevented by doing one of the several actions: Assign virtual CPUs in multiples of 8 - the number of threads per core. For example: ldm set-vcpu 8 mydomain or ldm add-vcpu 24 mydomain. Each domain will then be allocated on a core boundary. Use the whole core constraint when assigning CPU resources. This allocates CPUs in increments of entire cores instead of virtual CPU threads. The equivalent of the above commands would be ldm set-core 1 mydomain or ldm add-core 3 mydomain. Older syntax does the same thing by adding the -c flag to the add-vcpu, rm-vcpu and set-vcpu commands, but the new syntax is recommended. When whole core allocation is used an attempt to add cores to a domain fails if there aren't enough completely empty cores to satisfy the request. See https://blogs.oracle.com/sharakan/entry/oracle_vm_server_for_sparc4 for an excellent article on this topic by Eric Sharakan. Don't obsess: - if the workloads have minimal CPU requirements and don't need anywhere near a full CPU core, then don't worry about it. If you have low utilization workloads being consolidated from older machines onto a current T-series, then there's no need to worry about this or to assign an entire core to domains that will never use that much capacity. In any case, make sure the most important domains have their own CPU cores, in particular the control domain and any I/O or service domain, and of course any important guests. Summary Split core CPU allocation to domains can potentially have an impact on performance, but the logical domains manager tends to prevent this situation, and it can be completely and simply avoided by allocating virtual CPUs on core boundaries.

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  • Availability Best Practices on Oracle VM Server for SPARC

    - by jsavit
    This is the first of a series of blog posts on configuring Oracle VM Server for SPARC (also called Logical Domains) for availability. This series will show how to how to plan for availability, improve serviceability, avoid single points of failure, and provide resiliency against hardware and software failures. Availability is a broad topic that has filled entire books, so these posts will focus on aspects specifically related to Oracle VM Server for SPARC. The goal is to improve Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS): An article defining RAS can be found here. Oracle VM Server for SPARC Principles for Availability Let's state some guiding principles for availability that apply to Oracle VM Server for SPARC: Avoid Single Points Of Failure (SPOFs). Systems should be configured so a component failure does not result in a loss of application service. The general method to avoid SPOFs is to provide redundancy so service can continue without interruption if a component fails. For a critical application there may be multiple levels of redundancy so multiple failures can be tolerated. Oracle VM Server for SPARC makes it possible to configure systems that avoid SPOFs. Configure for availability at a level of resource and effort consistent with business needs. Effort and resource should be consistent with business requirements. Production has different availability requirements than test/development, so it's worth expending resources to provide higher availability. Even within the category of production there may be different levels of criticality, outage tolerances, recovery and repair time requirements. Keep in mind that a simple design may be more understandable and effective than a complex design that attempts to "do everything". Design for availability at the appropriate tier or level of the platform stack. Availability can be provided in the application, in the database, or in the virtualization, hardware and network layers they depend on - or using a combination of all of them. It may not be necessary to engineer resilient virtualization for stateless web applications applications where availability is provided by a network load balancer, or for enterprise applications like Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) and WebLogic that provide their own resiliency. It's (often) the same architecture whether virtual or not: For example, providing resiliency against a lost device path or failing disk media is done for the same reasons and may use the same design whether in a domain or not. It's (often) the same technique whether using domains or not: Many configuration steps are the same. For example, configuring IPMP or creating a redundant ZFS pool is pretty much the same within the guest whether you're in a guest domain or not. There are configuration steps and choices for provisioning the guest with the virtual network and disk devices, which we will discuss. Sometimes it is different using domains: There are new resources to configure. Most notable is the use of alternate service domains, which provides resiliency in case of a domain failure, and also permits improved serviceability via "rolling upgrades". This is an important differentiator between Oracle VM Server for SPARC and traditional virtual machine environments where all virtual I/O is provided by a monolithic infrastructure that itself is a SPOF. Alternate service domains are widely used to provide resiliency in production logical domains environments. Some things are done via logical domains commands, and some are done in the guest: For example, with Oracle VM Server for SPARC we provide multiple network connections to the guest, and then configure network resiliency in the guest via IP Multi Pathing (IPMP) - essentially the same as for non-virtual systems. On the other hand, we configure virtual disk availability in the virtualization layer, and the guest sees an already-resilient disk without being aware of the details. These blogs will discuss configuration details like this. Live migration is not "high availability" in the sense of "continuous availability": If the server is down, then you don't live migrate from it! (A cluster or VM restart elsewhere would be used). However, live migration can be part of the RAS (Reliability, Availability, Serviceability) picture by improving Serviceability - you can move running domains off of a box before planned service or maintenance. The blog Best Practices - Live Migration on Oracle VM Server for SPARC discusses this. Topics Here are some of the topics that will be covered: Network availability using IP Multipathing and aggregates Disk path availability using virtual disks defined with multipath groups ("mpgroup") Disk media resiliency configuring for redundant disks that can tolerate media loss Multiple service domains - this is probably the most significant item and the one most specific to Oracle VM Server for SPARC. It is very widely deployed in production environments as the means to provide network and disk availability, but it can be confusing. Subsequent articles will describe why and how to configure multiple service domains. Note, for the sake of precision: an I/O domain is any domain that has a physical I/O resource (such as a PCIe bus root complex). A service domain is a domain providing virtual device services to other domains; it is almost always an I/O domain too (so it can have something to serve). Resources Here are some important links; we'll be drawing on their content in the next several articles: Oracle VM Server for SPARC Documentation Maximizing Application Reliability and Availability with SPARC T5 Servers whitepaper by Gary Combs Maximizing Application Reliability and Availability with the SPARC M5-32 Server whitepaper by Gary Combs Summary Oracle VM Server for SPARC offers features that can be used to provide highly-available environments. This and the following blog entries will describe how to plan and deploy them.

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  • Running Solaris 11 as a control domain on a T2000

    - by jsavit
    There is increased adoption of Oracle Solaris 11, and many customers are deploying it on systems that previously ran Solaris 10. That includes older T1-processor based systems like T1000 and T2000. Even though they are old (from 2005) and don't have the performance of current SPARC servers, they are still functional, stable servers that customers continue to operate. One reason to install Solaris 11 on them is that older machines are attractive for testing OS upgrades before updating current, production systems. Normally this does not present a challenge, because Solaris 11 runs on any T-series or M-series SPARC server. One scenario adds a complication: running Solaris 11 in a control domain on a T1000 or T2000 hosting logical domains. Solaris 11 pre-installed Oracle VM Server for SPARC incompatible with T1 Unlike Solaris 10, Solaris 11 comes with Oracle VM Server for SPARC preinstalled. The ldomsmanager package contains the logical domains manager for Oracle VM Server for SPARC 2.2, which requires a SPARC T2, T2+, T3, or T4 server. It does not work with T1-processor systems, which are only supported by LDoms Manager 1.2 and earlier. The following screenshot shows what happens (bold font) if you try to use Oracle VM Server for SPARC 2.x commands in a Solaris 11 control domain. The commands were issued in a control domain on a T2000 that previously ran Solaris 10. We also display the version of the logical domains manager installed in Solaris 11: [email protected] psrinfo -vp The physical processor has 4 virtual processors (0-3) UltraSPARC-T1 (chipid 0, clock 1200 MHz) # prtconf|grep T SUNW,Sun-Fire-T200 # ldm -V Failed to connect to logical domain manager: Connection refused # pkg info ldomsmanager Name: system/ldoms/ldomsmanager Summary: Logical Domains Manager Description: LDoms Manager - Virtualization for SPARC T-Series Category: System/Virtualization State: Installed Publisher: solaris Version: 2.2.0.0 Build Release: 5.11 Branch: 0.175.0.8.0.3.0 Packaging Date: May 25, 2012 10:20:48 PM Size: 2.86 MB FMRI: pkg://solaris/system/ldoms/[email protected],5.11-0.175.0.8.0.3.0:20120525T222048Z The 2.2 version of the logical domains manager will have to be removed, and 1.2 installed, in order to use this as a control domain. Preparing to change - create a new boot environment Before doing anything else, lets create a new boot environment: # beadm list BE Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created -- ------ ---------- ----- ------ ------- solaris NR / 2.14G static 2012-09-25 10:32 # beadm create solaris-1 # beadm activate solaris-1 # beadm list BE Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created -- ------ ---------- ----- ------ ------- solaris N / 4.82M static 2012-09-25 10:32 solaris-1 R - 2.14G static 2012-09-29 11:40 # init 0 Normally an init 6 to reboot would have been sufficient, but in the next step I reset the system anyway in order to put the system in factory default mode for a "clean" domain configuration. Preparing to change - reset to factory default There was a leftover domain configuration on the T2000, so I reset it to the factory install state. Since the ldm command is't working yet, it can't be done from the control domain, so I did it by logging onto to the service processor: $ ssh -X [email protected] Copyright (c) 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle Advanced Lights Out Manager CMT v1.7.9 Please login: admin Please Enter password: ******** sc> showhost Sun-Fire-T2000 System Firmware 6.7.10 2010/07/14 16:35 Host flash versions: OBP 4.30.4.b 2010/07/09 13:48 Hypervisor 1.7.3.c 2010/07/09 15:14 POST 4.30.4.b 2010/07/09 14:24 sc> bootmode config="factory-default" sc> poweroff Are you sure you want to power off the system [y/n]? y SC Alert: SC Request to Power Off Host. SC Alert: Host system has shut down. sc> poweron SC Alert: Host System has Reset At this point I rebooted into the new Solaris 11 boot environment, and Solaris commands showed it was running on the factory default configuration of a single domain owning all 32 CPUs and 32GB of RAM (that's what it looked like in 2005.) # psrinfo -vp The physical processor has 8 cores and 32 virtual processors (0-31) The core has 4 virtual processors (0-3) The core has 4 virtual processors (4-7) The core has 4 virtual processors (8-11) The core has 4 virtual processors (12-15) The core has 4 virtual processors (16-19) The core has 4 virtual processors (20-23) The core has 4 virtual processors (24-27) The core has 4 virtual processors (28-31) UltraSPARC-T1 (chipid 0, clock 1200 MHz) # prtconf|grep Mem Memory size: 32640 Megabytes Note that the older processor has 4 virtual CPUs per core, while current processors have 8 per core. Remove ldomsmanager 2.2 and install the 1.2 version The Solaris 11 pkg command is now used to remove the 2.2 version that shipped with Solaris 11: # pkg uninstall ldomsmanager Packages to remove: 1 Create boot environment: No Create backup boot environment: No Services to change: 2 PHASE ACTIONS Removal Phase 130/130 PHASE ITEMS Package State Update Phase 1/1 Package Cache Update Phase 1/1 Image State Update Phase 2/2 Finally, LDoms 1.2 installed via its install script, the same way it was done years ago: # unzip LDoms-1_2-Integration-10.zip # cd LDoms-1_2-Integration-10/Install/ # ./install-ldm Welcome to the LDoms installer. You are about to install the Logical Domains Manager package that will enable you to create, destroy and control other domains on your system. Given the capabilities of the LDoms domain manager, you can now change the security configuration of this Solaris instance using the Solaris Security Toolkit. ... ... normal install messages omitted ... The Solaris Security Toolkit applies to Solaris 10, and cannot be used in Solaris 11 (in which several things hardened by the Toolkit are already hardened by default), so answer b in the choice below: You are about to install the Logical Domains Manager package that will enable you to create, destroy and control other domains on your system. Given the capabilities of the LDoms domain manager, you can now change the security configuration of this Solaris instance using the Solaris Security Toolkit. Select a security profile from this list: a) Hardened Solaris configuration for LDoms (recommended) b) Standard Solaris configuration c) Your custom-defined Solaris security configuration profile Enter a, b, or c [a]: b ... other install messages omitted for brevity... After install I ensure that the necessary services are enabled, and verify the version of the installed LDoms Manager: # svcs ldmd STATE STIME FMRI online 22:00:36 svc:/ldoms/ldmd:default # svcs vntsd STATE STIME FMRI disabled Aug_19 svc:/ldoms/vntsd:default # ldm -V Logical Domain Manager (v 1.2-debug) Hypervisor control protocol v 1.3 Using Hypervisor MD v 1.1 System PROM: Hypervisor v. 1.7.3. @(#)Hypervisor 1.7.3.c 2010/07/09 15:14\015 OpenBoot v. 4.30.4. @(#)OBP 4.30.4.b 2010/07/09 13:48 Set up control domain and domain services At this point we have a functioning LDoms 1.2 environment that can be configured in the usual fashion. One difference is that LDoms 1.2 behavior had 'delayed configuration mode (as expected) during initial configuration before rebooting the control domain. Another minor difference with a Solaris 11 control domain is that you define virtual switches using the 'vanity name' of the network interface, rather than the hardware driver name as in Solaris 10. # ldm list ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Notice: the LDom Manager is running in configuration mode. Configuration and resource information is displayed for the configuration under construction; not the current active configuration. The configuration being constructed will only take effect after it is downloaded to the system controller and the host is reset. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ NAME STATE FLAGS CONS VCPU MEMORY UTIL UPTIME primary active -n-c-- SP 32 32640M 3.2% 4d 2h 50m # ldm add-vdiskserver primary-vds0 primary # ldm add-vconscon port-range=5000-5100 primary-vcc0 primary # ldm add-vswitch net-dev=net0 primary-vsw0 primary # ldm set-mau 2 primary # ldm set-vcpu 8 primary # ldm set-memory 4g primary # ldm add-config initial # ldm list-spconfig factory-default initial [current] That's it, really. After reboot, we are ready to install guest domains. Summary - new wine in old bottles This example shows that (new) Solaris 11 can be installed on (old) T2000 servers and used as a control domain. The main activity is to remove the preinstalled Oracle VM Server for 2.2 and install Logical Domains 1.2 - the last version of LDoms to support T1-processor systems. I tested Solaris 10 and Solaris 11 guest domains running on this server and they worked without any surprises. This is a viable way to get further into Solaris 11 adoption, even on older T-series equipment.

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  • Best Practices - Dynamic Reconfiguration

    - by jsavit
    This post is one of a series of "best practices" notes for Oracle VM Server for SPARC (formerly named Logical Domains) Overview of dynamic Reconfiguration Oracle VM Server for SPARC supports Dynamic Reconfiguration (DR), making it possible to add or remove resources to or from a domain (virtual machine) while it is running. This is extremely useful because resources can be shifted to or from virtual machines in response to load conditions without having to reboot or interrupt running applications. For example, if an application requires more CPU capacity, you can add CPUs to improve performance, and remove them when they are no longer needed. You can use even use Dynamic Resource Management (DRM) policies that automatically add and remove CPUs to domains based on load. How it works (in broad general terms) Dynamic Reconfiguration is done in coordination with Solaris, which recognises a hypervisor request to change its virtual machine configuration and responds appropriately. In essence, Solaris receives a message saying "you now have 16 more CPUs numbered 16 to 31" or "8GB more RAM starting at address X" or "here's a new network or disk device - have fun with it". These actions take very little time. Solaris then can start using the new resource. In the case of added CPUs, that means dispatching processes and potentially binding interrupts to the new CPUs. For memory, Solaris adds the new memory pages to its "free" list and starts using them. Comparable actions occur with network and disk devices: they are recognised by Solaris and then used. Removing is the reverse process: after receiving the DR message to free specific CPUs, Solaris unbinds interrupts assigned to the CPUs and stops dispatching process threads. That takes very little time. primary # ldm list NAME STATE FLAGS CONS VCPU MEMORY UTIL UPTIME primary active -n-cv- SP 16 4G 1.0% 6d 22h 29m ldom1 active -n---- 5000 16 8G 0.9% 6h 59m primary # ldm set-core 5 ldom1 primary # ldm list NAME STATE FLAGS CONS VCPU MEMORY UTIL UPTIME primary active -n-cv- SP 16 4G 0.2% 6d 22h 29m ldom1 active -n---- 5000 40 8G 0.1% 6h 59m primary # ldm set-core 2 ldom1 primary # ldm list NAME STATE FLAGS CONS VCPU MEMORY UTIL UPTIME primary active -n-cv- SP 16 4G 1.0% 6d 22h 29m ldom1 active -n---- 5000 16 8G 0.9% 6h 59m Memory pages are vacated by copying their contents to other memory locations and wiping them clean. Solaris may have to swap memory contents to disk if the remaining RAM isn't enough to hold all the contents. For this reason, deallocating memory can take longer on a loaded system. Even on a lightly loaded system it took several 7 or 8 seconds to switch the domain below between 8GB and 24GB of RAM. primary # ldm set-mem 24g ldom1 primary # ldm list NAME STATE FLAGS CONS VCPU MEMORY UTIL UPTIME primary active -n-cv- SP 16 4G 0.1% 6d 22h 36m ldom1 active -n---- 5000 16 24G 0.2% 7h 6m primary # ldm set-mem 8g ldom1 primary # ldm list NAME STATE FLAGS CONS VCPU MEMORY UTIL UPTIME primary active -n-cv- SP 16 4G 0.7% 6d 22h 37m ldom1 active -n---- 5000 16 8G 0.3% 7h 7m What if the device is in use? (this is the anecdote that inspired this blog post) If CPU or memory is being removed, releasing it pretty straightforward, using the method described above. The resources are released, and Solaris continues with less capacity. It's not as simple with a network or I/O device: you don't want to yank a device out from underneath an application that might be using it. In the following example, I've added a virtual network device to ldom1 and want to take it away, even though it's been plumbed. primary # ldm rm-vnet vnet19 ldom1 Guest LDom returned the following reason for failing the operation: Resource Information ---------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------- /devices/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] Network interface net1 VIO operation failed because device is being used in LDom ldom1 Failed to remove VNET instance That's what I call a helpful error message - telling me exactly what was wrong. In this case the problem is easily solved. I know this NIC is seen in the guest as net1 so: ldom1 # ifconfig net1 down unplumb Now I can dispose of it, and even the virtual switch I had created for it: primary # ldm rm-vnet vnet19 ldom1 primary # ldm rm-vsw primary-vsw9 If I had to take away the device disruptively, I could have used ldm rm-vnet -f but that could disrupt whoever was using it. It's better if that can be avoided. Summary Oracle VM Server for SPARC provides dynamic reconfiguration, which lets you modify a guest domain's CPU, memory and I/O configuration on the fly without reboot. You can add and remove resources as needed, and even automate this for CPUs by setting up resource policies. Taking things away can be more complicated than giving, especially for devices like disks and networks that may contain application and system state or be involved in a transaction. LDoms and Solaris cooperative work together to coordinate resource allocation and de-allocation in a safe and effective way. For best practices, use dynamic reconfiguration to make the best use of your system's resources.

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  • Best Practices - which domain types should be used to run applications

    - by jsavit
    This post is one of a series of "best practices" notes for Oracle VM Server for SPARC (formerly named Logical Domains) One question that frequently comes up is "which types of domain should I use to run applications?" There used to be a simple answer in most cases: "only run applications in guest domains", but enhancements to T-series servers, Oracle VM Server for SPARC and the advent of SPARC SuperCluster have made this question more interesting and worth qualifying differently. This article reviews the relevant concepts and provides suggestions on where to deploy applications in a logical domains environment. Review: division of labor and types of domain Oracle VM Server for SPARC offloads many functions from the hypervisor to domains (also called virtual machines). This is a modern alternative to using a "thick" hypervisor that provides all virtualization functions, as in traditional VM designs, This permits a simpler hypervisor design, which enhances reliability, and security. It also reduces single points of failure by assigning responsibilities to multiple system components, which further improves reliability and security. In this architecture, management and I/O functionality are provided within domains. Oracle VM Server for SPARC does this by defining the following types of domain, each with their own roles: Control domain - management control point for the server, used to configure domains and manage resources. It is the first domain to boot on a power-up, is an I/O domain, and is usually a service domain as well. I/O domain - has been assigned physical I/O devices: a PCIe root complex, a PCI device, or a SR-IOV (single-root I/O Virtualization) function. It has native performance and functionality for the devices it owns, unmediated by any virtualization layer. Service domain - provides virtual network and disk devices to guest domains. Guest domain - a domain whose devices are all virtual rather than physical: virtual network and disk devices provided by one or more service domains. In common practice, this is where applications are run. Typical deployment A service domain is generally also an I/O domain: otherwise it wouldn't have access to physical device "backends" to offer to its clients. Similarly, an I/O domain is also typically a service domain in order to leverage the available PCI busses. Control domains must be I/O domains, because they boot up first on the server and require physical I/O. It's typical for the control domain to also be a service domain too so it doesn't "waste" the I/O resources it uses. A simple configuration consists of a control domain, which is also the one I/O and service domain, and some number of guest domains using virtual I/O. In production, customers typically use multiple domains with I/O and service roles to eliminate single points of failure: guest domains have virtual disk and virtual devices provisioned from more than one service domain, so failure of a service domain or I/O path or device doesn't result in an application outage. This is also used for "rolling upgrades" in which service domains are upgraded one at a time while their guests continue to operate without disruption. (It should be noted that resiliency to I/O device failures can also be provided by the single control domain, using multi-path I/O) In this type of deployment, control, I/O, and service domains are used for virtualization infrastructure, while applications run in guest domains. Changing application deployment patterns The above model has been widely and successfully used, but more configuration options are available now. Servers got bigger than the original T2000 class machines with 2 I/O busses, so there is more I/O capacity that can be used for applications. Increased T-series server capacity made it attractive to run more vertical applications, such as databases, with higher resource requirements than the "light" applications originally seen. This made it attractive to run applications in I/O domains so they could get bare-metal native I/O performance. This is leveraged by the SPARC SuperCluster engineered system, announced a year ago at Oracle OpenWorld. In SPARC SuperCluster, I/O domains are used for high performance applications, with native I/O performance for disk and network and optimized access to the Infiniband fabric. Another technical enhancement is the introduction of Direct I/O (DIO) and Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV), which make it possible to give domains direct connections and native I/O performance for selected I/O devices. A domain with either a DIO or SR-IOV device is an I/O domain. In summary: not all I/O domains own PCI complexes, and there are increasingly more I/O domains that are not service domains. They use their I/O connectivity for performance for their own applications. However, there are some limitations and considerations: at this time, a domain using physical I/O cannot be live-migrated to another server. There is also a need to plan for security and introducing unneeded dependencies: if an I/O domain is also a service domain providing virtual I/O go guests, it has the ability to affect the correct operation of its client guest domains. This is even more relevant for the control domain. where the ldm has to be protected from unauthorized (or even mistaken) use that would affect other domains. As a general rule, running applications in the service domain or the control domain should be avoided. To recap: Guest domains with virtual I/O still provide the greatest operational flexibility, including features like live migration. I/O domains can be used for applications with high performance requirements. This is used to great effect in SPARC SuperCluster and in general T4 deployments. Direct I/O (DIO) and Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) make this more attractive by giving direct I/O access to more domains. Service domains should in general not be used for applications, because compromised security in the domain, or an outage, can affect other domains that depend on it. This concern can be mitigated by providing guests' their virtual I/O from more than one service domain, so an interruption of service in the service domain does not cause an application outage. The control domain should in general not be used to run applications, for the same reason. SPARC SuperCluster use the control domain for applications, but it is an exception: it's not a general purpose environment; it's an engineered system with specifically configured applications and optimization for optimal performance. These are recommended "best practices" based on conversations with a number of Oracle architects. Keep in mind that "one size does not fit all", so you should evaluate these practices in the context of your own requirements. Summary Higher capacity T-series servers have made it more attractive to use them for applications with high resource requirements. New deployment models permit native I/O performance for demanding applications by running them in I/O domains with direct access to their devices. This is leveraged in SPARC SuperCluster, and can be leveraged in T-series servers to provision high-performance applications running in domains. Carefully planned, this can be used to provide higher performance for critical applications.

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  • New blog article series "What's up with LDoms"

    - by jsavit
    Highly recommended: a new series of blog articles by Stefan Hinker, titled "What's up with LDoms" (officialy Oracle VM Server for SPARC) at https://blogs.oracle.com/cmt/entry/what_s_up_with_ldoms. The article provides an architectural overview of Oracle VM Server for SPARC and even discusses some new and advanced features. I recommend this to anyone wanting to get a good understanding of Logical Domains / Oracle VM Server for SPARC.

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  • No MAU required on a T4

    - by jsavit
    Cryptic background One of the powerful features of the T-series servers is its hardware crypto acceleration, which dramatically speeds up the compute intensive algorithms needed to encrypt and decrypt data. Previously, administrators setting up logical domains on older T-series servers had to explicitly assign crypto resources (called "MAU" for historical reasons from the T1 chip that had "modular arithmetic units") to domains that had a significant crypto workload (say, an SSL based web server). This could be an administrative burden, as you had to choose which domains got the crypto units, and issue the appropriate ldm set-mau N mydomain commands. The T4 changes things The T4 is fast. Really fast. Its clock rate and out-of-order (OOO) execution that provides the single-thread performance that T-series machines previously did not have. If you have any preconceptions about T-series performance, or SPARC in general, based on the older servers (which, it must be said, were absolutely outstanding for multi-threaded applications), those assumptions are now obsolete. The T4 provides outstanding. performance for all kinds of workload, as illustrated at https://blogs.oracle.com/bestperf. While we all focused on this (did I mention the T4 is fast?), another feature of the T4 went largely unnoticed: The T4 servers have crypto acceleration "just built in" so administrators no longer have to assign crypto accelerator units to domains - it "just happens". This is way way better since you have crypto everywhere by default without having to manage it like a discrete and limited resource. It's a feature of the processor, like doing an integer add. With T4, there is no management necessary, you just have HW crypto everywhere all the time seamlessly. This change hasn't been widely advertised, and some administrators have wondered why there were unable to assign a MAU to a domain as they did with T2 and T3 machines. The answer is that there is no longer any separate MAU, so you don't have to take any action at all - just leave the default of 0. Summary Besides being much faster than its predecessors, the T4 also integrates hardware crypto acceleration so its seamlessly available to applications, whether domains are being used or not. Administrators no longer have to control how they are allocated - it "just happens"

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  • A Patent for Workload Management Based on Service Level Objectives

    - by jsavit
    I'm very pleased to announce that after a tiny :-) wait of about 5 years, my patent application for a workload manager was finally approved. Background Many operating systems have a resource manager which lets you control machine resources. For example, Solaris provides controls for CPU with several options: shares for proportional CPU allocation. If you have twice as many shares as me, and we are competing for CPU, you'll get about twice as many CPU cycles), dedicated CPU allocation in which a number of CPUs are exclusively dedicated to an application's use. You can say that a zone or project "owns" 8 CPUs on a 32 CPU machine, for example. And, capped CPU in which you specify the upper bound, or cap, of how much CPU an application gets. For example, you can throttle an application to 0.125 of a CPU. (This isn't meant to be an exhaustive list of Solaris RM controls.) Workload management Useful as that is (and tragic that some other operating systems have little resource management and isolation, and frighten people into running only 1 app per OS instance - and wastefully size every server for the peak workload it might experience) that's not really workload management. With resource management one controls the resources, and hope that's enough to meet application service objectives. In fact, we hold resource distribution constant, see if that was good enough, and adjust resource distribution if that didn't meet service level objectives. Here's an example of what happens today: Let's try 30% dedicated CPU. Not enough? Let's try 80% Oh, that's too much, and we're achieving much better response time than the objective, but other workloads are starving. Let's back that off and try again. It's not the process I object to - it's that we to often do this manually. Worse, we sometimes identify and adjust the wrong resource and fiddle with that to no useful result. Back in my days as a customer managing large systems, one of my users would call me up to beg for a "CPU boost": Me: "it won't make any difference - there's plenty of spare CPU to be had, and your application is completely I/O bound." User: "Please do it anyway." Me: "oh, all right, but it won't do you any good." (I did, because he was a friend, but it didn't help.) Prior art There are some operating environments that take a stab about workload management (rather than resource management) but I find them lacking. I know of one that uses synthetic "service units" composed of the sum of CPU, I/O and memory allocations multiplied by weighting factors. A workload is set to make a target rate of service units consumed per second. But this seems to be missing a key point: what is the relationship between artificial 'service units' and actually meeting a throughput or response time objective? What if I get plenty of one of the components (so am getting enough service units), but not enough of the resource whose needed to remove the bottleneck? Actual workload management That's not really the answer either. What is needed is to specify a workload's service levels in terms of externally visible metrics that are meaningful to a business, such as response times or transactions per second, and have the workload manager figure out which resources are not being adequately provided, and then adjust it as needed. If an application is not meeting its service level objectives and the reason is that it's not getting enough CPU cycles, adjust its CPU resource accordingly. If the reason is that the application isn't getting enough RAM to keep its working set in memory, then adjust its RAM assignment appropriately so it stops swapping. Simple idea, but that's a task we keep dumping on system administrators. In other words - don't hold the number of CPU shares constant and watch the achievement of service level vary. Instead, hold the service level constant, and dynamically adjust the number of CPU shares (or amount of other resources like RAM or I/O bandwidth) in order to meet the objective. Instrumenting non-instrumented applications There's one little problem here: how do I measure application performance in a way relating to a service level. I don't want to do it based on internal resources like number of CPU seconds it received per minute - We need to make resource decisions based on externally visible and meaningful measures of performance, not synthetic items or internal resource counters. If I have a way of marking the beginning and end of a transaction, I can then measure whether or not the application is meeting an objective based on it. If I can observe the delay factors for an application, I can see which resource shortages are slowing an application enough to keep it from meeting its objectives. I can then adjust resource allocations to relieve those shortages. Fortunately, Solaris provides facilities for both marking application progress and determining what factors cause application latency. The Solaris DTrace facility let's me introspect on application behavior: in particular I can see events like "receive a web hit" and "respond to that web hit" so I can get transaction rate and response time. DTrace (and tools like prstat) let me see where latency is being added to an application, so I know which resource to adjust. Summary After a delay of a mere few years, I am the proud creator of a patent (advice to anyone interested in going through the process: don't hold your breath!). The fundamental idea is fairly simple: instead of holding resource constant and suffering variable levels of success meeting service level objectives, properly characterise the service level objective in meaningful terms, instrument the application to see if it's meeting the objective, and then have a workload manager change resource allocations to remove delays preventing service level attainment. I've done it by hand for a long time - I think that's what a computer should do for me.

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  • Interesting articles and blogs on SPARC T4

    - by mv
    Interesting articles and blogs on SPARC T4 processor   I have consolidated all the interesting information I could get on SPARC T4 processor and its hardware cryptographic capabilities.  Hope its useful. 1. Advantages of SPARC T4 processor  Most important points in this T4 announcement are : "The SPARC T4 processor was designed from the ground up for high speed security and has a cryptographic stream processing unit (SPU) integrated directly into each processor core. These accelerators support 16 industry standard security ciphers and enable high speed encryption at rates 3 to 5 times that of competing processors. By integrating encryption capabilities directly inside the instruction pipeline, the SPARC T4 processor eliminates the performance and cost barriers typically associated with secure computing and makes it possible to deliver high security levels without impacting the user experience." Data Sheet has more details on these  : "New on-chip Encryption Instruction Accelerators with direct non-privileged support for 16 industry-standard cryptographic algorithms plus random number generation in each of the eight cores: AES, Camellia, CRC32c, DES, 3DES, DH, DSA, ECC, Kasumi, MD5, RSA, SHA-1, SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512" I ran "isainfo -v" command on Solaris 11 Sparc T4-1 system. It shows the new instructions as expected  : $ isainfo -v 64-bit sparcv9 applications crc32c cbcond pause mont mpmul sha512 sha256 sha1 md5 camellia kasumi des aes ima hpc vis3 fmaf asi_blk_init vis2 vis popc 32-bit sparc applications crc32c cbcond pause mont mpmul sha512 sha256 sha1 md5 camellia kasumi des aes ima hpc vis3 fmaf asi_blk_init vis2 vis popc v8plus div32 mul32  2.  Dan Anderson's Blog have some interesting points about how these can be used : "New T4 crypto instructions include: aes_kexpand0, aes_kexpand1, aes_kexpand2,         aes_eround01, aes_eround23, aes_eround01_l, aes_eround_23_l, aes_dround01, aes_dround23, aes_dround01_l, aes_dround_23_l.       Having SPARC T4 hardware crypto instructions is all well and good, but how do we access it ?      The software is available with Solaris 11 and is used automatically if you are running Solaris a SPARC T4.  It is used internally in the kernel through kernel crypto modules.  It is available in user space through the PKCS#11 library." 3.   Dans' Blog on Where's the Crypto Libraries? Although this was written in 2009 but still is very useful  "Here's a brief tour of the major crypto libraries shown in the digraph:   The libpkcs11 library contains the PKCS#11 API (C_\*() functions, such as C_Initialize()). That in turn calls library pkcs11_softtoken or pkcs11_kernel, for userland or kernel crypto providers. The latter is used mostly for hardware-assisted cryptography (such as n2cp for Niagara2 SPARC processors), as that is performed more efficiently in kernel space with the "kCF" module (Kernel Crypto Framework). Additionally, for Solaris 10, strong crypto algorithms were split off in separate libraries, pkcs11_softtoken_extra libcryptoutil contains low-level utility functions to help implement cryptography. libsoftcrypto (OpenSolaris and Solaris Nevada only) implements several symmetric-key crypto algorithms in software, such as AES, RC4, and DES3, and the bignum library (used for RSA). libmd implements MD5, SHA, and SHA2 message digest algorithms" 4. Difference in T3 and T4 Diagram in this blog is good and self explanatory. Jeff's blog also highlights the differences  "The T4 servers have improved crypto acceleration, described at https://blogs.oracle.com/DanX/entry/sparc_t4_openssl_engine. It is "just built in" so administrators no longer have to assign crypto accelerator units to domains - it "just happens". Every physical or virtual CPU on a SPARC-T4 has full access to hardware based crypto acceleration at all times. .... For completeness sake, it's worth noting that the T4 adds more crypto algorithms, and accelerates Camelia, CRC32c, and more SHA-x." 5. About performance counters In this blog, performance counters are explained : "Note that unlike T3 and before, T4 crypto doesn't require kernel modules like ncp or n2cp, there is no visibility of crypto hardware with kstats or cryptoadm. T4 does provide hardware counters for crypto operations.  You can see these using cpustat: cpustat -c pic0=Instr_FGU_crypto 5 You can check the general crypto support of the hardware and OS with the command "isainfo -v". Since T4 crypto's implementation now allows direct userland access, there are no "crypto units" visible to cryptoadm.  " For more details refer Martin's blog as well. 6. How to turn off  SPARC T4 or Intel AES-NI crypto acceleration  I found this interesting blog from Darren about how to turn off  SPARC T4 or Intel AES-NI crypto acceleration. "One of the new Solaris 11 features of the linker/loader is the ability to have a single ELF object that has multiple different implementations of the same functions that are selected at runtime based on the capabilities of the machine.   The alternate to this is having the application coded to call getisax(2) system call and make the choice itself.  We use this functionality of the linker/loader when we build the userland libraries for the Solaris Cryptographic Framework (specifically libmd.so and libsoftcrypto.so) The Solaris linker/loader allows control of a lot of its functionality via environment variables, we can use that to control the version of the cryptographic functions we run.  To do this we simply export the LD_HWCAP environment variable with values that tell ld.so.1 to not select the HWCAP section matching certain features even if isainfo says they are present.  This will work for consumers of the Solaris Cryptographic Framework that use the Solaris PKCS#11 libraries or use libmd.so interfaces directly.  For SPARC T4 : export LD_HWCAP="-aes -des -md5 -sha256 -sha512 -mont -mpul" .. For Intel systems with AES-NI support: export LD_HWCAP="-aes"" Note that LD_HWCAP is explained in  http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E23823_01/html/816-5165/ld.so.1-1.html "LD_HWCAP, LD_HWCAP_32, and LD_HWCAP_64 -  Identifies an alternative hardware capabilities value... A “-” prefix results in the capabilities that follow being removed from the alternative capabilities." 7. Whitepaper on SPARC T4 Servers—Optimized for End-to-End Data Center Computing This Whitepaper on SPARC T4 Servers—Optimized for End-to-End Data Center Computing explains more details.  It has DTrace scripts which may come in handy : "To ensure the hardware-assisted cryptographic acceleration is configured to use and working with the security scenarios, it is recommended to use the following Solaris DTrace script. #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s pid$1:libsoftcrypto:yf*:entry, pid$target:libsoftcrypto:rsa*:entry, pid$1:libmd:yf*:entry { @[probefunc] = count(); } tick-1sec { printa(@ops); trunc(@ops); }" Note that I have slightly modified the D Script to have RSA "libsoftcrypto:rsa*:entry" as well as per recommendations from Chi-Chang Lin. 8. References http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/features/sparc-t4-announcement-494846.html http://www.oracle.com/us/products/servers-storage/servers/sparc-enterprise/t-series/sparc-t4-1-ds-487858.pdf https://blogs.oracle.com/DanX/entry/sparc_t4_openssl_engine https://blogs.oracle.com/DanX/entry/where_s_the_crypto_libraries https://blogs.oracle.com/darren/entry/howto_turn_off_sparc_t4 http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E23823_01/html/816-5165/ld.so.1-1.html   https://blogs.oracle.com/hardware/entry/unleash_the_power_of_cryptography https://blogs.oracle.com/cmt/entry/t4_crypto_cheat_sheet https://blogs.oracle.com/martinm/entry/t4_performance_counters_explained  https://blogs.oracle.com/jsavit/entry/no_mau_required_on_a http://www.oracle.com/us/products/servers-storage/servers/sparc-enterprise/t-series/sparc-t4-business-wp-524472.pdf

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  • SPARC T5-4 LDoms for RAC and WebLogic Clusters

    - by Jeff Taylor-Oracle
    I wanted to use two Oracle SPARC T5-4 servers to simultaneously host both Oracle RAC and a WebLogic Server Cluster. I chose to use Oracle VM Server for SPARC to create a cluster like this: There are plenty of trade offs and decisions that need to be made, for example: Rather than configuring the system by hand, you might want to use an Oracle SuperCluster T5-8 My configuration is similar to jsavit's: Availability Best Practices - Example configuring a T5-8 but I chose to ignore some of the advice. Maybe I should have included an  alternate service domain, but I decided that I already had enough redundancy Both Oracle SPARC T5-4 servers were to be configured like this: Cntl 0.25  4  64GB                     App LDom                    2.75 CPU's                                        44 cores                                          704 GB              DB LDom      One CPU         16 cores         256 GB   The systems started with everything in the primary domain: # ldm list NAME             STATE      FLAGS   CONS    VCPU  MEMORY   UTIL  NORM  UPTIME primary          active     -n-c--  UART    512   1023G    0.0%  0.0%  11m # ldm list-spconfig factory-default [current] primary # ldm list -o core,memory,physio NAME              primary           CORE     CID    CPUSET     0      (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)     1      (8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15)     2      (16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23) -- SNIP     62     (496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503)     63     (504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511) MEMORY     RA               PA               SIZE                 0x30000000       0x30000000       255G     0x80000000000    0x80000000000    256G     0x100000000000   0x100000000000   256G     0x180000000000   0x180000000000   256G # Give this memory block to the DB LDom IO     DEVICE                           PSEUDONYM        OPTIONS     [email protected]                          pci_0                [email protected]                          pci_1                [email protected]                          pci_2                [email protected]                          pci_3                [email protected]                          pci_4                [email protected]                          pci_5                [email protected]                          pci_6                [email protected]                          pci_7                [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE1     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE2     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/MB/SASHBA0     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/RIO/NET0        [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE3     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE4     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE9     [email protected]/p[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE10     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE11     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE12     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE5     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE6     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE7     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE8     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE13     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE14     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE15     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE16     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/MB/SASHBA1     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/RIO/NET2    Added an additional service processor configuration: # ldm add-spconfig split # ldm list-spconfig factory-default primary split [current] And removed many of the resources from the primary domain: # ldm start-reconf primary # ldm set-core 4 primary # ldm set-memory 32G primary # ldm rm-io [email protected] primary # ldm rm-io [email protected] primary # ldm rm-io [email protected] primary # ldm rm-io [email protected] primary # ldm rm-io [email protected] primary # ldm rm-io [email protected] primary # ldm rm-io [email protected] primary # init 6 Needed to add resources to the guest domains: # ldm add-domain db # ldm set-core cid=`seq -s"," 48 63` db # ldm add-memory mblock=0x180000000000:256G db # ldm add-io [email protected] db # ldm add-io [email protected] db # ldm add-domain app # ldm set-core 44 app # ldm set-memory 704G  app # ldm add-io [email protected] app # ldm add-io [email protected] app # ldm add-io [email protected] app # ldm add-io [email protected] app # ldm add-io [email protected] app Needed to set up services: # ldm add-vds primary-vds0 primary # ldm add-vcc port-range=5000-5100 primary-vcc0 primary Needed to add a virtual network port for the WebLogic application domain: # ipadm NAME              CLASS/TYPE STATE        UNDER      ADDR lo0               loopback   ok           --         --    lo0/v4         static     ok           --         ...    lo0/v6         static     ok           --         ... net0              ip         ok           --         ...    net0/v4        static     ok           --         xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/24    net0/v6        addrconf   ok           --         ....    net0/v6        addrconf   ok           --         ... net8              ip         ok           --         --    net8/v4        static     ok           --         ... # dladm show-phys LINK              MEDIA                STATE      SPEED  DUPLEX    DEVICE net1              Ethernet             unknown    0      unknown   ixgbe1 net0              Ethernet             up         1000   full      ixgbe0 net8              Ethernet             up         10     full      usbecm2 # ldm add-vsw net-dev=net0 primary-vsw0 primary # ldm add-vnet vnet1 primary-vsw0 app Needed to add a virtual disk to the WebLogic application domain: # format Searching for disks...done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS:        0. c0t5000CCA02505F874d0 <HITACHI-H106060SDSUN600G-A2B0-558.91GB>           /scsi_vhci/[email protected]           /dev/chassis/SPARC_T5-4.AK00084038/SYS/SASBP0/HDD0/disk        1. c0t5000CCA02506C468d0 <HITACHI-H106060SDSUN600G-A2B0-558.91GB>           /scsi_vhci/[email protected]           /dev/chassis/SPARC_T5-4.AK00084038/SYS/SASBP0/HDD1/disk        2. c0t5000CCA025067E5Cd0 <HITACHI-H106060SDSUN600G-A2B0-558.91GB>           /scsi_vhci/[email protected]           /dev/chassis/SPARC_T5-4.AK00084038/SYS/SASBP0/HDD2/disk        3. c0t5000CCA02506C258d0 <HITACHI-H106060SDSUN600G-A2B0-558.91GB>           /scsi_vhci/[email protected]           /dev/chassis/SPARC_T5-4.AK00084038/SYS/SASBP0/HDD3/disk Specify disk (enter its number): ^C # ldm add-vdsdev /dev/dsk/c0t5000CCA02506C468d0s2 [email protected] # ldm add-vdisk HDD1 [email protected] app Add some additional spice to the pot: # ldm set-variable auto-boot\\?=false db # ldm set-variable auto-boot\\?=false app # ldm set-var boot-device=HDD1 app Bind the logical domains: # ldm bind db # ldm bind app At the end of the process, the system is set up like this: # ldm list -o core,memory,physio NAME             primary          CORE     CID    CPUSET     0      (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)     1      (8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15)     2      (16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23)     3      (24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31) MEMORY     RA               PA               SIZE                0x30000000       0x30000000       32G IO     DEVICE                           PSEUDONYM        OPTIONS     [email protected]                          pci_0               [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE1     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE2     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/MB/SASHBA0     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/RIO/NET0   ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ NAME             app              CORE     CID    CPUSET     4      (32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39)     5      (40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47)     6      (48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55)     7      (56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63)     8      (64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71)     9      (72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79)     10     (80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87)     11     (88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95)     12     (96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103)     13     (104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111)     14     (112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119)     15     (120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127)     16     (128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135)     17     (136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143)     18     (144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151)     19     (152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159)     20     (160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167)     21     (168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175)     22     (176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183)     23     (184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191)     24     (192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199)     25     (200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207)     26     (208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215)     27     (216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223)     28     (224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231)     29     (232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239)     30     (240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247)     31     (248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255)     32     (256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263)     33     (264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271)     34     (272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279)     35     (280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287)     36     (288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295)     37     (296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303)     38     (304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311)     39     (312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319)     40     (320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327)     41     (328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335)     42     (336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343)     43     (344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351)     44     (352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359)     45     (360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367)     46     (368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375)     47     (376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383) MEMORY     RA               PA               SIZE                0x30000000       0x830000000      192G     0x4000000000     0x80000000000    256G     0x8080000000     0x100000000000   256G IO     DEVICE                           PSEUDONYM        OPTIONS     [email protected]                          pci_1               [email protected]                          pci_2               [email protected]                          pci_3               [email protected]                          pci_4               [email protected]                          pci_5               [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE3     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE4     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE9     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE10     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE11     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE12     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE5     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE6     [email protected]/p[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE7     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE8 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ NAME             db               CORE     CID    CPUSET     48     (384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391)     49     (392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399)     50     (400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407)     51     (408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415)     52     (416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423)     53     (424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431)     54     (432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439)     55     (440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447)     56     (448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455)     57     (456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463)     58     (464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471)     59     (472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479)     60     (480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487)     61     (488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495)     62     (496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503)     63     (504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511) MEMORY     RA               PA               SIZE                0x80000000       0x180000000000   256G IO     DEVICE                           PSEUDONYM        OPTIONS     [email protected]                          pci_6               [email protected]                          pci_7               [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE13     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE14     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE15     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]        /SYS/RCSA/PCIE16     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/MB/SASHBA1     [email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] /SYS/RIO/NET2   Start the domains: # ldm start app LDom app started # ldm start db LDom db started Make sure to start the vntsd service that was created, above. # svcs -a | grep ldo disabled        8:38:38 svc:/ldoms/vntsd:default online          8:38:58 svc:/ldoms/agents:default online          8:39:25 svc:/ldoms/ldmd:default # svcadm enable vntsd Now use the MAC address to configure the Solaris 11 Automated Installation. Database Logical Domain # telnet localhost 5000 {0} ok devalias screen                   /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] disk7                    /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] disk6                    /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] disk5                    /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] disk4                    /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] scsi1                    /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] net3                     /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected],1 net2                     /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] virtual-console          /virtual-devices/[email protected] name                     aliases {0} ok boot net2 Boot device: /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]  File and args: 1000 Mbps full duplex Link up Requesting Internet Address for xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx Requesting Internet Address for xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx WLS Logical Domain # telnet localhost 5001 {0} ok devalias hdd1                     /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] vnet1                    /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] net                      /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] disk                     /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected] virtual-console          /virtual-devices/[email protected] name                     aliases {0} ok boot net Boot device: /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected]  File and args: Requesting Internet Address for xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx Requesting Internet Address for xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx Repeat the process for the second SPARC T5-4, install Solaris, RAC and WebLogic Cluster, and you are ready to go. Maybe buying a SuperCluster would have been easier.

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1