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  • SQL SERVER – Get Latest SQL Query for Sessions – DMV

    - by pinaldave
    In recent SQL Training I was asked, how can one figure out what was the last SQL Statement executed in sessions. The query for this is very simple. It uses two DMVs and created following quick script for the same. SELECT session_id, TEXT FROM sys.dm_exec_connections CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_sql_text(most_recent_sql_handle) AS ST While working with DMVs if you ever find any DMV has column with name sql_handle you can right away join that DMV with another DMV sys.dm_exec_sql_text and can get the text of the SQL statement. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: DMV, SQL DMV

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  • SQL SERVER – Checklist for Analyzing Slow-Running Queries

    - by pinaldave
    I am recently working on upgrading my class Microsoft SQL Server 2005/2008 Query Optimization and & Performance Tuning with additional details and more interesting examples. While working on slide deck I realized that I need to have one solid slide which talks about checklist for analyzing slow running queries. A quick search on my saved [...]

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  • SQL SERVERSQL Server Misconceptions and Resolution – A Practical Perspective – TechEd 2012 India

    - by pinaldave
    TechEd India 2012 is just around the corner and I will be presenting there in two different sessions. On the very first day of this event, my presentation will be all about SQL Server Misconceptions and Resolution – A Practical Perspective. The dictionary tells us that a “misconception” means a view or opinion that is incorrect and is based on faulty thinking or understanding. In SQL Server, there are so many misconceptions. In fact, when I hear some of these misconceptions, I feel like fainting at that very moment! Seriously, at one time, I came across the scenario where instead of using INSERT INTO…SELECT, the developer used CURSOR believing that cursor is faster (duh!). Here is the link the blog post related to this. Pinal and Vinod in 2009 I have been presenting in TechEd India for last three years. This is my fourth opportunity to present a technical session on SQL Server. Just like the previous years, I decided to present something different. Here is a novelty of this year: I will be presenting this session with Vinod Kumar. Vinod Kumar and I have a great synergy when we work together. So far, we have written one SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers book and 2 video courses: (1) SQL Server Questions and Answers (2) SQL Server Performance: Indexing Basics. Pinal and Vinod in 2011 When we sat together and started building an outline for this course, we had many options in mind for this tango session. However, we have decided that we will make this session as lively as possible while keeping it natural at the same time. We know our flow and we know our conversation highlight, but we do not know what exactly each of us is going to present. We have decided to challenge each other on stage and push each other’s knowledge to the verge. We promise that the session will be entertaining with lots of SQL Server trivia, tips and tricks. Here are the challenges that I’ll take on: I will puzzle Vinod with my difficult questions I will present such misconception that Vinod will have no resolution for it. I need your help.  Will you help me stump Vinod? If yes, come and attend our session and join me to prove that together we are superior (a friendly brain clash, but we must win!). SQL Server enthusiasts and SQL Server fans are going to have gala time at #TechEdIn as we have a very solid lineup of the speaker and extremely interesting sessions at TechEdIn. Read the complete blog post of Vinod. Session Details Title: SQL Server Misconceptions and Resolution – A Practical Perspective (Add to Calendar) Abstract: “Earth is flat”! – An ancient common misconception, which has been proven incorrect as we progressed in modern times. In this session we will see various database misconceptions prevailing and their resolution with the aid of the demos. In this unique session audience will be part of the conversation and resolution. Date and Time: March 21, 2012, 15:15 to 16:15 Location: Hotel Lalit Ashok - Kumara Krupa High Grounds, Bengaluru – 560001, Karnataka, India. Add to Calendar Please submit your questions in the comments area and I will be for sure discussing them during my session. If I pick your question to discuss during my session, here is your gift I commit right now – SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers Book. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Interview Questions and Answers, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: TechEd, TechEdIn

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  • SQLAuthority News – Storage and SQL Server Capacity Planning and configuration – SharePoint Server 2

    - by pinaldave
    Just a day ago, I was asked how do you plan SQL Server Storage Capacity. Here is the excellent article published by Microsoft regarding SQL Server capacity planning for SharePoint 2010. This article touches all the vital areas of this subject. Here are the bullet points for the same. Gather storage and SQL Server space and I/O requirements Choose SQL Server version and edition Design storage architecture based on capacity and IO requirements Determine memory requirements Understand network topology requirements Configure SQL Server Validate storage performance and reliability Read the original article published by Microsoft here: Storage and SQL Server Capacity Planning and configuration – SharePoint Server 2010. The question to all the SharePoint developers and administrator that if they use the whitepapers and articles to decide the capacity or they just start with application and as they progress they plan the storage? Please let me know your opinion. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Data Storage, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL White Papers, SQLAuthority News, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SharePoint

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  • SQL SERVER – Cardinality Estimation and Performance – SQL in Sixty Seconds #072

    - by Pinal Dave
    Yesterday I wrote blog post based on my latest Pluralsight course on learning SQL Server 2014. I discussed newly introduced cardinality estimation in SQL Server 2014 and how it improves the performance of the query. The cardinality estimation logic is responsible for quality of query plans and majorly responsible for improving performance for any query. This logic was not updated for quite a while, but in the latest version of SQL Server 2104 this logic is re-designed. The new logic now incorporates various assumptions and algorithms of OLTP and warehousing workload. I hope my earlier blog post clearly explained how new cardinality estimation logic improves performance. If not, I suggest you watch following quick video where I explain this concept in extremely simple words. You can download the code used in this course from Simple Demo of New Cardinality Estimation Features of SQL Server 2014. Action Item Here are the blog posts I have previously written. You can read it over here: Simple Demo of New Cardinality Estimation Features of SQL Server 2014 Pluralsight Course You can subscribe to my YouTube Channel for frequent updates. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com)Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Server Management Studio, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Video

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  • SQL SERVER – List All the DMV and DMF on Server

    - by pinaldave
    “How many DMVs and DVFs are there in SQL Server 2008?” – this question was asked to me in one of the recent SQL Server Trainings. Answer is very simple: SELECT name, type, type_desc FROM sys.system_objects WHERE name LIKE 'dm_%' ORDER BY name Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL DMV

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  • SQL SERVER – Interview Questions and Answers – Frequently Asked Questions – Complete Downloadable List – Day 0 of 31

    - by pinaldave
    This blog post is running list of the blog posts in the series of Interview Questions and Answers. At the end of the 31st day of the month, a FREE PDF will be posted here which can be downloadable for offline review. Please scroll below to see latest post for the day. SQL SERVER – Interview Questions and Answers – Frequently Asked Questions – Introduction – Day 1 of 31 In this very first blog post – various aspect of the interview questions and answers are discussed. Some people like the subject for their helpful hints and thought provoking subject, and others dislike these posts because they feel it is nothing more than cheating.  I’d like to discuss the pros and cons of a Question and Answer format here. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Documentation, SQL Download, SQL Interview Questions and Answers, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Puzzle – Challenge – Error While Converting Money to Decimal

    - by pinaldave
    Earlier I wrote SQL SERVER – Challenge – Puzzle – Usage of FAST Hint and I did receive some good comments. Here is another question to tease your mind. Run following script and you will see that it will thrown an error. DECLARE @mymoney MONEY; SET @mymoney = 12345.67; SELECT CAST(@mymoney AS DECIMAL(5,2)) MoneyInt; GO The datatype of money is also visually look similar to the decimal, why it would throw following error: Msg 8115, Level 16, State 8, Line 3 Arithmetic overflow error converting money to data type numeric. Please leave a comment with explanation and I will post a your answer on this blog with due credit. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Error Messages, SQL Puzzle, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Fix : Error : 3117 : The log or differential backup cannot be restored because no files

    - by pinaldave
    I received the following email from one of my readers. Dear Pinal, I am new to SQL Server and our regular DBA is on vacation. Our production database had some problem and I have just restored full database backup to production server. When I try to apply log back I am getting following error. I am sure, this is valid log backup file. Screenshot is attached. [Few other details regarding server/ip address removed] Msg 3117, Level 16, State 1, Line 1 The log or differential backup cannot be restored because no files are ready to roll forward. Msg 3013, Level 16, State 1, Line 1 RESTORE LOG is terminating abnormally. Screenshot attached. [Removed as it contained live IP address] Please help immediately. Well I have answered this question in my earlier post, 2 years ago, over here SQL SERVER – Fix : Error : Msg 3117, Level 16, State 4 The log or differential backup cannot be restored because no files are ready to rollforward. However, I will try to explain it a little more this time. For SQL Server database to be used it should in online state. There are multiple states of SQL Server Database. ONLINE (Available – online for data) OFFLINE RESTORING RECOVERING RECOVERY PENDING SUSPECT EMERGENCY (Limited Availability) If the database is online, it means it is active and in operational mode. It will not make sense to apply further log from backup if the operations have continued on this database. The common practice during the backup restore process is to specify the keyword RECOVERY when the database is restored. When RECOVERY keyword is specified, the SQL Server brings back the database online and will not accept any further log backups. However, if you want to restore more than one backup files, i.e. after restoring the full back up if you want to apply further differential or log backup you cannot do that when database is online and already active. You need to have your database in the state where it can further accept the backup data and not the online data request. If the SQL Server is online and also accepts database backup file, then there can be data inconsistency. This is the reason that when there are more than one database backup files to be restored, one has to restore the database with NO RECOVERY keyword in the RESTORE operation. I suggest you all to read one more post written by me earlier. In this post, I explained the time line with image and graphic SQL SERVER – Backup Timeline and Understanding of Database Restore Process in Full Recovery Model. Sample Code for reference: RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks FROM DISK = 'C:\AdventureWorksFull.bak' WITH NORECOVERY; RESTORE DATABASE AdventureWorks FROM DISK = 'C:\AdventureWorksDiff.bak' WITH RECOVERY; In this post, I am not trying to cover complete backup and recovery. I am just attempting to address one type of error and its resolution. Please test these scenarios on the development server. Playing with live database backup and recovery is always very crucial and needs to be properly planned. Leave a comment here if you need help with this subject. Similar Post: SQL SERVER – Restore Sequence and Understanding NORECOVERY and RECOVERY Note: We will cover Standby Server maintenance and Recovery in another blog post and it is intentionally, not covered this post. Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Backup and Restore, SQL Error Messages, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – SQL Server Cheat Sheet from MidnightDBA

    - by pinaldave
    When I read the article from MidnightDBA (I should say MidnightDBAs because it is about Jen and Sean) regarding T-SQL for the Absentminded DBA, my natural reaction was that it is a perfect extension. A year ago around the same month, I had created SQL Server Cheatsheet. I have distributed a lot of copies of it since I produced it. In fact, while attending TechMela in Nepal today, I am getting many requests to get copies of SQL Server Cheatsheet. When I checked my RSS feed, I realized that Jen and Sean have a perfect cheat sheet for intermediate level developers. I would like to suggest to all of you to read their post and download the Absentminded DBA’s Cheat Sheet for IntermediateTSQL. It is available in two formats: PDF and Docx. I just love how the members of the community help each other grow. I am fortunate that I have received excellent feedback/corrections and criticism on my blog posts for so many times. Criticism and corrections, after all, are absolutely needed and make a better community as a whole. Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: MVP, Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLAuthority News, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL Cheat Sheet

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  • SQL SERVER – Question to You – When to use Function and When to use Stored Procedure

    - by pinaldave
    This week has been very interesting week. I have asked few questions to users and have received remarkable participation on the subject. Q1) SQL SERVER – Puzzle – SELECT * vs SELECT COUNT(*) Q2) SQL SERVER – Puzzle – Statistics are not Updated but are Created Once Keeping the same spirit up, I am asking the third question over here. Q3) When to use User Defined Function and when to use Stored Procedure in your development? Personally, I believe that they are both different things - they cannot be compared. I can say, it will be like comparing apples and oranges. Each has its own unique use. However, they can be used interchangeably at many times and in real life (i.e., production environment). I have personally seen both of these being used interchangeably many times. This is the precise reason for asking this question. When do you use Function and when do you use Stored Procedure? What are Pros and Cons of each of them when used instead of each other? If you are going to answer that ‘To avoid repeating code, you use Function’ - please think harder! Stored procedure can do the same. In SQL Server Denali, even the stored procedure can return the result just like Function in SELECT statement; so if you are going to answer with ‘Function can be used in SELECT, whereas Stored Procedure cannot be used’ - again think harder! (link). Now, what do you say? I will post the answers of all the three questions with due credit next week. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Function, SQL Puzzle, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Stored Procedure, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – 2 Security Updates for SQL Server 2000 SP 4 Users

    - by pinaldave
    If you are using SQL Server 2000 still today my very first recommendation to you is to upgrade to SQL Server 2012. SQL Server 2000 is now 12 years old product and since then many new enhancements as well features which are relevant to current growth and progress in Informational Industry. Now is the time to catch up with the latest trends. Here is one more point for you to notice if this helps you consider to upgrade to the latest version. One can’t upgrade directly from SQL Server 2000 to SQL Server 2012. You need to first upgrade to either SQL Server 2005/2008/R2 and then further plan to upgrade to SQL Server 2012. There is no direct upgrade path for SQL Server 2000 to SQL Server 2012. I strongly believe this is the time to upgrade to the latest version. Well, also there is a rule that to let something continue if it is not broken and working fine. If you are following that rule and still using SQL Server 2000 I strongly suggest that you upgrade your SQL Server 2000 SP4 and update it with latest Security updates. Here are two important SQL Server Security Updates. Security Update for SQL Server 2000 Service Pack 4 (KB983811) Security Update for SQL Server 2000 Service Pack 4 (KB983812) As we are talking about SQL Server 2000 let me ask you a quick question – how many of you are still using SQL Server 2000 or earlier version in a production system on at least one server? Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Security, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Cleaning Up SQL Server Indexes – Defragmentation, Fillfactor – Video

    - by pinaldave
    Storing data non-contiguously on disk is known as fragmentation. Before learning to eliminate fragmentation, you should have a clear understanding of the types of fragmentation. When records are stored non-contiguously inside the page, then it is called internal fragmentation. When on disk, the physical storage of pages and extents is not contiguous. We can get both types of fragmentation using the DMV: sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats. Here is the generic advice for reducing the fragmentation. If avg_fragmentation_in_percent > 5% and < 30%, then use ALTER INDEX REORGANIZE: This statement is replacement for DBCC INDEXDEFRAG to reorder the leaf level pages of the index in a logical order. As this is an online operation, the index is available while the statement is running. If avg_fragmentation_in_percent > 30%, then use ALTER INDEX REBUILD: This is replacement for DBCC DBREINDEX to rebuild the index online or offline. In such case, we can also use the drop and re-create index method.(Ref: MSDN) Here is quick video which covers many of the above mentioned topics. While Vinod and I were planning about Indexing course, we had plenty of fun and learning. We often recording few of our statement and just left it aside. Afterwords we thought it will be really funny Here is funny video shot by Vinod and Myself on the same subject: Here is the link to the SQL Server Performance:  Indexing Basics. Here is the additional reading material on the same subject: SQL SERVER – Fragmentation – Detect Fragmentation and Eliminate Fragmentation SQL SERVER – 2005 – Display Fragmentation Information of Data and Indexes of Database Table SQL SERVER – De-fragmentation of Database at Operating System to Improve Performance Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Index, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology, Video

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  • SQL SERVER – Download SQL Server Product Documentation

    - by pinaldave
    Today I just returned from Bangalore User Group Meeting. Attending User Group meeting is indeed fun and really great experience. The best part of the User Group is meeting like minded people and have a great conversation with them. During the meeting I was asked why one has to go online to access SQL Server Product Documentation. I can clearly see there can be many reasons for why one wants the documentation to be available offline. The reasons can be anything but not limited to Company Firewall No Internet (power failure, on road or disaster) Internet Bandwidth Limitatoin Company Proxy Issues … and much more… In this kind of situation one needs documentation which is offline and easily available in local computer. The Microsoft SQL Server 2012 setup installs only the Help Viewer and related components for managing Help settings. Setup does not directly install any documentation. All of the SQL Server documentation is available online. Well, Microsoft has recently released Production Documentation available for offline users as well. You just have to download the executable file and follow all the instructions. Please follow the link below for download of the file. There is detailed instruction on how to download and install the documentation offline. Product Documentation for Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Documentation, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Fix : Error : 8501 MSDTC on server is unavailable. Changed database context to publishe

    - by pinaldave
    During configuring replication on one of the server, I received following error. This is very common error and the solution of the same is even simpler. MSDTC on server is unavailable. Changed database context to publisherdatabase. (Microsoft SQL Server, Error: 8501) Solution: Enable “Distributed Transaction Coordinator” in SQL Server. Method 1: Click on Start–>Control Panel->Administrative Tools->Services Select the service “Distributed Transaction Coordinator” Right on the service and choose “Start” Method 2: Type services.msc in the run command box Select “Services” manager; Hit Enter Select the service “Distributed Transaction Coordinator” Right on the service and choose “Start” Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Error Messages, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL Replication

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  • SQL SERVER – Sends backups to a Network Folder, FTP Server, Dropbox, Google Drive or Amazon S3

    - by pinaldave
    Let me tell you about one of the most useful SQL tools that every DBA should use – it is SQLBackupAndFTP. I have been using this tool since 2009 – and it is the first program I install on a SQL server. Download a free version, 1 minute configuration and your daily backups are safe in the cloud. In summary, SQLBackupAndFTP Creates SQL Server database and file backups on schedule Compresses and encrypts the backups Sends backups to a network folder, FTP Server, Dropbox, Google Drive or Amazon S3 Sends email notifications of job’s success or failure SQLBackupAndFTP comes in Free and Paid versions (starting from $29) – see version comparison. Free version is fully functional for unlimited ad hoc backups or for scheduled backups of up to two databases – it will be sufficient for many small customers. What has impressed me from the beginning – is that I understood how it works and was able to configure the job from a single form (see Image 1 – Main form above) Connect to you SQL server and select databases to be backed up Click “Add backup destination” to configure where backups should go to (network, FTP Server, Dropbox, Google Drive or Amazon S3) Enter your email to receive email confirmations Set the time to start daily full backups (or go to Settings if you need Differential or  Transaction Log backups on a flexible schedule) Press “Run Now” button to test You can get to this form if you click “Settings” buttons in the “Schedule section”. Select what types of backups and how often you want to run them and you will see the scheduled backups in the “Estimated backup plan” list A detailed tutorial is available on the developer’s website. Along with SQLBackupAndFTP setup gives you the option to install “One-Click SQL Restore” (you can install it stand-alone too) – a basic tool for restoring just Full backups. However basic, you can drag-and-drop on it the zip file created by SQLBackupAndFTP, it unzips the BAK file if necessary, connects to the SQL server on the start, selects the right database, it is smart enough to restart the server to drop open connections if necessary – very handy for developers who need to restore databases often. You may ask why is this tool is better than maintenance tasks available in SQL Server? While maintenance tasks are easy to set up, SQLBackupAndFTP is still way easier and integrates solution for compression, encryption, FTP, cloud storage and email which make it superior to maintenance tasks in every aspect. On a flip side SQLBackupAndFTP is not the fanciest tool to manage backups or check their health. It only works reliably on local SQL Server instances. In other words it has to be installed on the SQL server itself. For remote servers it uses scripting which is less reliable. This limitations is actually inherent in SQL server itself as BACKUP DATABASE command  creates backup not on the client, but on the server itself. This tool is compatible with almost all the known SQL Server versions. It works with SQL Server 2008 (all versions) and many of the previous versions. It is especially useful for SQL Server Express 2005 and SQL Server Express 2008, as they lack built in tools for backup. I strongly recommend this tool to all the DBAs. They must absolutely try it as it is free and does exactly what it promises. You can download your free copy of the tool from here. Please share your experience about using this tool. I am eager to receive your feedback regarding this article. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)   Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Backup and Restore, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Utility, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – DVM sys.dm_os_sys_info Column Name Changed in SQL Server 2012

    - by pinaldave
    Have you ever faced situation where something does not work and when you try to go and fix it – you like fixing it and started to appreciate the breaking changes. Well, this is exactly I felt yesterday. Before I begin my story of yesterday I want to state it candidly that I do not encourage anybody to use * in the SELECT statement. One of the my DBA friend who always used my performance tuning script yesterday sent me email asking following question - “Every time I want to retrieve OS related information in SQL Server – I used DMV sys.dm_os_sys_info. I just upgraded my SQL Server edition from 2008 R2 to SQL Server 2012 RC0 and it suddenly stopped working. Well, this is not the production server so the issue is not big yet but eventually I need to resolve this error. Any suggestion?” The funny thing was original email was very long but it did not talk about what is the exact error beside the query is not working. I think this is the disadvantage of being too friendly on email sometime. Well, never the less, I quickly looked at the DMV on my SQL Server 2008 R2 and SQL Server 2012 RC0 version. To my surprise I found out that there were few columns which are renamed in SQL Server 2012 RC0. Usually when people see breaking changes they do not like it but when I see these changes I was happy as new names were meaningful and additionally their new conversion is much more practical and useful. Here are the columns previous names - Previous Column Name New Column Name physical_memory_in_bytes physical_memory_kb bpool_commit_target committed_target_kb bpool_visible visible_target_kb virtual_memory_in_bytes virtual_memory_kb bpool_commited committed_kb If you read it carefully you will notice that new columns now display few results in the KB whereas earlier result was in bytes. When I see the results in bytes I always get confused as I could not guess what exactly it will convert to. I like to see results in kb and I am glad that new columns are now displaying the results in the kb. I sent the details of the new columns to my friend and ask him to check the columns used in application. From my comment he quickly realized why he was facing error and fixed it immediately. Overall – all was well at the end and I learned something new. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL DMV, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – What is Spatial Database? – Developing with SQL Server Spatial and Deep Dive into Spati

    - by pinaldave
    What is Spatial Database? A spatial database is a database that is optimized to store and query data related to objects in space, including points, lines and polygons. While typical databases can understand various numeric and character types of data, additional functionality needs to be added for databases to process spatial data types. (Source: Wikipedia) Today I will be talking about the same subject at Microsoft TechEd India. If you want to learn about how to spatial aspect of data and how to integrate them with SQL Server this is the perfect session for you. Spatial is very special concept of SQL Server and I really like how it is implemented in SQL Server. In general Performance Tuning and Query Optimization is something I always have enjoyed in my professional life. Index are my best friends and many time, by implementing and many time by removing I have improved the performance of the system. In this session, I will be talking about Index along with Spatial Data. As Spatial Database is very interesting concept, I will cover super short but very interesting 10 quick slides about this subject. I will make sure in very first 20 mins, you will understand following topics Introduction to Spatial Database One line definition Understanding Spatial Indexing Index Internals Query/Performance Tuning Query Hinting/Cost Analysis Spatial Index Catalog Views Performance Troubleshooting Finding Optimal Index using Spatial Index SP Common Errors Index Maintenance This slides decks will be followed by around 30 mins demo which will have story of geometry, geography, index internals and performance tuning. If you are interested in learning how GIS works and how SQL Server out of the box supports this wonderful tools, you will really like how the story is told. I am sure all people who attend the event will know how the Bangalore is positioned on the map of India. I will take example of Bangalore and Hyderabad and demonstrate how index can improve the performance. Well there are lots of story to tell in the session, and I will be opening this session with the beautiful script of Botticelli’s Birth of Venus created by Michael J. Swart. I will also demonstrate few real life scenario where I will be talking about Spatial Database and its usage. Do not miss this session. At the end of session there will be book awarded to best participant. My session details: Session 3: Developing with SQL Server Spatial and Deep Dive into Spatial Indexing Date: April 14, 2010 Time: 5:00pm-6:00pm Microsoft SQL Server 2008 delivers new spatial data types that enable you to consume, use, and extend location-based data through spatial-enabled applications. Attend this session to learn how to use spatial functionality in next version of SQL Server to build and optimize spatial queries. This session outlines the new geography data type to store geodetic spatial data and perform operations on it, use the new geometry data type to store planar spatial data and perform operations on it, take advantage of new spatial indexes for high performance queries, use the new spatial results tab to quickly and easily view spatial query results directly from within Management Studio, extend spatial data capabilities by building or integrating location-enabled applications through support for spatial standards and specifications and much more. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Index, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLAuthority Author Visit, T SQL, Technology Tagged: Spatial Database

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  • SQL SERVER – SOS_SCHEDULER_YIELD – Wait Type – Day 8 of 28

    - by pinaldave
    This is a very interesting wait type and quite often seen as one of the top wait types. Let us discuss this today. From Book On-Line: Occurs when a task voluntarily yields the scheduler for other tasks to execute. During this wait the task is waiting for its quantum to be renewed. SOS_SCHEDULER_YIELD Explanation: SQL Server has multiple threads, and the basic working methodology for SQL Server is that SQL Server does not let any “runnable” thread to starve. Now let us assume SQL Server OS is very busy running threads on all the scheduler. There are always new threads coming up which are ready to run (in other words, runnable). Thread management of the SQL Server is decided by SQL Server and not the operating system. SQL Server runs on non-preemptive mode most of the time, meaning the threads are co-operative and can let other threads to run from time to time by yielding itself. When any thread yields itself for another thread, it creates this wait. If there are more threads, it clearly indicates that the CPU is under pressure. You can fun the following DMV to see how many runnable task counts there are in your system. SELECT scheduler_id, current_tasks_count, runnable_tasks_count, work_queue_count, pending_disk_io_count FROM sys.dm_os_schedulers WHERE scheduler_id < 255 GO If you notice a two-digit number in runnable_tasks_count continuously for long time (not once in a while), you will know that there is CPU pressure. The two-digit number is usually considered as a bad thing; you can read the description of the above DMV over here. Additionally, there are several other counters (%Processor Time and other processor related counters), through which you can refer to so you can validate CPU pressure along with the method explained above. Reducing SOS_SCHEDULER_YIELD wait: This is the trickiest part of this procedure. As discussed, this particular wait type relates to CPU pressure. Increasing more CPU is the solution in simple terms; however, it is not easy to implement this solution. There are other things that you can consider when this wait type is very high. Here is the query where you can find the most expensive query related to CPU from the cache Note: The query that used lots of resources but is not cached will not be caught here. SELECT SUBSTRING(qt.TEXT, (qs.statement_start_offset/2)+1, ((CASE qs.statement_end_offset WHEN -1 THEN DATALENGTH(qt.TEXT) ELSE qs.statement_end_offset END - qs.statement_start_offset)/2)+1), qs.execution_count, qs.total_logical_reads, qs.last_logical_reads, qs.total_logical_writes, qs.last_logical_writes, qs.total_worker_time, qs.last_worker_time, qs.total_elapsed_time/1000000 total_elapsed_time_in_S, qs.last_elapsed_time/1000000 last_elapsed_time_in_S, qs.last_execution_time, qp.query_plan FROM sys.dm_exec_query_stats qs CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_sql_text(qs.sql_handle) qt CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_query_plan(qs.plan_handle) qp ORDER BY qs.total_worker_time DESC -- CPU time You can find the most expensive queries that are utilizing lots of CPU (from the cache) and you can tune them accordingly. Moreover, you can find the longest running query and attempt to tune them if there is any processor offending code. Additionally, pay attention to total_worker_time because if that is also consistently higher, then  the CPU under too much pressure. You can also check perfmon counters of compilations as they tend to use good amount of CPU. Index rebuild is also a CPU intensive process but we should consider that main cause for this query because that is indeed needed on high transactions OLTP system utilized to reduce fragmentations. Note: The information presented here is from my experience and there is no way that I claim it to be accurate. I suggest reading Book OnLine for further clarification. All of the discussions of Wait Stats in this blog is generic and varies from system to system. It is recommended that you test this on a development server before implementing it to a production server. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Wait Stats, SQL Wait Types, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Database Dynamic Caching by Automatic SQL Server Performance Acceleration

    - by pinaldave
    My second look at SafePeak’s new version (2.1) revealed to me few additional interesting features. For those of you who hadn’t read my previous reviews SafePeak and not familiar with it, here is a quick brief: SafePeak is in business of accelerating performance of SQL Server applications, as well as their scalability, without making code changes to the applications or to the databases. SafePeak performs database dynamic caching, by caching in memory result sets of queries and stored procedures while keeping all those cache correct and up to date. Cached queries are retrieved from the SafePeak RAM in microsecond speed and not send to the SQL Server. The application gets much faster results (100-500 micro seconds), the load on the SQL Server is reduced (less CPU and IO) and the application or the infrastructure gets better scalability. SafePeak solution is hosted either within your cloud servers, hosted servers or your enterprise servers, as part of the application architecture. Connection of the application is done via change of connection strings or adding reroute line in the c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts file on all application servers. For those who would like to learn more on SafePeak architecture and how it works, I suggest to read this vendor’s webpage: SafePeak Architecture. More interesting new features in SafePeak 2.1 In my previous review of SafePeak new I covered the first 4 things I noticed in the new SafePeak (check out my article “SQLAuthority News – SafePeak Releases a Major Update: SafePeak version 2.1 for SQL Server Performance Acceleration”): Cache setup and fine-tuning – a critical part for getting good caching results Database templates Choosing which database to cache Monitoring and analysis options by SafePeak Since then I had a chance to play with SafePeak some more and here is what I found. 5. Analysis of SQL Performance (present and history): In SafePeak v.2.1 the tools for understanding of performance became more comprehensive. Every 15 minutes SafePeak creates and updates various performance statistics. Each query (or a procedure execute) that arrives to SafePeak gets a SQL pattern, and after it is used again there are statistics for such pattern. An important part of this product is that it understands the dependencies of every pattern (list of tables, views, user defined functions and procs). From this understanding SafePeak creates important analysis information on performance of every object: response time from the database, response time from SafePeak cache, average response time, percent of traffic and break down of behavior. One of the interesting things this behavior column shows is how often the object is actually pdated. The break down analysis allows knowing the above information for: queries and procedures, tables, views, databases and even instances level. The data is show now on all arriving queries, both read queries (that can be cached), but also any types of updates like DMLs, DDLs, DCLs, and even session settings queries. The stats are being updated every 15 minutes and SafePeak dashboard allows going back in time and investigating what happened within any time frame. 6. Logon trigger, for making sure nothing corrupts SafePeak cache data If you have an application with many parts, many servers many possible locations that can actually update the database, or the SQL Server is accessible to many DBAs or software engineers, each can access some database directly and do some changes without going thru SafePeak – this can create a potential corruption of the data stored in SafePeak cache. To make sure SafePeak cache is correct it needs to get all updates to arrive to SafePeak, and if a DBA will access the database directly and do some changes, for example, then SafePeak will simply not know about it and will not clean SafePeak cache. In the new version, SafePeak brought a new feature called “Logon Trigger” to solve the above challenge. By special click of a button SafePeak can deploy a special server logon trigger (with a CLR object) on your SQL Server that actually monitors all connections and informs SafePeak on any connection that is coming not from SafePeak. In SafePeak dashboard there is an interface that allows to control which logins can be ignored based on login names and IPs, while the rest will invoke cache cleanup of SafePeak and actually locks SafePeak cache until this connection will not be closed. Important to note, that this does not interrupt any logins, only informs SafePeak on such connection. On the Dashboard screen in SafePeak you will be able to see those connections and then decide what to do with them. Configuration of this feature in SafePeak dashboard can be done here: Settings -> SQL instances management -> click on instance -> Logon Trigger tab. Other features: 7. User management ability to grant permissions to someone without changing its configuration and only use SafePeak as performance analysis tool. 8. Better reports for analysis of performance using 15 minute resolution charts. 9. Caching of client cursors 10. Support for IPv6 Summary SafePeak is a great SQL Server performance acceleration solution for users who want immediate results for sites with performance, scalability and peak spikes challenges. Especially if your apps are packaged or 3rd party, since no code changes are done. SafePeak can significantly increase response times, by reducing network roundtrip to the database, decreasing CPU resource usage, eliminating I/O and storage access. SafePeak team provides a free fully functional trial www.safepeak.com/download and actually provides a one-on-one assistance during such trial. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: About Me, Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Utility, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – Download SQL Azure Labs Codename “Data Explorer” Client

    - by pinaldave
    Microsoft SQL Azure labs has recently released Data Explorer client. I was looking forward to visualizing tool for quite a while and I am delighted to see this tool. I will be trying out this tool in coming week and will post here my experience. I have listed few of the resources which are related to Data Explorer at the end. Please let me know if I have missed any and I will add the same. With “Data Explorer” you can: Identify the data you care about from the sources you work with (e.g. Excel spreadsheets, files, SQL Server databases). Discover relevant data and services via automatic recommendations from the Windows Azure Marketplace. Enrich your data by combining it and visualizing the results. Collaborate with your colleagues to refine the data. Publish the results to share them with others or power solutions. The Data Explorer Client package contains the Data Explorer workspace as well as an Office plugin that integrates Data Explorer into Excel. Resources: Download Data Explorer Data Explorer Blog Desktop Client Video of  Contoso Bikes and Frozen Yogurt (Data Explorer) Please note that this is not the final release of the product. Please do not attempt this on production server. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Azure, SQL Documentation, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLAuthority News, T SQL, Technology

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