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  • Customize the SimpleMembership in ASP.NET MVC 4.0

    - by thangchung
    As we know, .NET 4.5 have come up to us, and come along with a lot of new interesting features as well. Visual Studio 2012 was also introduced some days ago. They made us feel very happy with cool improvement along with us. Performance when loading code editor is very good at the moment (immediate after click on the solution). I explore some of cool features at these days. Some of them like Json.NET integrated in ASP.NET MVC 4.0, improvement on asynchronous action, new lightweight theme on Visual Studio, supporting very good on mobile development, improvement on authentication… I reviewed them, and found out that in this version of .NET Microsoft was not only developed new feature that suggest from community but also focused on improvement performance of existing features or components. Besides that, they also opened source more projects, like Entity Framework, Reactive Extensions, ASP.NET Web Stack… At the moment, I feel Microsoft want to open source more and more their projects. Today, I am going to dive in deep on new SimpleMembership model. It is really good because in this security model, Microsoft actually focus on development needs. As we know, in the past, they introduce some of provider supplied for coding security like MembershipProvider, RoleProvider… I don’t need to talk but everyone that have ever used it know that they were actually hard to use, and not easy to maintain and unit testing. Why? Because every time you inherit it, you need to override all methods inside it. Some people try to abstract it by introduce more method with virtual keyword, and try to implement basic behavior, so in the subclass we only need to override the method that need for their business. But to me, it’s only the way to work around. ASP.NET team and Web Matrix knew about it, so they built the new features based on existing components on .NET framework. And one of component that comes to us is SimpleMembership and SimpleRole. They implemented the Façade pattern on the top of those, and called it is WebSecurity. In the web, we can call WebSecurity anywhere we want, and make a call to inside wrapper of it. I read a lot of them on web blog, on technical news, on MSDN as well. Matthew Osborn had an excellent article about it at his blog. Jon Galloway had an article like this at here. He analyzed why old membership provider not fixed well to ASP.NET MVC and how to get over it. Those are very good to me. It introduced to me about how to doing SimpleMembership on it, how to doing it on new ASP.NET MVC web application. But one thing, those didn’t tell me was how to doing it on existing security model (that mean we already had Users and Roles on legacy system, and how we can integrate it to this system), that’s a reason I will introduce it today. I have spent couples of hours to see what’s inside this, and try to make one example to clarify my concern. And it’s lucky that I can make it working well.The first thing, we need to create new ASP.NET MVC application on Visual Studio 2012. We need to choose Internet type for this web application. ASP.NET MVC actually creates all needs components for the basic membership and basic role. The cool feature is DoNetOpenAuth come along with it that means we can log-in using facebook, twitter or Windows Live if you want. But it’s only for LocalDb, so we need to change it to fix with existing database model on SQL Server. The next step we have to make SimpleMembership can understand which database we use and show it which column need to point to for the ID and UserName. I really like this feature because SimpleMembership on need to know about the ID and UserName, and they don’t care about rest of it. I assume that we have an existing database model like So we will point it in code like The codes for it, we put on InitializeSimpleMembershipAttribute like [AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class | AttributeTargets.Method, AllowMultiple = false, Inherited = true)]     public sealed class InitializeSimpleMembershipAttribute : ActionFilterAttribute     {         private static SimpleMembershipInitializer _initializer;         private static object _initializerLock = new object();         private static bool _isInitialized;         public override void OnActionExecuting(ActionExecutingContext filterContext)         {             // Ensure ASP.NET Simple Membership is initialized only once per app start             LazyInitializer.EnsureInitialized(ref _initializer, ref _isInitialized, ref _initializerLock);         }         private class SimpleMembershipInitializer         {             public SimpleMembershipInitializer()             {                 try                 {                     WebSecurity.InitializeDatabaseConnection("DefaultDb", "User", "Id", "UserName", autoCreateTables: true);                 }                 catch (Exception ex)                 {                     throw new InvalidOperationException("The ASP.NET Simple Membership database could not be initialized. For more information, please see http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=256588", ex);                 }             }         }     }And decorating it in the AccountController as below [Authorize]     [InitializeSimpleMembership]     public class AccountController : ControllerIn this case, assuming that we need to override the ValidateUser to point this to existing User database table, and validate it. We have to add one more class like public class CustomAdminMembershipProvider : SimpleMembershipProvider     {         // TODO: will do a better way         private const string SELECT_ALL_USER_SCRIPT = "select * from [dbo].[User]private where UserName = '{0}'";         private readonly IEncrypting _encryptor;         private readonly SimpleSecurityContext _simpleSecurityContext;         public CustomAdminMembershipProvider(SimpleSecurityContext simpleSecurityContext)             : this(new Encryptor(), new SimpleSecurityContext("DefaultDb"))         {         }         public CustomAdminMembershipProvider(IEncrypting encryptor, SimpleSecurityContext simpleSecurityContext)         {             _encryptor = encryptor;             _simpleSecurityContext = simpleSecurityContext;         }         public override bool ValidateUser(string username, string password)         {             if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(username))             {                 throw new ArgumentException("Argument cannot be null or empty", "username");             }             if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(password))             {                 throw new ArgumentException("Argument cannot be null or empty", "password");             }             var hash = _encryptor.Encode(password);             using (_simpleSecurityContext)             {                 var users =                     _simpleSecurityContext.Users.SqlQuery(                         string.Format(SELECT_ALL_USER_SCRIPT, username));                 if (users == null && !users.Any())                 {                     return false;                 }                 return users.FirstOrDefault().Password == hash;             }         }     }SimpleSecurityDataContext at here public class SimpleSecurityContext : DbContext     {         public DbSet<User> Users { get; set; }         public SimpleSecurityContext(string connStringName) :             base(connStringName)         {             this.Configuration.LazyLoadingEnabled = true;             this.Configuration.ProxyCreationEnabled = false;         }         protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)         {             base.OnModelCreating(modelBuilder);                          modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new UserMapping());         }     }And Mapping for User as below public class UserMapping : EntityMappingBase<User>     {         public UserMapping()         {             this.Property(x => x.UserName);             this.Property(x => x.DisplayName);             this.Property(x => x.Password);             this.Property(x => x.Email);             this.ToTable("User");         }     }One important thing, you need to modify the web.config to point to our customize SimpleMembership <membership defaultProvider="AdminMemberProvider" userIsOnlineTimeWindow="15">       <providers>         <clear/>         <add name="AdminMemberProvider" type="CIK.News.Web.Infras.Security.CustomAdminMembershipProvider, CIK.News.Web.Infras" />       </providers>     </membership>     <roleManager enabled="false">       <providers>         <clear />         <add name="AdminRoleProvider" type="CIK.News.Web.Infras.Security.AdminRoleProvider, CIK.News.Web.Infras" />       </providers>     </roleManager>The good thing at here is we don’t need to modify the code on AccountController. We only need to modify on SimpleMembership and Simple Role (if need). Now build all solutions, run it. We should see a screen like thisIf I login to Twitter button at the bottom of this page, we will be transfer to twitter authentication pageYou have to waiting for a moment Afterwards it will transfer you back to your admin screenYou can find all source codes at my MSDN code. I will really happy if you guys feel free to put some comments as below. It will be helpful to improvement my code in the future. Thank for all your readings. 

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  • Generating Report for NUnit

    - by thangchung
     All source codes for this post can be found at my github.Time ago, I received a request that people ask me how they can generate reports of the results of testing using NUnit? In fact, I may never do this. In the little world of my programming, I only care about the test results, red-green-refactoring, and that was it. When I got that question quite a bit unexpected, I knew that I could use NCover to generate reports, but reports of NCover too simple, it did not give us more details on the number of test cases, test methods, ... And I began to see about creating interesting report for NUnit.I was lucky to find an open source here. Its authors call it NUnit2Report, but one disadvantage is it only running on .NET 1.0. Indeed too old compared to the current version 4.0. And I try to download the preview, but I could not run. I had to open its source code and found that it uses XSLT to convert the output of NUnit results from XML to HTML. Nothing really special, because I also knew that after NUnit run output file extension is XML is created. Author only use this file to convert to HTML using XSLT. And I decided to convert it to. NET 4.0, because I will not have to code from scratch. Conversion work made me take some time, but was lucky that I finally have what I want. Thanks Gilles for the this OSS. I will send a mail to thank him for his efforts but put this out for the OSS. Now I will show people how to do it. I used the auto built NAnt and NUnit for running TestCase, and I use Selenium testing framework. After writing three TestCase using Selenium, I ran NUnit, and got the following results: There are 1 fail and 2s success. In the bin directory of this project will have the NUnit output file as shown below: Then I create a build file, and a bat file for easy running (can use PowerShell is here also.) Double click in the bat file to create a report like this:       Finally open the index.html file in the folder to view report. As everyone can see, it is the TestCase and divide very clearly, that I meet the requirements. This is really good. Once again I really thank NUnit2Report from Gilles. People can contact him via the mail address [email protected] or website  http://nunit2report.sourceforge.net. It really is useful to those who promised to QA. Hopefully this post will help anyone really interested in doing reports for NUnit.   

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  • Skinny controller in ASP.NET MVC 4

    - by thangchung
    Rails community are always inspire a lot of best ideas. I really love this community by the time. One of these is "Fat models and skinny controllers". I have spent a lot of time on ASP.NET MVC, and really I did some miss-takes, because I made the controller so fat. That make controller is really dirty and very hard to maintain in the future. It is violate seriously SRP principle and KISS as well. But how can we achieve that in ASP.NET MVC? That question is really clear after I read "Manning ASP.NET MVC 4 in Action". It is simple that we can separate it into ActionResult, and try to implementing logic and persistence data inside this. In last 2 years, I have read this from Jimmy Bogard blog, but in that time I never had a consideration about it. That's enough for talking now. I just published a sample on ASP.NET MVC 4, implemented on Visual Studio 2012 RC at here. I used EF framework at here for implementing persistence layer, and also use 2 free templates from internet to make the UI for this sample. In this sample, I try to implementing the simple magazine website that managing all articles, categories and news. It is not finished at all in this time, but no problems, because I just show you about how can we make the controller skinny. And I wanna hear more about your ideas. The first thing, I am abstract the base ActionResult class like this:    public abstract class MyActionResult : ActionResult, IEnsureNotNull     {         public abstract void EnsureAllInjectInstanceNotNull();     }     public abstract class ActionResultBase<TController> : MyActionResult where TController : Controller     {         protected readonly Expression<Func<TController, ActionResult>> ViewNameExpression;         protected readonly IExConfigurationManager ConfigurationManager;         protected ActionResultBase (Expression<Func<TController, ActionResult>> expr)             : this(DependencyResolver.Current.GetService<IExConfigurationManager>(), expr)         {         }         protected ActionResultBase(             IExConfigurationManager configurationManager,             Expression<Func<TController, ActionResult>> expr)         {             Guard.ArgumentNotNull(expr, "ViewNameExpression");             Guard.ArgumentNotNull(configurationManager, "ConfigurationManager");             ViewNameExpression = expr;             ConfigurationManager = configurationManager;         }         protected ViewResult GetViewResult<TViewModel>(TViewModel viewModel)         {             var m = (MethodCallExpression)ViewNameExpression.Body;             if (m.Method.ReturnType != typeof(ActionResult))             {                 throw new ArgumentException("ControllerAction method '" + m.Method.Name + "' does not return type ActionResult");             }             var result = new ViewResult             {                 ViewName = m.Method.Name             };             result.ViewData.Model = viewModel;             return result;         }         public override void ExecuteResult(ControllerContext context)         {             EnsureAllInjectInstanceNotNull();         }     } I also have an interface for validation all inject objects. This interface make sure all inject objects that I inject using Autofac container are not null. The implementation of this as below public interface IEnsureNotNull     {         void EnsureAllInjectInstanceNotNull();     } Afterwards, I am just simple implementing the HomePageViewModelActionResult class like this public class HomePageViewModelActionResult<TController> : ActionResultBase<TController> where TController : Controller     {         #region variables & ctors         private readonly ICategoryRepository _categoryRepository;         private readonly IItemRepository _itemRepository;         private readonly int _numOfPage;         public HomePageViewModelActionResult(Expression<Func<TController, ActionResult>> viewNameExpression)             : this(viewNameExpression,                    DependencyResolver.Current.GetService<ICategoryRepository>(),                    DependencyResolver.Current.GetService<IItemRepository>())         {         }         public HomePageViewModelActionResult(             Expression<Func<TController, ActionResult>> viewNameExpression,             ICategoryRepository categoryRepository,             IItemRepository itemRepository)             : base(viewNameExpression)         {             _categoryRepository = categoryRepository;             _itemRepository = itemRepository;             _numOfPage = ConfigurationManager.GetAppConfigBy("NumOfPage").ToInteger();         }         #endregion         #region implementation         public override void ExecuteResult(ControllerContext context)         {             base.ExecuteResult(context);             var cats = _categoryRepository.GetCategories();             var mainViewModel = new HomePageViewModel();             var headerViewModel = new HeaderViewModel();             var footerViewModel = new FooterViewModel();             var mainPageViewModel = new MainPageViewModel();             headerViewModel.SiteTitle = "Magazine Website";             if (cats != null && cats.Any())             {                 headerViewModel.Categories = cats.ToList();                 footerViewModel.Categories = cats.ToList();             }             mainPageViewModel.LeftColumn = BindingDataForMainPageLeftColumnViewModel();             mainPageViewModel.RightColumn = BindingDataForMainPageRightColumnViewModel();             mainViewModel.Header = headerViewModel;             mainViewModel.DashBoard = new DashboardViewModel();             mainViewModel.Footer = footerViewModel;             mainViewModel.MainPage = mainPageViewModel;             GetViewResult(mainViewModel).ExecuteResult(context);         }         public override void EnsureAllInjectInstanceNotNull()         {             Guard.ArgumentNotNull(_categoryRepository, "CategoryRepository");             Guard.ArgumentNotNull(_itemRepository, "ItemRepository");             Guard.ArgumentMustMoreThanZero(_numOfPage, "NumOfPage");         }         #endregion         #region private functions         private MainPageRightColumnViewModel BindingDataForMainPageRightColumnViewModel()         {             var mainPageRightCol = new MainPageRightColumnViewModel();             mainPageRightCol.LatestNews = _itemRepository.GetNewestItem(_numOfPage).ToList();             mainPageRightCol.MostViews = _itemRepository.GetMostViews(_numOfPage).ToList();             return mainPageRightCol;         }         private MainPageLeftColumnViewModel BindingDataForMainPageLeftColumnViewModel()         {             var mainPageLeftCol = new MainPageLeftColumnViewModel();             var items = _itemRepository.GetNewestItem(_numOfPage);             if (items != null && items.Any())             {                 var firstItem = items.First();                 if (firstItem == null)                     throw new NoNullAllowedException("First Item".ToNotNullErrorMessage());                 if (firstItem.ItemContent == null)                     throw new NoNullAllowedException("First ItemContent".ToNotNullErrorMessage());                 mainPageLeftCol.FirstItem = firstItem;                 if (items.Count() > 1)                 {                     mainPageLeftCol.RemainItems = items.Where(x => x.ItemContent != null && x.Id != mainPageLeftCol.FirstItem.Id).ToList();                 }             }             return mainPageLeftCol;         }         #endregion     }  Final step, I get into HomeController and add some line of codes like this [Authorize]     public class HomeController : BaseController     {         [AllowAnonymous]         public ActionResult Index()         {             return new HomePageViewModelActionResult<HomeController>(x=>x.Index());         }         [AllowAnonymous]         public ActionResult Details(int id)         {             return new DetailsViewModelActionResult<HomeController>(x => x.Details(id), id);         }         [AllowAnonymous]         public ActionResult Category(int id)         {             return new CategoryViewModelActionResult<HomeController>(x => x.Category(id), id);         }     } As you see, the code in controller is really skinny, and all the logic I move to the custom ActionResult class. Some people said, it just move the code out of controller and put it to another class, so it is still hard to maintain. Look like it just move the complicate codes from one place to another place. But if you have a look and think it in details, you have to find out if you have code for processing all logic that related to HttpContext or something like this. You can do it on Controller, and try to delegating another logic  (such as processing business requirement, persistence data,...) to custom ActionResult class. Tell me more your thinking, I am really willing to hear all of its from you guys. All source codes can be find out at here. Tweet !function(d,s,id){var js,fjs=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src="http://weblogs.asp.net//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);}}(document,"script","twitter-wjs");

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  • A first look at ConfORM - Part 1

    - by thangchung
    All source codes for this post can be found at here.Have you ever heard of ConfORM is not? I have read it three months ago when I wrote an post about NHibernate and Autofac. At that time, this project really has just started and still in beta version, so I still do not really care much. But recently when reading a book by Jason Dentler NHibernate 3.0 Cookbook, I started to pay attention to it. Author have mentioned quite a lot of OSS in his book. And now again I have reviewed ConfORM once again. I have been involved in ConfORM development group on google and read some articles about it. Fabio Maulo spent a lot of work for the OSS, and I hope it will adapt a great way for NHibernate (because he contributed to NHibernate that). So what is ConfORM? It is stand for Configuration ORM, and it was trying to use a lot of heuristic model for identifying entities from C# code. Today, it's mostly Model First Driven development, so the first thing is to build the entity model. This is really important and we can see it is the heart of business software. Then we have to tell DB about the entity of this model. We often will use Inversion Engineering here, Database Schema is will create based on recently Entity Model. From now we will absolutely not interested in the DB again, only focus on the Entity Model.Fluent NHibenate really good, I liked this OSS. Sharp Architecture and has done so well in Fluent NHibernate integration with applications. A Multiple Database technical in Sharp Architecture is truly awesome. It can receive configuration, a connection string and a dll containing entity model, which would then create a SessionFactory, finally caching inside the computer memory. As the number of SessionFactory can be very large and will full of the memory, it has also devised a way of caching SessionFactory in the file. This post I hope this will not completely explain about and building a model of multiple databases. I just tried to mount a number of posts from the community and apply some of my knowledge to build a management model Session for ConfORM.As well as Fluent NHibernate, ConfORM also supported on the interface mapping, see this to understand it. So the first thing we will build the Entity Model for it, and here is what I will use the model for this article. A simple model for managing news and polls, it will be too easy for a number of people, but I hope not to bring complexity to this post.I will then have some code to build super type for the Entity Model. public interface IEntity<TId>    {        TId Id { get; set; }    } public abstract class EntityBase<TId> : IEntity<TId>    {        public virtual TId Id { get; set; }         public override bool Equals(object obj)        {            return Equals(obj as EntityBase<TId>);        }         private static bool IsTransient(EntityBase<TId> obj)        {            return obj != null &&            Equals(obj.Id, default(TId));        }         private Type GetUnproxiedType()        {            return GetType();        }         public virtual bool Equals(EntityBase<TId> other)        {            if (other == null)                return false;            if (ReferenceEquals(this, other))                return true;            if (!IsTransient(this) &&            !IsTransient(other) &&            Equals(Id, other.Id))            {                var otherType = other.GetUnproxiedType();                var thisType = GetUnproxiedType();                return thisType.IsAssignableFrom(otherType) ||                otherType.IsAssignableFrom(thisType);            }            return false;        }         public override int GetHashCode()        {            if (Equals(Id, default(TId)))                return base.GetHashCode();            return Id.GetHashCode();        }    } Database schema will be created as:The next step is to build the ConORM builder to create a NHibernate Configuration. Patrick have a excellent article about it at here. Contract of it below: public interface IConfigBuilder    {        Configuration BuildConfiguration(string connectionString, string sessionFactoryName);    } The idea here is that I will pass in a connection string and a set of the DLL containing the Entity Model and it makes me a NHibernate Configuration (shame that I stole this ideas of Sharp Architecture). And here is its code: public abstract class ConfORMConfigBuilder : RootObject, IConfigBuilder    {        private static IConfigurator _configurator;         protected IEnumerable<Type> DomainTypes;         private readonly IEnumerable<string> _assemblies;         protected ConfORMConfigBuilder(IEnumerable<string> assemblies)            : this(new Configurator(), assemblies)        {            _assemblies = assemblies;        }         protected ConfORMConfigBuilder(IConfigurator configurator, IEnumerable<string> assemblies)        {            _configurator = configurator;            _assemblies = assemblies;        }         public abstract void GetDatabaseIntegration(IDbIntegrationConfigurationProperties dBIntegration, string connectionString);         protected abstract HbmMapping GetMapping();         public Configuration BuildConfiguration(string connectionString, string sessionFactoryName)        {            Contract.Requires(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(connectionString), "ConnectionString is null or empty");            Contract.Requires(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(sessionFactoryName), "SessionFactory name is null or empty");            Contract.Requires(_configurator != null, "Configurator is null");             return CatchExceptionHelper.TryCatchFunction(                () =>                {                    DomainTypes = GetTypeOfEntities(_assemblies);                     if (DomainTypes == null)                        throw new Exception("Type of domains is null");                     var configure = new Configuration();                    configure.SessionFactoryName(sessionFactoryName);                     configure.Proxy(p => p.ProxyFactoryFactory<ProxyFactoryFactory>());                    configure.DataBaseIntegration(db => GetDatabaseIntegration(db, connectionString));                     if (_configurator.GetAppSettingString("IsCreateNewDatabase").ConvertToBoolean())                    {                        configure.SetProperty("hbm2ddl.auto", "create-drop");                    }                     configure.Properties.Add("default_schema", _configurator.GetAppSettingString("DefaultSchema"));                    configure.AddDeserializedMapping(GetMapping(),                                                     _configurator.GetAppSettingString("DocumentFileName"));                     SchemaMetadataUpdater.QuoteTableAndColumns(configure);                     return configure;                }, Logger);        }         protected IEnumerable<Type> GetTypeOfEntities(IEnumerable<string> assemblies)        {            var type = typeof(EntityBase<Guid>);            var domainTypes = new List<Type>();             foreach (var assembly in assemblies)            {                var realAssembly = Assembly.LoadFrom(assembly);                 if (realAssembly == null)                    throw new NullReferenceException();                 domainTypes.AddRange(realAssembly.GetTypes().Where(                    t =>                    {                        if (t.BaseType != null)                            return string.Compare(t.BaseType.FullName,                                          type.FullName) == 0;                        return false;                    }));            }             return domainTypes;        }    } I do not want to dependency on any RDBMS, so I made a builder as an abstract class, and so I will create a concrete instance for SQL Server 2008 as follows: public class SqlServerConfORMConfigBuilder : ConfORMConfigBuilder    {        public SqlServerConfORMConfigBuilder(IEnumerable<string> assemblies)            : base(assemblies)        {        }         public override void GetDatabaseIntegration(IDbIntegrationConfigurationProperties dBIntegration, string connectionString)        {            dBIntegration.Dialect<MsSql2008Dialect>();            dBIntegration.Driver<SqlClientDriver>();            dBIntegration.KeywordsAutoImport = Hbm2DDLKeyWords.AutoQuote;            dBIntegration.IsolationLevel = IsolationLevel.ReadCommitted;            dBIntegration.ConnectionString = connectionString;            dBIntegration.LogSqlInConsole = true;            dBIntegration.Timeout = 10;            dBIntegration.LogFormatedSql = true;            dBIntegration.HqlToSqlSubstitutions = "true 1, false 0, yes 'Y', no 'N'";        }         protected override HbmMapping GetMapping()        {            var orm = new ObjectRelationalMapper();             orm.Patterns.PoidStrategies.Add(new GuidPoidPattern());             var patternsAppliers = new CoolPatternsAppliersHolder(orm);            //patternsAppliers.Merge(new DatePropertyByNameApplier()).Merge(new MsSQL2008DateTimeApplier());            patternsAppliers.Merge(new ManyToOneColumnNamingApplier());            patternsAppliers.Merge(new OneToManyKeyColumnNamingApplier(orm));             var mapper = new Mapper(orm, patternsAppliers);             var entities = new List<Type>();             DomainDefinition(orm);            Customize(mapper);             entities.AddRange(DomainTypes);             return mapper.CompileMappingFor(entities);        }         private void DomainDefinition(IObjectRelationalMapper orm)        {            orm.TablePerClassHierarchy(new[] { typeof(EntityBase<Guid>) });            orm.TablePerClass(DomainTypes);             orm.OneToOne<News, Poll>();            orm.ManyToOne<Category, News>();             orm.Cascade<Category, News>(Cascade.All);            orm.Cascade<News, Poll>(Cascade.All);            orm.Cascade<User, Poll>(Cascade.All);        }         private static void Customize(Mapper mapper)        {            CustomizeRelations(mapper);            CustomizeTables(mapper);            CustomizeColumns(mapper);        }         private static void CustomizeRelations(Mapper mapper)        {        }         private static void CustomizeTables(Mapper mapper)        {        }         private static void CustomizeColumns(Mapper mapper)        {            mapper.Class<Category>(                cm =>                {                    cm.Property(x => x.Name, m => m.NotNullable(true));                    cm.Property(x => x.CreatedDate, m => m.NotNullable(true));                });             mapper.Class<News>(                cm =>                {                    cm.Property(x => x.Title, m => m.NotNullable(true));                    cm.Property(x => x.ShortDescription, m => m.NotNullable(true));                    cm.Property(x => x.Content, m => m.NotNullable(true));                });             mapper.Class<Poll>(                cm =>                {                    cm.Property(x => x.Value, m => m.NotNullable(true));                    cm.Property(x => x.VoteDate, m => m.NotNullable(true));                    cm.Property(x => x.WhoVote, m => m.NotNullable(true));                });             mapper.Class<User>(                cm =>                {                    cm.Property(x => x.UserName, m => m.NotNullable(true));                    cm.Property(x => x.Password, m => m.NotNullable(true));                });        }    } As you can see that we can do so many things in this class, such as custom entity relationships, custom binding on the columns, custom table name, ... Here I only made two so-Appliers for OneToMany and ManyToOne relationships, you can refer to it here public class ManyToOneColumnNamingApplier : IPatternApplier<PropertyPath, IManyToOneMapper>    {        #region IPatternApplier<PropertyPath,IManyToOneMapper> Members         public void Apply(PropertyPath subject, IManyToOneMapper applyTo)        {            applyTo.Column(subject.ToColumnName() + "Id");        }         #endregion         #region IPattern<PropertyPath> Members         public bool Match(PropertyPath subject)        {            return subject != null;        }         #endregion    } public class OneToManyKeyColumnNamingApplier : OneToManyPattern, IPatternApplier<PropertyPath, ICollectionPropertiesMapper>    {        public OneToManyKeyColumnNamingApplier(IDomainInspector domainInspector) : base(domainInspector) { }         #region Implementation of IPattern<PropertyPath>         public bool Match(PropertyPath subject)        {            return Match(subject.LocalMember);        }         #endregion Implementation of IPattern<PropertyPath>         #region Implementation of IPatternApplier<PropertyPath,ICollectionPropertiesMapper>         public void Apply(PropertyPath subject, ICollectionPropertiesMapper applyTo)        {            applyTo.Key(km => km.Column(GetKeyColumnName(subject)));        }         #endregion Implementation of IPatternApplier<PropertyPath,ICollectionPropertiesMapper>         protected virtual string GetKeyColumnName(PropertyPath subject)        {            Type propertyType = subject.LocalMember.GetPropertyOrFieldType();            Type childType = propertyType.DetermineCollectionElementType();            var entity = subject.GetContainerEntity(DomainInspector);            var parentPropertyInChild = childType.GetFirstPropertyOfType(entity);            var baseName = parentPropertyInChild == null ? subject.PreviousPath == null ? entity.Name : entity.Name + subject.PreviousPath : parentPropertyInChild.Name;            return GetKeyColumnName(baseName);        }         protected virtual string GetKeyColumnName(string baseName)        {            return string.Format("{0}Id", baseName);        }    } Everyone also can download the ConfORM source at google code and see example inside it. Next part I will write about multiple database factory. Hope you enjoy about it. happy coding and see you next part.

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