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  • Advice on database design / SQL for retrieving data with chronological order

    - by Remnant
    I am creating a database that will help keep track of which employees have been on a certain training course. I would like to get some guidance on the best way to design the database. Specifically, each employee must attend the training course each year and my database needs to keep a history of all the dates on which they have attend the course in the past. The end user will use the software as a planning tool to help them book future course dates for employees. When they select a given employee they will see: (a) Last attendance date (b) Projected future attendance date(i.e. last attendance date + 1 calendar year) In terms of my database, any given employee may have multiple past course attendance dates: EmpName AttandanceDate Joe Bloggs 1st Jan 2007 Joe Bloggs 4th Jan 2008 Joe Bloggs 3rd Jan 2009 Joe Bloggs 8th Jan 2010 My question is what is the best way to set up the database to make it easy to retrieve the most recent course attendance date? In the example above, the most recent would be 8th Jan 2010. Is there a good way to use SQL to sort by date and pick the MAX date? My other idea was to add a column called ‘MostRecent’ and just set this to TRUE. EmpName AttandanceDate MostRecent Joe Bloggs 1st Jan 2007 False Joe Bloggs 4th Jan 2008 False Joe Bloggs 3rd Jan 2009 False Joe Bloggs 8th Jan 2010 True I wondered if this would simplify the SQL i.e. SELECT Joe Bloggs WHERE MostRecent = ‘TRUE’ Also, when the user updates a given employee’s attendance record (i.e. with latest attendance date) I could use SQL to: Search for the employee and set the MostRecent value to FALSE Add a new record with MostRecent set to TRUE? Would anybody recommended either method over the other? Or do you have a completely different way of solving this problem?

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  • SQL Server 2005 database design - many-to-many relationships with hierarchy

    - by Remnant
    Note I have completely re-written my original post to better explain the issue I am trying to understand. I have tried to generalise the problem as much as possible. Also, my thanks to the original people who responded. Hopefully this post makes things a little clearer. Context In short, I am struggling to understand the best way to design a small scale database to handle (what I perceive to be) multiple many-to-many relationships. Imagine the following scenario for a company organisational structure: Textile Division Marketing Division | | ---------------------- ---------------------- | | | | HR Dept Finance Dept HR Dept Finance Dept | | | | ---------- ---------- ---------- --------- | | | | | | | | Payroll Hiring Audit Tax Payroll Hiring Audit Accounts | | | | | | | | Emps Emps Emps Emps Emps Emps Emps Emps NB: Emps denotes a list of employess that work in that area When I first started with this issue I made four separate tables: Divisions - Textile, Marketing (PK = DivisionID) Departments - HR, Finance (PK = DeptID) Functions - Payroll, Hiring, Audit, Tax, Accounts (PK = FunctionID) Employees - List of all Employees (PK = EmployeeID) The problem as I see it is that there are multiple many-to-many relationships i.e. many departments have many divisions and many functions have many departments. Question Giving the database structure above, suppose I wanted to do the following: Get all employees who work in the Payroll function of the Marketing Division To do this I need to be able to differentiate between the two Payroll departments but I am not sure how this can be done? I understand that I could build a 'Link / Junction' table between Departments and Functions so that I can retrieve which Functions are in which Departments. However, I would still need to differentiate the Division they belong to. Research Effort As you can see I am an abecedarian when it comes to database deisgn. I have spent the last two days resaerching this issue, traversing nested set models, adjacency models, reading that this issue is known not to be NP complete etc. I am sure there is a simple solution?

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  • Accommodating hierarchical data in SQL Server 2005 database design

    - by Remnant
    Context I am fairly new to database design (=know the basics) and am grappling with how best to design my database for a project I am currently working on. In short, my database will keep a log of which employees have attended certain health and safety courses throughout the year. There are multiple types of course e.g. moving objects, fire safety, hygiene etc. In terms of my database design I need to accommodate the following: Each location can have multiple divisions Each division can have multiple departments Each department can have multiple functions Each function can have multiple job roles Each job role can have different course requirements Also note that the structure at each location may not be the same e.g. the departments within divisions are not the same across locations and the functions within departments may also differ. Edit - updated to better articulate problem Let's assume I am just looking at Location, Division and Department and I have my database as follows: LocationTable DivisionTable DepartmentTable LocationID(PK) DivisionID(PK) DepartmentID(PK) LocationName DivisionName DepartmentName There is a many-to-many relationship between Locations and Divisions and also between Departments and Divisions. Suppose I set up a 'Junction Table' as follows: Location_Division LocationID(FK) DivisionID(FK) Using Location_Division I could easily pull back the Divisions for any Location. However, suppose I want to pull back all departments for a given Division in a given Location. If I set up another 'Junction Table' for Division and Department then I can't see how I would differentiate Division by Location? Division_Department DivisionID(FK) DepartmentID(FK) Location_Division Division_Department LocationID DivisionID DivisionID DepartmentID 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 Do I need to expand the number of columns in my 'Junction Table' e.g. Location_Division_Department LocationID(FK) DivisionID(FK) DepartmentID(FK) Location_Division_Department LocationID DivisionID DepartmentID 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 3

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  • Advice on displaying and allowing editing of data using ASP.NET MVC?

    - by Remnant
    I am embarking upon my first ASP.NET MVC project and I would like to get some input on possible ways to display database data and general best practice. In short, the body of my webpage will show data from my database in a table like format, with each table row showing similar data. For example: Name Age Position Date Joined Jon Smith 23 Striker 18th Mar 2005 John Doe 38 Defender 3rd Jan 1988 In terms of functionality, primarily I’d like to give the user the ability to edit the data and, after the edit, commit the edit to the database and refresh the view.The reason I want to refresh the view is because the data is date ordered and I will need to re-sort if the user edits a date field. My main question is what architecture / tools would be best suited to this fulfil my requirements at a high level? From the research I have done so far my initial conclusions were: ADO.NET for data retrieval. This is something I have used before and feel comfortable with. I like the look of LINQ to SQL but don’t want to make the learning curve any steeper for my first outing into MVC land just yet. Partial Views to create a template and then iterate through a datatable that I have pulled back from my database model. jQuery to allow the user to edit data in the table, error check edited data entries etc. Also, my intial view was that caching the data would not be a key requirement here. The only field a user will be able to update is the field and, if they do, I will need to commit that data to the database immediately and then refresh the view (as the data is date sorted). Any thoughts on this? Alternatively, I have seen some jQuery plug-ins that emulate a datagrid and provide associated functionality. My first thoughts are that I do not need all the functionality that comes with these plug-ins (e.g. zebra striping, ability to sort by column using sort glyph in column headers etc .) and I don’t really see any benefit to this over and above the solution I have outlined above. Again, is there reason to reconsider this view? Finally, when a user edits a date , I will need to refresh the view. In order to do this I had been reading about Html.RenderAction and this seemed like it may be a better option than using Partial Views as I can incorporate application logic into the action method. Am I right to consider Html.RenderAction or have I misunderstood its usage? Hope this post is clear and not too long. I did consider separate posts for each topic (e.g. Partial View vs. Html.RenderAction, when to use jQury datagrid plug-in) but it feels like these issues are so intertwined that they need to be dealt with in contect of each other. Thanks

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  • SQL to retrieve aggregated data with computed columns

    - by Remnant
    I have a table that looks like this for about ~30 students: StudentID Course* CourseStatus 1 Math Pass 1 English Fail 1 Science Pass 2 Math Fail 2 English Pass 2 Science Fail etc. *In my actual database the 'Course' column is a CourseID e.g. (1 = Math; 2 = English etc.) which references a 'CourseName' table. I amended the table above just to make it clear the nature of the problem. I want to write a query (stored procedure) in SQL that summarises performance for a given course and returns the following: EXEC usp_GetCourseSummary 'Math' Total Students Total Pass % Pass Total Fail % Fail 25 15 60 10 40 Have been scratching my head on this one for some time. Any ideas?

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  • jQuery ui datepicker positioning problem when scrolling down webpage

    - by Remnant
    I have a webpage that uses multiple instances of the jQuery ui datepicker. My webpage will display ~80 records which extends beyond a single screenshot. <% foreach (var record in Model) { %> <div class="recordname"><%=record.name%></div> <%=Html.TextBox("DateTimePicker", null, new { @class = "date-pick" } )%> // <-- additional html here --> <% } %> I have set the defaults of my datepicker as follows: $(".date-pick").each(function() { $(this).datepicker({ dateFormat: 'dd M yy', showOn: 'button', buttonImage: '/Images/datepickericon.png', buttonImageOnly: true }); }); When the page first loads, if I click any datepicker icon that is visible on screen (i.e. without scrolling) then the datepicker appears as expected. However, if I scroll down the page and then click a datepicker icon, the datepicker does not appear in the screen window but is instead rendered right back near the top of the screen. Any ideas how to solve this? I am using: IE7 asp.net mvc jquery.ui.datepicker.js (UI/API/1.8/Datepicker)

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  • How do I refer to a constant URL in my route configuration?

    - by Remnant
    Suppose I have the following within a webpage <% using (Html.BeginForm("ShowData", "Summary")) %> <% { %> <div class="dropdown"><%=Html.DropDownList("CourseSelection", Model.CourseList, new { @class = "dropdown", onchange="this.form.submit();" })%> </div> <% } %> When the user makes a selection from the dropdown the form is submitted and I would like it to link to another page with a URL as follows: http://localhost:1721/Summary I have the following routes: routes.MapRoute(null, "Summary", new { controller = "Summary", action = "ShowData", CourseSelection = (string) null }); routes.MapRoute("Default", "{controller}/{action}/{id}", new { controller = "Login", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }); When a user selects an item in the dropdownlist, the URL returned is: http://localhost:1721/Summary/ShowData?CourseSelection = UserSelection Clearly the first route in the list is not being matched. I don't want the URL to show the action name and parameter. I simply want to show "Summary" which is what I have hard coded in the URL. How do I achieve this?

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  • How can I 'transpose' my data using SQL and remove duplicates at the same time?

    - by Remnant
    I have the following data structure in my database: LastName FirstName CourseName John Day Pricing John Day Marketing John Day Finance Lisa Smith Marketing Lisa Smith Finance etc... The data shows employess within a business and which courses they have shown a preference to attend. The number of courses per employee will vary (i.e. as above, John has 3 courses and Lisa 2). I need to take this data from the database and pass it to a webpage view (asp.net mvc). I would like the data that comes out of my database to match the view as much as possible and want to transform the data using SQl so that it looks like the following: LastName FirstName Course1 Course2 Course3 John Day Pricing Marketing Finance Lisa Smith Marketing Finance Any thoughts on how this may be achieved? Note: one of the reasons I am trying this approach is that the original data structure does not easily lend itself to be iterated over using the typical mvc syntax: <% foreach (var item in Model.courseData) { %> Because of the duplication of names in the orignal data I would end up with lots of conditionals in my View which I would like to avoid. I have tried transforming the data using c# in my ViewModel but have found it tough going and feel that I could lighten the workload by leveraging SQL before I return the data. Thanks.

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  • How to update strongly typed Html.DropDownList using Jquery

    - by Remnant
    I have a webpage with two radiobuttons and a dropdownlist as follows: <div class="sectionheader">Course <div class="dropdown"><%=Html.DropDownList("CourseSelection", Model.CourseList, new { @class = "dropdown" })%> </div> <div class="radiobuttons"><label><%=Html.RadioButton("CourseType", "Advanced", false )%> Advanced </label></div> <div class="radiobuttons"><label><%=Html.RadioButton("CourseType", "Beginner", true )%> Beginner </label></div> </div> The dropdownlist is strongly typed and populated with Model.CourseList (NB - on the first page load, 'Beginner' is the default selection and the dropdown shows the beginner course options accordingly) What I want to be able to do is to update the DropDownList based on which radiobutton is selected i.e. if 'Advanced' selected then show one list of course options in dropdown, and if 'Beginner' selected then show another list of courses. The code I would like to call sits within my Controller: public JsonResult UpdateDropDown(string courseType) { IDropDownList dropdownlistRepository = new DropDownListRepository(); IEnumerable<SelectListItem> courseList = dropdownlistRepository.GetCourseList(courseType); return Json(courseList); } Edit - Updated below to show latest position Using examples provided in jQuery in Action, I now have the following jQuery code: $('.radiobuttons input:radio').click(function() { var courseType = $(this).val(); //Get selected courseType from radiobutton var dropdownList = $(".dropdown"); //Ref for dropdownlist $.getJSON("/ByCourse/UpdateDropDown", { courseType: courseType }, function(data) { $(dropdownList).loadSelect(data); }); }); The loadSelect function is taken straight from the book and is as follows: (function($) { $.fn.emptySelect = function() { return this.each(function() { if (this.tagName == 'SELECT') this.options.length = 0; }); } $.fn.loadSelect = function(optionsDataArray) { return this.emptySelect().each(function() { if (this.tagName == 'SELECT') { var selectElement = this; $.each(optionsDataArray, function(index, optionData) { var option = new Option(optionData.Text, optionData.Value); if ($.browser.msie) { selectElement.add(option); } else { selectElement.add(option, null); } }); } }); } })(jQuery); 1 day+ later I still cannot get this to work. Assuming the jQuery code is correct then I can only think that the issue is with retrieving the actual data with $getJSON. I have verified that JsonResult UpdateDropDown does actually retrieve valid data. What am I missing? Assembly reference? (NB: I have MicrosoftAjax.js and MicrosoftMvcAjax.js in my head tags of the master page Should JsonResult be ActionResult? (I have seen both used in samples on web) Do I need to register route Controller/UpdateDropDown in Global.asax? Any further guidance would be appreciated.

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  • Advice on software / database design to avoid using cursors when updating database

    - by Remnant
    I have a database that logs when an employee has attended a course and when they are next due to attend the course (courses tend to be annual). As an example, the following employee attended course '1' on 1st Jan 2010 and, as the course is annual, is due to attend next on the 1st Jan 2011. As today is 20th May 2010 the course status reads as 'Complete' i.e. they have done the course and do not need to do it again until next year: EmployeeID CourseID AttendanceDate DueDate Status 123456 1 01/01/2010 01/01/2011 Complete In terms of the DueDate I calculate this in SQL when I update the employee's record e.g. DueDate = AttendanceDate + CourseFrequency (I pull course frequency this from a separate table). In my web based app (asp.net mvc) I pull back this data for all employees and display it in a grid like format for HR managers to review. This allows HR to work out who needs to go on courses. The issue I have is as follows. Taking the example above, suppose today is 2nd Jan 2011. In this case, employee 123456 is now overdue for the course and I would like to set the Status to Incomplete so that the HR manager can see that they need to action this i.e. get employee on the course. I could build a trigger in the database to run overnight to update the Status field for all employees based on the current date. From what I have read I would need to use cursors to loop over each row to amend the status and this is considered bad practice / inefficient or at least something to avoid if you can??? Alternatively, I could compute the Status in my C# code after I have pulled back the data from the database and before I display it on screen. The issue with this is that the Status in the database would not necessarily match what is shown on screen which just feels plain wrong to me. Does anybody have any advice on the best practice approach to such an issue? It helps, if I did use a cursor I doubt I would be looping over more than 1000 records at any given time. Maybe this is such small volume that using cursors is okay?

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  • How can I map stored procedure result into a custom class with linq-to-sql?

    - by Remnant
    I have a stored procedure that returns a result set (4 columns x n Rows). The data is based on multiple tables within my database and provides a summary for each department within a corporate. Here is sample: usp_GetDepartmentSummary DeptName EmployeeCount Male Female HR 12 5 7 etc... I am using linq-to-sql to retrieve data from my database (nb - have to use sproc as it is something I have inherited). I would like to call the above sproc and map into a department class: public class Department { public string DeptName {get; set;} public int EmployeeCount {get; set;} public int MaleCount {get; set;} public int FemaleCount {get; set;} } In VS2008, I can drag and drop my sproc onto the methods pane of the linq-to-sql designer. When I examine the designer.cs the return type for this sproc is defined as: ISingleResult<usp_GetDepartmentSummaryResult> What I would like to do is amend this somehow so that it returns a Department type so that I can pass the results of the sproc as a strongly typed view: <% foreach (var dept in Model) { %> <ul> <li class="deptname"><%= dept.DeptName %></li> <li class="deptname"><%= dept.EmployeeCount %></li> etc... Any ideas how to achieve this? NB - I have tried amending the designer.cs and dbml xml file directly but with limited success. I admit to being a little out of my depth when it comes to updating those files directly and I am not sure it is best practice? Would be good to get some diretion. Thanks much

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  • MVC validation error with strongly typed view

    - by Remnant
    I have a simple form that I would like to validate on form submission. Note I have stripped out the html for ease of viewing <%=Html.TextBox("LastName", "")%> //Lastname entry <%=Html.ValidationMessage("LastName")%> <%=Html.TextBox("FirstName", "")%>//Firstname entry <%=Html.ValidationMessage("FirstName")%> <%=Html.DropDownList("JobRole", Model.JobRoleList)%> //Dropdownlist of job roles <% foreach (var record in Model.Courses) // Checkboxes of different courses for user to select { %> <li><label><input type="checkbox" name="Courses" value="<%=record.CourseName%>" /><%= record.CourseName%></label></li> <% } %> On submission of this form I would like to check that both FirstName and LastName are populated (i.e. non-zero length). In my controller I have: public ActionResult Submit(string FirstName, string LastName) { if (FirstName.Trim().Length == 0) ModelState.AddModelError("FirstName", "You must enter a first name"); if (LastName.Trim().Length == 0) ModelState.AddModelError("LastName", "You must enter a first name"); if (ModelState.IsValid) { //Update database + redirect to action } return View(); //If ModelState not valid, return to View and show error messages } Unfortunately, this code logic produces an error that states that no objects are found for JobRole and Courses. If I remove the dropdownlist and checkboxes then all works fine. The issue appears to be that when I return the View the view is expecting objects for the dropwdownlist and checkboxes (which is sensible as that is what is in my View code) How can I overcome this problem? Things I have considered: In my controller I could create a JobRoleList object and Course object to pass to the View so that it has the objects to render. The issue with this is that it will overwrite any dropdownlist / checkbox selections that the user has already made. In the parameters of my controller method Submit I could aslo capture the JobRoleList object and Course object to pass back to the View. Again, not sure this would capture any items the user has already selected. I have done much googling and reading but I cannot find a good answer. When I look at examples in books or online (e.g. Nerddinner) all the validation examples involve simple forms with TextBox inputs and don't seems to show instances with multiple checkboxes and dropdownlists. Have I missed something obvious here? What would be best practice in this situation? Thanks

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  • How do I set up routes to enable me to call different actions on the same controller?

    - by Remnant
    I am building my first asp.net mvc application for learning and development purposes and have come across an issue that I'd like some guidance with. Suppose I have a controller with two actions as follows: public class MyController : Controller { public ActionResult Index() { dbData = GetData("DefaultParameter") return View(dbData); } public ActionResult UpdateView(string dbParameter) { dbData = GetData("dbParameter"); return View(dbData); } } On my webpage I have the following: <% using (Html.BeginForm("UpdateView", "MyController")) %> <% { %> <div class="dropdown"><%=Html.DropDownList("Selection", Model.List, new { onchange="this.form.submit();" })%></div> <% } %> I have the following route in Global.asax: public static void RegisterRoutes(RouteCollection routes) { routes.MapRoute("Default", "{controller}", new { controller = "MyController", action = "Index"}); } The issue I am having is as follows: When I use the dropdownlist I get an error saying that /MyController/UpdateView could not be found. It therefore seems that I need to add an additional route as follows: routes.MapRoute("Default", "{controller}", new { controller = "MyController", action = "UpdateView"}); However, this causes two new issues for me: Due to the hierachy within the routing list, the similarity of the routes means that the one that appears first in the list is always executed. I don't see why I need to create another route for UpdateView. All I want to do is to retrieve new data from the database and update the view. I don't see what this has to do with the URL schema. It feels like I have gone down the wrong track here and I have missed something quite fundamental?

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  • How to limit number of displayed items in html.dropdownlist?

    - by Remnant
    I have a html.dropdownlist on my webpage as follows: <%=Html.DropDownList("MyDropDown", Model.Data, new { @class = "dropdown"})%> I am populating the dropdown with ~80 items. The issue is that when I click the dropdown the list of items is rendered from the top of the screen to the bottom of the screen. How can I set up the dropdownlist so that it only displays a maximum of 20 items when the dropdown menu is clicked (i.e. user needs to scroll down to see items 21 - 80)? I was anticipating (!) that there would be a html.dropdownlist property to control the number of displayed items that would allow something like the following e.g.: <% =Html.DropDownList("MyDropDown", Model.Data, new { @class = "dropdown", rows ="20"}) %> From research I have been doing on the msdn website it appears that there is no such property and that each browser has its own rules of how many items are displayed in a dropdownlist (?). I am using IE6 and IE7.

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  • SQL - Updating records based on most recent date

    - by Remnant
    I am having difficulty updating records within a database based on the most recent date and am looking for some guidance. By the way, I am new to SQL. As background, I have a windows forms application with SQL Express and am using ADO.NET to interact with the database. The application is designed to enable the user to track employee attendance on various courses that must be attended on a periodic basis (e.g. every 6 months, every year etc.). For example, they can pull back data to see the last time employees attended a given course and also update attendance dates if an employee has recently completed a course. I have three data tables: EmployeeDetailsTable - simple list of employees names, email address etc., each with unique ID CourseDetailsTable - simple list of courses, each with unique ID (e.g. 1, 2, 3 etc.) AttendanceRecordsTable - has 3 columns { EmployeeID, CourseID, AttendanceDate, Comments } For any given course, an employee will have an attendance history i.e. if the course needs to be attended each year then they will have one record for as many years as they have been at the company. What I want to be able to do is to update the 'Comments' field for a given employee and given course based on the most recent attendance date. What is the 'correct' SQL syntax for this? I have tried many things (like below) but cannot get it to work: UPDATE AttendanceRecordsTable SET Comments = @Comments WHERE AttendanceRecordsTable.EmployeeID = (SELECT EmployeeDetailsTable.EmployeeID FROM EmployeeDetailsTable WHERE (EmployeeDetailsTable.LastName [email protected] AND EmployeeDetailsTable.FirstName [email protected]) AND AttendanceRecordsTable.CourseID = (SELECT CourseDetailsTable.CourseID FROM CourseDetailsTable WHERE CourseDetailsTable.CourseName [email protected])) GROUP BY MAX(AttendanceRecordsTable.LastDate) After much googling, I discovered that MAX is an aggregate function and so I need to use GROUP BY. I have also tried using the HAVING keyword but without success. Can anybody point me in the right direction? What is the 'conventional' syntax to update a database record based on the most recent date?

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  • How can I change my code in Excel 2003 to allow me to paste to multiple cells?

    - by PikeCoAL
    Ran in to a little problem. If I try to paste to multiple cells that are in the range in the code below, I get a run time error 13, type mismatch. The cells in the range may have data other than X but I only want the hyperlink to appear if the cell contains X. It works fine if I just type an X in the cell or if I paste to one cell at a time. I will have times when I want to paste other text to mutiple cells in this range. Thanks to Remnant for his help on the original code. This one last hurdle will put me in the clear. Thx. Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range) Dim rangeLimit As Range Set rangeLimit = Range ("B9:B37,C9:C37,D9:D37,E9:E37,F9:F37,G9:G37,H9:H37,I9:I37,J9:J37,K9:K37,L9:L37,M9:M37") If Not Intersect(rangeLimit, Target) Is Nothing Then If Target = "x" Or Target = "X" Then Target.Hyperlinks.Add Anchor:=Target, Address:="", SubAddress:="Exceptions!A1", TextToDisplay:=Target.Value End If End If End Sub

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  • Access Denied / Server 2008 / Home Directories

    - by Shaun Murphy
    Domain Controller: BDC01 (192.168.9.2) Storage Server: BrightonSAN1 (192.168.9.3) Domain: brighton.local Last night I moved our users home directories off of our Domain Controller onto a storage server using the MS FSMT. I'm getting a mixed bag of errors. The first being some users cannot logon properly, they can't access the logon.vbs in the sysvol folder on the DC and consequently cannot map their drives. I've narrowed that down to a DNS issue as we there was a remnant of our previous DNS server in the DHCP server options and scope options. I'm able to get their drives remapped by browsing to the sysvol folder by IP address as opposed to Computer Name and manually running the logon.vbs script. The other error I'm getting is Access Denied on a few of the users home directories. The top level folder (Home) is shared as normal and I've removed and re-added the NTFS security a number of times now including making the user the owner with full control. I've checked each and every individual file and folder in said users home directory and they are indeed the owner but I'm unable to write but I can read the contents. I'm stumped. This isn't happening to all clients. I'm considering removing their AD accounts, backing up their folders and readding them as a last resort but obviously I'd like to know why the above errors are happening.

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  • Reusing Raid 5 Drive?

    - by User125
    We have two servers (ML530 G2 and DL380G2) w/ identical HP 10K RPM SCSI drives w/ a raid 5. One is decommissioned and the other will be decommissioned shortly. However, one of the drives on the production server had a drive failure. My hope was to take one of the drives from the decommissioned server and pop it into the production server. Both are running RAID 5. I broke the array on the decomm. server. To my knowledge, that should have wiped out all the volume and partition information. However, I do not know if it is safe to then take a drive from the decomm'ed server and replace the failed drive. Will the existing array see it as a replacement drive, wipe it and rebuild? Or will it fail because it was used in an array before. Are there any remnant data that resides on the drives after deleting a raid 5 array? These servers are 10-15 years old, so we're just trying to keep them alive until we decommission it. I'm not looking to pay a premium to find a vendor that still sells replacement drives for this system.

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  • EM12c Release 4: Database as a Service Enhancements

    - by Adeesh Fulay
    Oracle Enterprise Manager 12.1.0.4 (or simply put EM12c R4) is the latest update to the product. As previous versions, this release provides tons of enhancements and bug fixes, attributing to improved stability and quality. One of the areas that is most exciting and has seen tremendous growth in the last few years is that of Database as a Service. EM12c R4 provides a significant update to Database as a Service. The key themes are: Comprehensive Database Service Catalog (includes single instance, RAC, and Data Guard) Additional Storage Options for Snap Clone (includes support for Database feature CloneDB) Improved Rapid Start Kits Extensible Metering and Chargeback Miscellaneous Enhancements 1. Comprehensive Database Service Catalog Before we get deep into implementation of a service catalog, lets first understand what it is and what benefits it provides. Per ITIL, a service catalog is an exhaustive list of IT services that an organization provides or offers to its employees or customers. Service catalogs have been widely popular in the space of cloud computing, primarily as the medium to provide standardized and pre-approved service definitions. There is already some good collateral out there that talks about Oracle database service catalogs. The two whitepapers i recommend reading are: Service Catalogs: Defining Standardized Database Service High Availability Best Practices for Database Consolidation: The Foundation for Database as a Service [Oracle MAA] EM12c comes with an out-of-the-box service catalog and self service portal since release 1. For the customers, it provides the following benefits: Present a collection of standardized database service definitions, Define standardized pools of hardware and software for provisioning, Role based access to cater to different class of users, Automated procedures to provision the predefined database definitions, Setup chargeback plans based on service tiers and database configuration sizes, etc Starting Release 4, the scope of services offered via the service catalog has been expanded to include databases with varying levels of availability - Single Instance (SI) or Real Application Clusters (RAC) databases with multiple data guard based standby databases. Some salient points of the data guard integration: Standby pools can now be defined across different datacenters or within the same datacenter as the primary (this helps in modelling the concept of near and far DR sites) The standby databases can be single instance, RAC, or RAC One Node databases Multiple standby databases can be provisioned, where the maximum limit is determined by the version of database software The standby databases can be in either mount or read only (requires active data guard option) mode All database versions 10g to 12c supported (as certified with EM 12c) All 3 protection modes can be used - Maximum availability, performance, security Log apply can be set to sync or async along with the required apply lag The different service levels or service tiers are popularly represented using metals - Platinum, Gold, Silver, Bronze, and so on. The Oracle MAA whitepaper (referenced above) calls out the various service tiers as defined by Oracle's best practices, but customers can choose any logical combinations from the table below:  Primary  Standby [1 or more]  EM 12cR4  SI  -  SI  SI  RAC -  RAC SI  RAC RAC  RON -  RON RON where RON = RAC One Node is supported via custom post-scripts in the service template A sample service catalog would look like the image below. Here we have defined 4 service levels, which have been deployed across 2 data centers, and have 3 standardized sizes. Again, it is important to note that this is just an example to get the creative juices flowing. I imagine each customer would come up with their own catalog based on the application requirements, their RTO/RPO goals, and the product licenses they own. In the screenwatch titled 'Build Service Catalog using EM12c DBaaS', I walk through the complete steps required to setup this sample service catalog in EM12c. 2. Additional Storage Options for Snap Clone In my previous blog posts, i have described the snap clone feature in detail. Essentially, it provides a storage agnostic, self service, rapid, and space efficient approach to solving your data cloning problems. The net benefit is that you get incredible amounts of storage savings (on average 90%) all while cloning databases in a matter of minutes. Space and Time, two things enterprises would love to save on. This feature has been designed with the goal of providing data cloning capabilities while protecting your existing investments in server, storage, and software. With this in mind, we have pursued with the dual solution approach of Hardware and Software. In the hardware approach, we connect directly to your storage appliances and perform all low level actions required to rapidly clone your databases. While in the software approach, we use an intermediate software layer to talk to any storage vendor or any storage configuration to perform the same low level actions. Thus delivering the benefits of database thin cloning, without requiring you to drastically changing the infrastructure or IT's operating style. In release 4, we expand the scope of options supported by snap clone with the addition of database CloneDB. While CloneDB is not a new feature, it was first introduced in 11.2.0.2 patchset, it has over the years become more stable and mature. CloneDB leverages a combination of Direct NFS (or dNFS) feature of the database, RMAN image copies, sparse files, and copy-on-write technology to create thin clones of databases from existing backups in a matter of minutes. It essentially has all the traits that we want to present to our customers via the snap clone feature. For more information on cloneDB, i highly recommend reading the following sources: Blog by Tim Hall: Direct NFS (DNFS) CloneDB in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Oracle OpenWorld Presentation by Cern: Efficient Database Cloning using Direct NFS and CloneDB The advantages of the new CloneDB integration with EM12c Snap Clone are: Space and time savings Ease of setup - no additional software is required other than the Oracle database binary Works on all platforms Reduce the dependence on storage administrators Cloning process fully orchestrated by EM12c, and delivered to developers/DBAs/QA Testers via the self service portal Uses dNFS to delivers better performance, availability, and scalability over kernel NFS Complete lifecycle of the clones managed by EM12c - performance, configuration, etc 3. Improved Rapid Start Kits DBaaS deployments tend to be complex and its setup requires a series of steps. These steps are typically performed across different users and different UIs. The Rapid Start Kit provides a single command solution to setup Database as a Service (DBaaS) and Pluggable Database as a Service (PDBaaS). One command creates all the Cloud artifacts like Roles, Administrators, Credentials, Database Profiles, PaaS Infrastructure Zone, Database Pools and Service Templates. Once the Rapid Start Kit has been successfully executed, requests can be made to provision databases and PDBs from the self service portal. Rapid start kit can create complex topologies involving multiple zones, pools and service templates. It also supports standby databases and use of RMAN image backups. The Rapid Start Kit in reality is a simple emcli script which takes a bunch of xml files as input and executes the complete automation in a matter of seconds. On a full rack Exadata, it took only 40 seconds to setup PDBaaS end-to-end. This kit works for both Oracle's engineered systems like Exadata, SuperCluster, etc and also on commodity hardware. One can draw parallel to the Exadata One Command script, which again takes a bunch of inputs from the administrators and then runs a simple script that configures everything from network to provisioning the DB software. Steps to use the kit: The kit can be found under the SSA plug-in directory on the OMS: EM_BASE/oracle/MW/plugins/oracle.sysman.ssa.oms.plugin_12.1.0.8.0/dbaas/setup It can be run from this default location or from any server which has emcli client installed For most scenarios, you would use the script dbaas/setup/database_cloud_setup.py For Exadata, special integration is provided to reduce the number of inputs even further. The script to use for this scenario would be dbaas/setup/exadata_cloud_setup.py The database_cloud_setup.py script takes two inputs: Cloud boundary xml: This file defines the cloud topology in terms of the zones and pools along with host names, oracle home locations or container database names that would be used as infrastructure for provisioning database services. This file is optional in case of Exadata, as the boundary is well know via the Exadata system target available in EM. Input xml: This file captures inputs for users, roles, profiles, service templates, etc. Essentially, all inputs required to define the DB services and other settings of the self service portal. Once all the xml files have been prepared, invoke the script as follows for PDBaaS: emcli @database_cloud_setup.py -pdbaas -cloud_boundary=/tmp/my_boundary.xml -cloud_input=/tmp/pdb_inputs.xml          The script will prompt for passwords a few times for key users like sysman, cloud admin, SSA admin, etc. Once complete, you can simply log into EM as the self service user and request for databases from the portal. More information available in the Rapid Start Kit chapter in Cloud Administration Guide.  4. Extensible Metering and Chargeback  Last but not the least, Metering and Chargeback in release 4 has been made extensible in all possible regards. The new extensibility features allow customer, partners, system integrators, etc to : Extend chargeback to any target type managed in EM Promote any metric in EM as a chargeback entity Extend list of charge items via metric or configuration extensions Model abstract entities like no. of backup requests, job executions, support requests, etc  A slew of emcli verbs have also been added that allows administrators to create, edit, delete, import/export charge plans, and assign cost centers all via the command line. More information available in the Chargeback API chapter in Cloud Administration Guide. 5. Miscellaneous Enhancements There are other miscellaneous, yet important, enhancements that are worth a mention. These mostly have been asked by customers like you. These are: Custom naming of DB Services Self service users can provide custom names for DB SID, DB service, schemas, and tablespaces Every custom name is validated for uniqueness in EM 'Create like' of Service Templates Now creating variants of a service template is only a click away. This would be vital when you publish service templates to represent different database sizes or service levels. Profile viewer View the details of a profile like datafile, control files, snapshot ids, export/import files, etc prior to its selection in the service template Cleanup automation - for failed and successful requests Single emcli command to cleanup all remnant artifacts of a failed request Cleanup can be performed on a per request bases or by the entire pool As an extension, you can also delete successful requests Improved delete user workflow Allows administrators to reassign cloud resources to another user or delete all of them Support for multiple tablespaces for schema as a service In addition to multiple schemas, user can also specify multiple tablespaces per request I hope this was a good introduction to the new Database as a Service enhancements in EM12c R4. I encourage you to explore many of these new and existing features and give us feedback. Good luck! References: Cloud Management Page on OTN Cloud Administration Guide [Documentation] -- Adeesh Fulay (@adeeshf)

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  • Prepping a conference

    - by Laurent Bugnion
    I have had the chance to talk at many conferences these past few years, and came up with a way to prepare them which works really well for me. Most importantly, it would make it quite easy to overcome an emergency (for example if my laptop would suddenly lose data). The whole code as well as the slides and other documents are in the cloud. I also use source control for my demos, so that I always have the latest and the greatest, but also a history of changes I made to my demos. Finally I have a system of code snippets which works great, and I often had very positive remarks from the audience regarding that. Putting everything in the cloud The one thing I used to be the most scared of was a sudden crash of my laptop, and being unable to restore in time for a conference. Most conferences ask speakers to send slides a few days (or weeks…) in advance, but let's face it, we all have last minute changes to our talks and I always come in the conference with updated slides that I pass to the management team. The answer to that dilemma used to be working off memory sticks, and that worked not bad. However last year I started putting all the documents relating to a conference in a DropBox folder, and that works great too. Obviously DropBox works only if you have connectivity, so if I for instance update slides while on an international flight, I cannot save to the cloud. The obvious answer to that is to backup everything on a memory stick… but I have to admit, I have been trusting my luck and working off my laptop HD and then synching everything to the cloud after landing. Of course on some US national flights you get WiFi on board, so in that case it is even simpler :) Usually after the conference is done, I remove the files from DropBox and copy them to their "final destination". They are backed up from there to BackBlaze, the great online backup service I am using routinely (I currently have about 90GB of data in BackBlaze). Outlining the presentations I like to have a written outline of my presentations written somewhere. I keep it simple, just write the various sections of the presentation with timing. I guess it is a remnant of the time when I was a private pilot, and using checklists for flight preparation. For example: Demo about designability 15' (0:37) Switch to Blend Open MainPage.xaml Create a DataTemplate ... Here I can immediately see during the presentation if I am taking too much time for my demo (0:37 is where I need to be when I am done with this section of the presentation, and 15' is the time that this particular section takes). I keep these sections reasonable, I don't detail every step of the preparation. Typically I have one such section for every 10-15 minutes of my talks. Yes, I am timing my presentations. I keep adjusting these numbers when I rehearse, and this really helps to feel more confident during the presentations. This is especially important for presentations that are long, like my MIX11 demo which clocked at 57 minutes (I had a lot of stuff to show…). Such presentations are risky, because if anything goes wrong, you will have to cut stuff, so the answer to that is: Rehearse, rehearse and when you're done rehearsing, rehearse a little more. I also have a "Preparation" section where I outline what I need to do before a presentation. For instance: Preparation Reboot in VHD Make sure MSN and Twitter are not running. Open VS10 and load demo Open Blend and load demo Run the WP7 emulator ... I typically start preparing my laptop an hour before the talk, starting everything I need to start and then putting my laptop to sleep. Saving and printing the outline, Timing Printing is a real problem because it is really hard to find a printer at most conference venues, and also quite hard in hotels. To solve that, I simply write everything in OneNote (synched to the cloud, now you start to know what I like ;) and then I print it to a PDF (I use CutePDFWriter) that I save to my Kindle. During the presentation, I read the outline off the Kindle (I mostly just need a quick check to see how I am timing). For timing during the presentation, I use the free tool ChronoGPS on my Windows Phone 7, but of course any phone these days has a clock/chrono application. In some conferences, they even have timers that the presenters can see, but they tend to count down and I prefer to count up… so I just use my own :) Source control for demos For demos, I create a separate folder and use Mercurial as source control. Mercurial has the huge advantage (over SVN or TFS) to work offline too, so I can commit while on a plane, and all the history is saved. Then when I have connectivity I push everything to the cloud (I am using the fantastic Trunksapp.com for my private repositories). Here too the obvious downside is the risk of losing my last changes if my laptop crashes before I can push to the cloud, and here too the obvious answer would be to work from a memory stick… though I have to admit I didn't do that lately (except when I was writing Silverlight 4 Unleashed, where I was really paranoid…) And code snippets? I am one of these presenters who hates to type in front of an audience. I can type really fast (writing two books has this advantage, it really teaches you to touch type and be fast at it) but in the context of an audience, on a stage where it is often damn cold (an issue I had a lot in past conferences, air conditioning can freeze your fingers and make it really hard to type), it doesn't work as well. I don't know for you, but I really dislike seeing a presentation where the speaker uses the backspace key more often than others ;) To solve that, I like to have my code ready in snippets, and drag them to the screen. Then I can spend time explaining each code snippet, while highlighting portions of the code (always highlight what you talk about, the audience often doesn't even see the cursor and doesn't know where you are on the screen!) Over the years I have used various solutions for code snippets, and now I have one which works really well… if you take a few precautions! I use the Visual Studio Toolbox. Preparing the code snippets You can store code snippets in the Toolbox for anything, XAML, C# etc. I arrange the snippets in the order in which I need them, which is a great way to remember what comes next in the presentation. I also separate them by topic, to make it easier to find them, for example when I switch to the slides and then back to the code. Remember that no matter how experienced you are, you will feel more nervous on stage than while you are preparing, so any way to make it easier for you is going to be beneficial to the audience. To store a code snippet, I do the following: Open the final demo that you want to show to the audience in Visual Studio. In your code, select a snippet of code that you want to explain in particular. Make sure that the Visual Studio Toolbox is open (menu View, Toolbox or Ctrl-Alt-X). Drag the selected snippet from the code window to the toolbox. (if needed) drag the snippet to the correct location (for example between two other code snippets so that you can access it as you speak through the demo). Right click on the snippet and select Rename Item from the context menu. Select a meaningful name. For me I use the following conventions: If it is a method, I use the method's name. If it is not a whole method, I use a descriptive name. If it is the content of a method (i.e. the body only, without the method's signature), I use "-> MethodName". This reminds me during the presentation that this is only the body, and that I need to insert that into an existing signature. This is the case, for instance, when I use Visual Studio to automatically generate the members of an interface’s implementation; then I only need to insert my snippet inside the generated method body. Saving the snippets This is the most important!! It happened to me a few times that VS10 lost its settings. When that happens, the snippets are lost too! Yeah that really sucks, especially (as it happened once) when this is the case about an hour before a talk… Stress and sweat follows, not good conditions to start a talk in front of an audience believe me. Thankfully, saving snippets is really easy with the following steps: Select the menu Tools, Import and Export Settings. Select Export selected environment settings and press Next. Uncheck All Settings. Then expand General Settings and select Toolbox (only!). Press Next. Select your source control folder and save under a meaningful name (for instance Snippets.vssettings). Commit to source control and push to the cloud. By the way, this also has the advantage of applying source control to the snippets file (which is an XML file), so you get history for free on that file! Reimporting the snippets If VS loses its settings and you need to reimport the snippets, this can be done super easily and very fast. Make sure that the Toolbox is empty. When you import snippets, they are merged with existing ones, they do not replace the content of the Toolbox. Unless merging is really what you want, make sure that your Toolbox is clean before you import, it is really easier. Select the menu Tools, Import and Export Settings. Select Import selected environment settings and press Next. Select No, just import new settings and press Next. Press Browse and select the Snippets.vssettings file. Press Finish. Et voila, all your snippets appear again in the Toolbox. Whew, the worst was averted and you can start your demo without sweating! (I had to do that once literally 5 minutes before the start of a demo, while my laptop was already hooked to the projector, and it went just fine). What about special tools? When using special tools (for example beta versions of tools you have an early access to), or a special configuration of your laptop, things can get tricky because you cannot really be sure that you will get a laptop with the same tools and the same configuration at the conference. To solve that, I use the following precautions: I make my demos from a Virtual Hard Disk. The great John Papa made a very easy-to-follow web page where he explains how to create a VHD and install Win7 to it. This gives you the full power of your laptop (as fast as booting from the metal). For me, I have a basic configuration that I saved on a USB harddrive (Win7 plus drivers, basic settings for desktop, folder options, taskbar etc) and Visual Studio 2010 SP1 on it. When preparing, I start by copying this "basis VHD" to my laptop. I install additional tools and configurations. I save the VHD back to the USB harddrive in a different folder. This would allow me to reinstall my demo environment quite fast, for example in case of harddrive failure. Replace the harddrive, copy the VHD to it, configure the BCD and you can start. Unfortunately this only works if the laptop itself still works. In the worst case of total failure, my security is to back all the installers up: The installers I use are synched on all my laptops and backed up to BackBlaze. If the worst happens and my laptop is absolutely broken, I can download the installer from BackBlaze and install on another laptop. This of course takes some time, and if that happens 5 minutes before a presentation, well… I don't have an answer to that, except of course crossing my fingers. Still, all that gives me additional security. Conclusion Remember folks, talking to an audience, large or small, will make you nervous. Just ask Scott Hanselman :) The goal here is to create the best possible conditions for you, and to create an environment where everything is saved and easy to restore, where everything is well known and provides you with additional confidence. The cooler you feel before the presentation (and during ;)), the better your presentation will be. Here too, the goal is to provide the best user experience you can have, which in turn will make it more enjoyable for your audience! Happy presenting :) Laurent   Laurent Bugnion (GalaSoft) Subscribe | Twitter | Facebook | Flickr | LinkedIn

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  • How to Run Low-Cost Minecraft on a Raspberry Pi for Block Building on the Cheap

    - by Jason Fitzpatrick
    We’ve shown you how to run your own blocktastic personal Minecraft server on a Windows/OSX box, but what if you crave something lighter weight, more energy efficient, and always ready for your friends? Read on as we turn a tiny Raspberry Pi machine into a low-cost Minecraft server you can leave on 24/7 for around a penny a day. Why Do I Want to Do This? There’s two aspects to this tutorial, running your own Minecraft server and specifically running that Minecraft server on a Raspberry Pi. Why would you want to run your own Minecraft server? It’s a really great way to extend and build upon the Minecraft play experience. You can leave the server running when you’re not playing so friends and family can join and continue building your world. You can mess around with game variables and introduce mods in a way that isn’t possible when you’re playing the stand-alone game. It also gives you the kind of control over your multiplayer experience that using public servers doesn’t, without incurring the cost of hosting a private server on a remote host. While running a Minecraft server on its own is appealing enough to a dedicated Minecraft fan, running it on the Raspberry Pi is even more appealing. The tiny little Pi uses so little resources that you can leave your Minecraft server running 24/7 for a couple bucks a year. Aside from the initial cost outlay of the Pi, an SD card, and a little bit of time setting it up, you’ll have an always-on Minecraft server at a monthly cost of around one gumball. What Do I Need? For this tutorial you’ll need a mix of hardware and software tools; aside from the actual Raspberry Pi and SD card, everything is free. 1 Raspberry Pi (preferably a 512MB model) 1 4GB+ SD card This tutorial assumes that you have already familiarized yourself with the Raspberry Pi and have installed a copy of the Debian-derivative Raspbian on the device. If you have not got your Pi up and running yet, don’t worry! Check out our guide, The HTG Guide to Getting Started with Raspberry Pi, to get up to speed. Optimizing Raspbian for the Minecraft Server Unlike other builds we’ve shared where you can layer multiple projects over one another (e.g. the Pi is more than powerful enough to serve as a weather/email indicator and a Google Cloud Print server at the same time) running a Minecraft server is a pretty intense operation for the little Pi and we’d strongly recommend dedicating the entire Pi to the process. Minecraft seems like a simple game, with all its blocky-ness and what not, but it’s actually a pretty complex game beneath the simple skin and required a lot of processing power. As such, we’re going to tweak the configuration file and other settings to optimize Rasbian for the job. The first thing you’ll need to do is dig into the Raspi-Config application to make a few minor changes. If you’re installing Raspbian fresh, wait for the last step (which is the Raspi-Config), if you already installed it, head to the terminal and type in “sudo raspi-config” to launch it again. One of the first and most important things we need to attend to is cranking up the overclock setting. We need all the power we can get to make our Minecraft experience enjoyable. In Raspi-Config, select option number 7 “Overclock”. Be prepared for some stern warnings about overclocking, but rest easy knowing that overclocking is directly supported by the Raspberry Pi foundation and has been included in the configuration options since late 2012. Once you’re in the actual selection screen, select “Turbo 1000MhHz”. Again, you’ll be warned that the degree of overclocking you’ve selected carries risks (specifically, potential corruption of the SD card, but no risk of actual hardware damage). Click OK and wait for the device to reset. Next, make sure you’re set to boot to the command prompt, not the desktop. Select number 3 “Enable Boot to Desktop/Scratch”  and make sure “Console Text console” is selected. Back at the Raspi-Config menu, select number 8 “Advanced Options’. There are two critical changes we need to make in here and one option change. First, the critical changes. Select A3 “Memory Split”: Change the amount of memory available to the GPU to 16MB (down from the default 64MB). Our Minecraft server is going to ruin in a GUI-less environment; there’s no reason to allocate any more than the bare minimum to the GPU. After selecting the GPU memory, you’ll be returned to the main menu. Select “Advanced Options” again and then select A4 “SSH”. Within the sub-menu, enable SSH. There is very little reason to keep this Pi connected to a monitor and keyboard, by enabling SSH we can remotely access the machine from anywhere on the network. Finally (and optionally) return again to the “Advanced Options” menu and select A2 “Hostname”. Here you can change your hostname from “raspberrypi” to a more fitting Minecraft name. We opted for the highly creative hostname “minecraft”, but feel free to spice it up a bit with whatever you feel like: creepertown, minecraft4life, or miner-box are all great minecraft server names. That’s it for the Raspbian configuration tab down to the bottom of the main screen and select “Finish” to reboot. After rebooting you can now SSH into your terminal, or continue working from the keyboard hooked up to your Pi (we strongly recommend switching over to SSH as it allows you to easily cut and paste the commands). If you’ve never used SSH before, check out how to use PuTTY with your Pi here. Installing Java on the Pi The Minecraft server runs on Java, so the first thing we need to do on our freshly configured Pi is install it. Log into your Pi via SSH and then, at the command prompt, enter the following command to make a directory for the installation: sudo mkdir /java/ Now we need to download the newest version of Java. At the time of this publication the newest release is the OCT 2013 update and the link/filename we use will reflect that. Please check for a more current version of the Linux ARMv6/7 Java release on the Java download page and update the link/filename accordingly when following our instructions. At the command prompt, enter the following command: sudo wget --no-check-certificate http://www.java.net/download/jdk8/archive/b111/binaries/jdk-8-ea-b111-linux-arm-vfp-hflt-09_oct_2013.tar.gz Once the download has finished successfully, enter the following command: sudo tar zxvf jdk-8-ea-b111-linux-arm-vfp-hflt-09_oct_2013.tar.gz -C /opt/ Fun fact: the /opt/ directory name scheme is a remnant of early Unix design wherein the /opt/ directory was for “optional” software installed after the main operating system; it was the /Program Files/ of the Unix world. After the file has finished extracting, enter: sudo /opt/jdk1.8.0/bin/java -version This command will return the version number of your new Java installation like so: java version "1.8.0-ea" Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0-ea-b111) Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM (build 25.0-b53, mixed mode) If you don’t see the above printout (or a variation thereof if you’re using a newer version of Java), try to extract the archive again. If you do see the readout, enter the following command to tidy up after yourself: sudo rm jdk-8-ea-b111-linux-arm-vfp-hflt-09_oct_2013.tar.gz At this point Java is installed and we’re ready to move onto installing our Minecraft server! Installing and Configuring the Minecraft Server Now that we have a foundation for our Minecraft server, it’s time to install the part that matter. We’ll be using SpigotMC a lightweight and stable Minecraft server build that works wonderfully on the Pi. First, grab a copy of the the code with the following command: sudo wget http://ci.md-5.net/job/Spigot/lastSuccessfulBuild/artifact/Spigot-Server/target/spigot.jar This link should remain stable over time, as it points directly to the most current stable release of Spigot, but if you have any issues you can always reference the SpigotMC download page here. After the download finishes successfully, enter the following command: sudo /opt/jdk1.8.0/bin/java -Xms256M -Xmx496M -jar /home/pi/spigot.jar nogui Note: if you’re running the command on a 256MB Pi change the 256 and 496 in the above command to 128 and 256, respectively. Your server will launch and a flurry of on-screen activity will follow. Be prepared to wait around 3-6 minutes or so for the process of setting up the server and generating the map to finish. Future startups will take much less time, around 20-30 seconds. Note: If at any point during the configuration or play process things get really weird (e.g. your new Minecraft server freaks out and starts spawning you in the Nether and killing you instantly), use the “stop” command at the command prompt to gracefully shutdown the server and let you restart and troubleshoot it. After the process has finished, head over to the computer you normally play Minecraft on, fire it up, and click on Multiplayer. You should see your server: If your world doesn’t popup immediately during the network scan, hit the Add button and manually enter the address of your Pi. Once you connect to the server, you’ll see the status change in the server status window: According to the server, we’re in game. According to the actual Minecraft app, we’re also in game but it’s the middle of the night in survival mode: Boo! Spawning in the dead of night, weaponless and without shelter is no way to start things. No worries though, we need to do some more configuration; no time to sit around and get shot at by skeletons. Besides, if you try and play it without some configuration tweaks first, you’ll likely find it quite unstable. We’re just here to confirm the server is up, running, and accepting incoming connections. Once we’ve confirmed the server is running and connectable (albeit not very playable yet), it’s time to shut down the server. Via the server console, enter the command “stop” to shut everything down. When you’re returned to the command prompt, enter the following command: sudo nano server.properties When the configuration file opens up, make the following changes (or just cut and paste our config file minus the first two lines with the name and date stamp): #Minecraft server properties #Thu Oct 17 22:53:51 UTC 2013 generator-settings= #Default is true, toggle to false allow-nether=false level-name=world enable-query=false allow-flight=false server-port=25565 level-type=DEFAULT enable-rcon=false force-gamemode=false level-seed= server-ip= max-build-height=256 spawn-npcs=true white-list=false spawn-animals=true texture-pack= snooper-enabled=true hardcore=false online-mode=true pvp=true difficulty=1 player-idle-timeout=0 gamemode=0 #Default 20; you only need to lower this if you're running #a public server and worried about loads. max-players=20 spawn-monsters=true #Default is 10, 3-5 ideal for Pi view-distance=5 generate-structures=true spawn-protection=16 motd=A Minecraft Server In the server status window, seen through your SSH connection to the pi, enter the following command to give yourself operator status on your Minecraft server (so that you can use more powerful commands in game, without always returning to the server status window). op [your minecraft nickname] At this point things are looking better but we still have a little tweaking to do before the server is really enjoyable. To that end, let’s install some plugins. The first plugin, and the one you should install above all others, is NoSpawnChunks. To install the plugin, first visit the NoSpawnChunks webpage and grab the download link for the most current version. As of this writing the current release is v0.3. Back at the command prompt (the command prompt of your Pi, not the server console–if your server is still active shut it down) enter the following commands: cd /home/pi/plugins sudo wget http://dev.bukkit.org/media/files/586/974/NoSpawnChunks.jar Next, visit the ClearLag plugin page, and grab the latest link (as of this tutorial, it’s v2.6.0). Enter the following at the command prompt: sudo wget http://dev.bukkit.org/media/files/743/213/Clearlag.jar Because the files aren’t compressed in a .ZIP or similar container, that’s all there is to it: the plugins are parked in the plugin directory. (Remember this for future plugin downloads, the file needs to be whateverplugin.jar, so if it’s compressed you need to uncompress it in the plugin directory.) Resart the server: sudo /opt/jdk1.8.0/bin/java -Xms256M -Xmx496M -jar /home/pi/spigot.jar nogui Be prepared for a slightly longer startup time (closer to the 3-6 minutes and much longer than the 30 seconds you just experienced) as the plugins affect the world map and need a minute to massage everything. After the spawn process finishes, type the following at the server console: plugins This lists all the plugins currently active on the server. You should see something like this: If the plugins aren’t loaded, you may need to stop and restart the server. After confirming your plugins are loaded, go ahead and join the game. You should notice significantly snappier play. In addition, you’ll get occasional messages from the plugins indicating they are active, as seen below: At this point Java is installed, the server is installed, and we’ve tweaked our settings for for the Pi.  It’s time to start building with friends!     

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  • No sound after video card replaced (AMD Radeon HD 7770)

    - by Sean
    Issue: no sound System: Dual boot Windows 7 (sda) Ubuntu 12.04 (sdb) 2 harddrives Dell XPS 730 Video card: AMD Radeo HD 7770 Diamond Multimedia Sound card: Creative Labs SB X-Fi Additional info: My sound used to work. Then, my old video card (NVIDIA geforce 280) died. I bought and installed a new video card: Radeon HD 7770. After this, my sound no longer worked in ubuntu (Win7 audio still works). Everything else in ubuntu, such as video, works fine. I suspect it has something to do with the fact that the Radeon card includes sound capability. Problem Details: If I click on System Settings - Sound, the panel freezes and stops responding indefinitely. The sound volume icon at the top of the screen (by the clock) shows 3 dashes beside it "---", and an empty drop-down box shows if I click on it. (Possibly related to 1.) When I reboot my machine, I get the message: "gnome settings daemon not responding". I have to force the reboot. I reinstalled ubunbu (perserving my home directory) and the problem persists. Diagnostics info: Following procedure outlined here: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SoundTroubleshooting The following is a list of terminal commands, and their output: $ aplay -l List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices There is no listing beyond that, and the command freezes until I hit control-c $ lspci -v | grep -A7 -i "audio" 00:0f.1 Audio device: NVIDIA Corporation MCP55 High Definition Audio (rev a2) Subsystem: Dell Device 0224 Flags: bus master, 66MHz, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 23 Memory at dfff0000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K] Capabilities: <access denied> Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel Kernel modules: snd-hda-intel -- 01:00.1 Audio device: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI Device aab0 Subsystem: Diamond Multimedia Systems Device aab0 Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 43 Memory at dfefc000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K] Capabilities: <access denied> Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel Kernel modules: snd-hda-intel -- 03:0a.0 Audio device: Creative Labs SB X-Fi Subsystem: Creative Labs Device 6002 Flags: bus master, medium devsel, latency 32, IRQ 18 Memory at dbff4000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K] Memory at dbc00000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=2M] Memory at d4000000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=64M] I/O ports at 8c00 [size=32] Capabilities: <access denied> Notice the Diamond Multimedia Systems Device - that seems to be my video card sound. My video card is Diamond multimedia. Also there's the weird NVIDIA device in there. That must either be a remnant of my now removed NVIDIA graphics card, or else some kind of on-board thing. Not sure which. $ killall pulseaudio This allows me to open system settings - sound. But the "Test Sound" button makes no sound And the output volume + mute controls are greyed / disabled at 0 volume. It also allows me to click on the sound control in the "task bar" (beside the clock), and a volume slider drops down, but it is disabled / greyed at 0 volume. $ find /lib/modules/uname -r | grep snd /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-88pm860x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-tlv320aic3x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8900.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8978.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-tlv320dac33.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm9090.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-sta32x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-max98088.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-max9850.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-rt5631.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8903.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8580.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8523.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-max9877.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ads117x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8955.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8804.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-sgtl5000.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8750.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm2000.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-tlv320aic32x4.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ak4642.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ad193x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8753.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ak4535.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8985.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8350.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-dfbmcs320.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-cs42l51.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-tlv320aic26.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8737.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-uda1380.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8776.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8995.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-tpa6130a2.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8727.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm5100.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8991.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8510.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-jz4740-codec.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8400.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-lm4857.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8960.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-alc5623.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-cs4270.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-tlv320aic23.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8993.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8961.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8940.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-uda134x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ad1836.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8994.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8782.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-cs4271.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8974.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8983.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8962.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ak4641.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm-hubs.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8971.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8996.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wl1273.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-adav80x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-spdif.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-pcm3008.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-cx20442.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ak4671.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8711.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ad73311.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-max98095.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm9081.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8741.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm1250-ev1.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8988.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-adau1373.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8731.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-l3.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ssm2602.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-da7210.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-ak4104.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8904.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8728.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8770.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/codecs/snd-soc-wm8990.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/soc/snd-soc-core.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/synth/emux/snd-emux-synth.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/synth/snd-util-mem.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/snd-hrtimer.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/snd-hwdep.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/snd-pcm.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/snd-rawmidi.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/oss/snd-mixer-oss.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/snd-page-alloc.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-midi.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-dummy.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-virmidi.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-device.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-midi-event.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-midi-emul.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/snd.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/core/snd-timer.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pcmcia/pdaudiocf/snd-pdaudiocf.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pcmcia/vx/snd-vxpocket.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/usb/6fire/snd-usb-6fire.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/usb/snd-usbmidi-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/usb/caiaq/snd-usb-caiaq.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/usb/usx2y/snd-usb-usx2y.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/usb/usx2y/snd-usb-us122l.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/usb/snd-usb-audio.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/usb/misc/snd-ua101.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/opl3/snd-opl3-synth.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/opl3/snd-opl3-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/opl4/snd-opl4-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/opl4/snd-opl4-synth.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/snd-portman2x4.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/snd-serial-u16550.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/snd-mts64.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/snd-mtpav.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/mpu401/snd-mpu401.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/mpu401/snd-mpu401-uart.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/vx/snd-vx-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/snd-dummy.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/snd-aloop.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/pcsp/snd-pcsp.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/drivers/snd-virmidi.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/firewire/snd-firewire-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/firewire/snd-firewire-speakers.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/firewire/snd-isight.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/snd-tea6330t.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/other/snd-tea575x-tuner.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/other/snd-ak4113.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/other/snd-pt2258.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/other/snd-ak4117.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/other/snd-ak4xxx-adda.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/other/snd-ak4114.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/snd-cs8427.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/i2c/snd-i2c.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/emu10k1/snd-emu10k1-synth.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/emu10k1/snd-emu10k1.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/emu10k1/snd-emu10k1x.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/korg1212/snd-korg1212.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/au88x0/snd-au8830.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/au88x0/snd-au8820.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/au88x0/snd-au8810.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/aw2/snd-aw2.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-sis7019.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-ens1371.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/vx222/snd-vx222.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-via82xx.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-es1968.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-atiixp-modem.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-cs4281.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-sonicvibes.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-intel8x0.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-maestro3.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ac97/snd-ac97-codec.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-es1938.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-fm801.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/nm256/snd-nm256.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-realtek.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-cmedia.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-conexant.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-intel.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-analog.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-hdmi.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-idt.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-ca0110.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-cirrus.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-via.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-ca0132.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-si3054.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/riptide/snd-riptide.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-ens1370.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-als4000.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-intel8x0m.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ca0106/snd-ca0106.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-cs5530.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/cs5535audio/snd-cs5535audio.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-rme32.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ymfpci/snd-ymfpci.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ctxfi/snd-ctxfi.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/snd-azt3328.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/cs46xx/snd-cs46xx.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/lx6464es/snd-lx6464es.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ice1712/snd-ice1712.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ice1712/snd-ice17xx-ak4xxx.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ice1712/snd-ice1724.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/mixart/snd-mixart.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/ali5451/snd-ali5451.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/lola/snd-lola.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/oxygen/snd-oxygen-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/pci/oxygen/snd-oxygen.ko 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/lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/msnd/snd-msnd-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/cs423x/snd-cs4231.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/cs423x/snd-cs4236.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/es1688/snd-es1688-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/es1688/snd-es1688.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/snd-adlib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/ad1848/snd-ad1848.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/ad1816a/snd-ad1816a.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/galaxy/snd-azt1605.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/galaxy/snd-azt2316.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/wavefront/snd-wavefront.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/wss/snd-wss-lib.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/snd-sc6000.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/snd-sscape.ko /lib/modules/3.2.0-29-generic-pae/kernel/sound/isa/snd-opl3sa2.ko

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