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  • Troubleshoot broken ZFS

    - by BBK
    I have one zpool called tank in RaidZ1 with 5x1TB SATA HDDs. I'm using Ubuntu Server 11.10 Oneric, kernel 3.0.0-15-server. Installed ZFS from ppa also I'm using zfs-auto-snapshot. The ZFS file system when zfs module loaded to the kernel hangs my computer. Before it I created few new file systems: zfs create -V 10G tank/iscsi1 zfs create -V 10G tank/iscsi2 zfs create -V 10G tank/iscsi3 I shared them through iSCSI by /dev/tank/iscsiX path. And my computer started to hanging sometimes when I used tank/iscsiX by iSCSI, do not know why exactly. I switched off iSCSI and started to remove this file systems: zfs destroy tank/iscsi3 I'm also using zfs-auto-snapshot so I had snapshots and without -r key my command not destroying the FS. So I issued next command: zfs destroy tank/iscsi3 -r The tank/iscsi3 FS was clean and contain nothing - it was destroyed without an issue. But tank/iscsi2 and tank/iscsi1 contained a lot of information. I tried zfs destroy tank/iscsi2 -r After some time my computer hang out. I rebooted computer. It didn't boot very fast, HDDs starts working like a crazy making a lot of noise, after 15 minutes HDDs stopped go crazy and OS booted at last. All seems to be ok - tank/iscsi2 was destroyed. After file systems at the tank was accessible, zpool status showed no corruption. I issued new command: zfs destroy tank/iscsi1 -r Situation was repeated - after some time my computer hang out. But this time ZFS seams not to healed itself. After computer switched on it started to work: loading scripts and kernel modules, after zfs starting to work it hanging my computer. I need to recover else ZFS file systems which lying in the same zpool. Few month ago I backup OS to flash drive. Booting from backed-up OS and import have the same results - OS starts hanging. How to recover my data at ZFS tank?

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  • Oracle Solaris 11 ZFS Lab for Openworld 2012

    - by user12626122
    Preface This is the content from the Oracle Openworld 2012 ZFS lab. It was well attended - the feedback was that it was a little short - thats probably because in writing it I bacame very time-concious after the ASM/ACFS on Solaris extravaganza I ran last year which was almost too long for mortal man to finish in the 1 hour session. Enjoy. Table of Contents Exercise Z.1: ZFS Pools Exercise Z.2: ZFS File Systems Exercise Z.3: ZFS Compression Exercise Z.4: ZFS Deduplication Exercise Z.5: ZFS Encryption Exercise Z.6: Solaris 11 Shadow Migration Introduction This set of exercises is designed to briefly demonstrate new features in Solaris 11 ZFS file system: Deduplication, Encryption and Shadow Migration. Also included is the creation of zpools and zfs file systems - the basic building blocks of the technology, and also Compression which is the compliment of Deduplication. The exercises are just introductions - you are referred to the ZFS Adminstration Manual for further information. From Solaris 11 onward the online manual pages consist of zpool(1M) and zfs(1M) with further feature-specific information in zfs_allow(1M), zfs_encrypt(1M) and zfs_share(1M). The lab is easily carried out in a VirtualBox running Solaris 11 with 6 virtual 3 Gb disks to play with. Exercise Z.1: ZFS Pools Task: You have several disks to use for your new file system. Create a new zpool and a file system within it. Lab: You will check the status of existing zpools, create your own pool and expand it. Your Solaris 11 installation already has a root ZFS pool. It contains the root file system. Check this: [email protected]:~# zpool list NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT rpool 15.9G 6.62G 9.25G 41% 1.00x ONLINE - [email protected]:~# zpool status pool: rpool state: ONLINE scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM rpool ONLINE 0 0 0 c3t0d0s0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors Note the disk device the root pool is on - c3t0d0s0 Now you will create your own ZFS pool. First you will check what disks are available: [email protected]:~# echo | format Searching for disks...done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c3t0d0 <ATA-VBOX HARDDISK-1.0 cyl 2085 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63> /[email protected],0/pci8086,[email protected]/[email protected],0 1. c3t2d0 <ATA-VBOX HARDDISK-1.0 cyl 1534 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32> /[email protected],0/pci8086,[email protected]/[email protected],0 2. c3t3d0 <ATA-VBOX HARDDISK-1.0 cyl 1534 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32> /[email protected],0/pci8086,[email protected]/[email protected],0 3. c3t4d0 <ATA-VBOX HARDDISK-1.0 cyl 1534 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32> /[email protected],0/pci8086,[email protected]/[email protected],0 4. c3t5d0 <ATA-VBOX HARDDISK-1.0 cyl 1534 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32> /[email protected],0/pci8086,[email protected]/[email protected],0 5. c3t6d0 <ATA-VBOX HARDDISK-1.0 cyl 1534 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32> /[email protected],0/pci8086,[email protected]/[email protected],0 6. c3t7d0 <ATA-VBOX HARDDISK-1.0 cyl 1534 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32> /[email protected],0/pci8086,[email protected]/[email protected],0 Specify disk (enter its number): Specify disk (enter its number): The root disk is numbered 0. The others are free for use. Try creating a simple pool and observe the error message: [email protected]:~# zpool create mypool c3t2d0 c3t3d0 'mypool' successfully created, but with no redundancy; failure of one device will cause loss of the pool So destroy that pool and create a mirrored pool instead: [email protected]:~# zpool destroy mypool [email protected]:~# zpool create mypool mirror c3t2d0 c3t3d0 [email protected]:~# zpool status mypool pool: mypool state: ONLINE scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM mypool ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c3t2d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c3t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors Back to topExercise Z.2: ZFS File Systems Task: You have to create file systems for later exercises. You can see that when a pool is created, a file system of the same name is created: [email protected]:~# zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT mypool 86.5K 2.94G 31K /mypool Create your filesystems and mountpoints as follows: [email protected]:~# zfs create -o mountpoint=/data1 mypool/mydata1 The -o option sets the mount point and automatically creates the necessary directory. [email protected]:~# zfs list mypool/mydata1 NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT mypool/mydata1 31K 2.94G 31K /data1 Back to top Exercise Z.3: ZFS Compression Task:Try out different forms of compression available in ZFS Lab:Create 2nd filesystem with compression, fill both file systems with the same data, observe results You can see from the zfs(1) manual page that there are several types of compression available to you, set with the property=value syntax: compression=on | off | lzjb | gzip | gzip-N | zle Controls the compression algorithm used for this dataset. The lzjb compression algorithm is optimized for performance while providing decent data compression. Setting compression to on uses the lzjb compression algorithm. The gzip compression algorithm uses the same compression as the gzip(1) command. You can specify the gzip level by using the value gzip-N where N is an integer from 1 (fastest) to 9 (best compression ratio). Currently, gzip is equivalent to gzip-6 (which is also the default for gzip(1)). Create a second filesystem with compression turned on. Note how you set and get your values separately: [email protected]:~# zfs create -o mountpoint=/data2 mypool/mydata2 [email protected]:~# zfs set compression=gzip-9 mypool/mydata2 [email protected]:~# zfs get compression mypool/mydata1 NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE mypool/mydata1 compression off default [email protected]:~# zfs get compression mypool/mydata2 NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE mypool/mydata2 compression gzip-9 local Now you can copy the contents of /usr/lib into both your normal and compressing filesystem and observe the results. Don't forget the dot or period (".") in the find(1) command below: [email protected]:~# cd /usr/lib [email protected]:/usr/lib# find . -print | cpio -pdv /data1 [email protected]:/usr/lib# find . -print | cpio -pdv /data2 The copy into the compressing file system takes longer - as it has to perform the compression but the results show the effect: [email protected]:/usr/lib# zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT mypool 1.35G 1.59G 31K /mypool mypool/mydata1 1.01G 1.59G 1.01G /data1 mypool/mydata2 341M 1.59G 341M /data2 Note that the available space in the pool is shared amongst the file systems. This behavior can be modified using quotas and reservations which are not covered in this lab but are covered extensively in the ZFS Administrators Guide. Back to top Exercise Z.4: ZFS Deduplication The deduplication property is used to remove redundant data from a ZFS file system. With the property enabled duplicate data blocks are removed synchronously. The result is that only unique data is stored and common componenents are shared. Task:See how to implement deduplication and its effects Lab: You will create a ZFS file system with deduplication turned on and see if it reduces the amount of physical storage needed when we again fill it with a copy of /usr/lib. [email protected]:/usr/lib# zfs destroy mypool/mydata2 [email protected]:/usr/lib# zfs set dedup=on mypool/mydata1 [email protected]:/usr/lib# rm -rf /data1/* [email protected]:/usr/lib# mkdir /data1/2nd-copy [email protected]:/usr/lib# zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT mypool 1.02M 2.94G 31K /mypool mypool/mydata1 43K 2.94G 43K /data1 [email protected]:/usr/lib# find . -print | cpio -pd /data1 2142768 blocks [email protected]:/usr/lib# zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT mypool 1.02G 1.99G 31K /mypool mypool/mydata1 1.01G 1.99G 1.01G /data1 [email protected]:/usr/lib# find . -print | cpio -pd /data1/2nd-copy 2142768 blocks [email protected]:/usr/lib#zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT mypool 1.99G 1.96G 31K /mypool mypool/mydata1 1.98G 1.96G 1.98G /data1 You could go on creating copies for quite a while...but you get the idea. Note that deduplication and compression can be combined: the compression acts on metadata. Deduplication works across file systems in a pool and there is a zpool-wide property dedupratio: [email protected]:/usr/lib# zpool get dedupratio mypool NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE mypool dedupratio 4.30x - Deduplication can also be checked using "zpool list": [email protected]:/usr/lib# zpool list NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT mypool 2.98G 1001M 2.01G 32% 4.30x ONLINE - rpool 15.9G 6.66G 9.21G 41% 1.00x ONLINE - Before moving on to the next topic, destroy that dataset and free up some space: [email protected]:~# zfs destroy mypool/mydata1 Back to top Exercise Z.5: ZFS Encryption Task: Encrypt sensitive data. Lab: Explore basic ZFS encryption. This lab only covers the basics of ZFS Encryption. In particular it does not cover various aspects of key management. Please see the ZFS Adminastrion Manual and the zfs_encrypt(1M) manual page for more detail on this functionality. Back to top [email protected]:~# zfs create -o encryption=on mypool/data2 Enter passphrase for 'mypool/data2': ******** Enter again: ******** [email protected]:~# Creation of a descendent dataset shows that encryption is inherited from the parent: [email protected]:~# zfs create mypool/data2/data3 [email protected]:~# zfs get -r encryption,keysource,keystatus,checksum mypool/data2 NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE mypool/data2 encryption on local mypool/data2 keysource passphrase,prompt local mypool/data2 keystatus available - mypool/data2 checksum sha256-mac local mypool/data2/data3 encryption on inherited from mypool/data2 mypool/data2/data3 keysource passphrase,prompt inherited from mypool/data2 mypool/data2/data3 keystatus available - mypool/data2/data3 checksum sha256-mac inherited from mypool/data2 You will find the online manual page zfs_encrypt(1M) contains examples. In particular, if time permits during this lab session you may wish to explore the changing of a key using "zfs key -c mypool/data2". Exercise Z.6: Shadow Migration Shadow Migration allows you to migrate data from an old file system to a new file system while simultaneously allowing access and modification to the new file system during the process. You can use Shadow Migration to migrate a local or remote UFS or ZFS file system to a local file system. Task: You wish to migrate data from one file system (UFS, ZFS, VxFS) to ZFS while mainaining access to it. Lab: Create the infrastructure for shadow migration and transfer one file system into another. First create the file system you want to migrate [email protected]:~# zpool create oldstuff c3t4d0 [email protected]:~# zfs create oldstuff/forgotten Then populate it with some files: [email protected]:~# cd /var/adm [email protected]:/var/adm# find . -print | cpio -pdv /oldstuff/forgotten You need the shadow-migration package installed: [email protected]:~# pkg install shadow-migration Packages to install: 1 Create boot environment: No Create backup boot environment: No Services to change: 1 DOWNLOAD PKGS FILES XFER (MB) Completed 1/1 14/14 0.2/0.2 PHASE ACTIONS Install Phase 39/39 PHASE ITEMS Package State Update Phase 1/1 Image State Update Phase 2/2 You then enable the shadowd service: [email protected]:~# svcadm enable shadowd [email protected]:~# svcs shadowd STATE STIME FMRI online 7:16:09 svc:/system/filesystem/shadowd:default Set the filesystem to be migrated to read-only [email protected]:~# zfs set readonly=on oldstuff/forgotten Create a new zfs file system with the shadow property set to the file system to be migrated: [email protected]:~# zfs create -o shadow=file:///oldstuff/forgotten mypool/remembered Use the shadowstat(1M) command to see the progress of the migration: [email protected]:~# shadowstat EST BYTES BYTES ELAPSED DATASET XFRD LEFT ERRORS TIME mypool/remembered 92.5M - - 00:00:59 mypool/remembered 99.1M 302M - 00:01:09 mypool/remembered 109M 260M - 00:01:19 mypool/remembered 133M 304M - 00:01:29 mypool/remembered 149M 339M - 00:01:39 mypool/remembered 156M 86.4M - 00:01:49 mypool/remembered 156M 8E 29 (completed) Note that if you had created /mypool/remembered as encrypted, this would be the preferred method of encrypting existing data. Similarly for compressing or deduplicating existing data. The procedure for migrating a file system over NFS is similar - see the ZFS Administration manual. That concludes this lab session.

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  • Unable to install ZFS (Ubuntu 13.10)

    - by user209707
    I'm fairly new to Ubuntu and wanted to setup a server running ZFS/XBMC - The XBMC install went fine, however I ran into trouble getting ZFS working. Configuration : Ubuntu 13.10 (GNU/Linux 3.12.0-rc7+ x86_64) I attempted to install ZFS native using : sudo add-apt-repository ppa:zfs-native/stable sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install ubuntu-zfs This failed to install due to "Module build for the currently running kernel was skipped since the kernel source for this kernel does not seem to be installed." Trying sudo modprobe zfs shows FATAL error : module not found. Here, they mentioned it was to do with lacking build dependences- I followed the answer which was to run sudo apt-get remove --purge ubuntu-zfs zfs-dkms zfsutils spl spl-dkms libzfs1 dkms Then, REBOOT. Then, do: sudo apt-get install linux-headers-generic build-essentia sudo apt-get install ubuntu-zfs " This leaves me in the same situation with "Building only for 3.12.0-rc7+ Module build for the currently running kernel was skipped since the kernel source for this kernel does not seem to be installed." when trying to install ubuntu-zfs. Trying sudo apt-get install --reinstall zfs-dkms also does not work.

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  • ZFS replication between 2 ZFS file systems

    - by XO01
    I initially replicated tank/storage1 -- usb1/storage1-slave (depicted below), and then (deliberately) destroyed the snapshot I replicated from. By doing this, did I lose the ability to incrementally (zfs send -i) replicate between these 2 file systems? What's the best way to approach SYNC'ing these file systems after destroying this snapshot? # zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT tank 128G 100G 23K /tank tank/storage1 128G 100G 128G /tank/storage1 usb1 122G 563G 24K /usb1 usb1/storage1-slave 122G 563G 122G /usb1/storage1-slave usb1/storage2 21K 563G 21K /usb1/storage2 What if I initially RSYNC'd tank/storage1 -- usb1/storage1-slave, and decided to incrementally replicate 'via zfs send -i'.

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  • Booting off a ZFS root in 14.04

    - by RJVB
    I've been running a Debian derivative (LMDE) on a ZFS root for half a year now. It was created by cloning a regular ext4-based install with all the necessary packages onto a ZFS pool, chrooting into that pool and recreating a grub menu and bootloader. The system uses an ext-3 dedicated /boot partition. I would like to do the same with Ubuntu 14.04, but have encountered several obstacles. There is no Trusty zfs-grub package The default grub package doesn't have ZFS support built in. I found a small bug in the build system responsible for that (report with patch created) and built my own grub packages. The built-in ZFS support is dysfunctional, it does not add the proper arguments to the kernel command line I thus installed the ZoL grub package I also use on my LMDE system, which does give me a correct grub.cfg However, even with that correct grub.cfg, the boot process apparently doesn't retrieve the bootfs parameter from the ZFS pool; instead the variable that's supposed to receive the value remains empty. As a result, initrd tries to load the default pool ("rpool"), which fails of course. I can however import the pool by hand, and complete the process by hand. If memory serves me well, I also had to disable apparmor, to avoid the boot process from blocking after importing the pool. Am I overlooking something? Just for comparison, I installed the Ubuntu 3.13 kernel on my LMDE system, and that works just fine (i.e. the identical kernel and grub binaries allow successful booting without glitches on LMDE but not on Ubuntu).

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  • mdadm+zfs vs mdadm+lvm

    - by Alex
    This may be a naive question since I'm new to this and I cannot find any results about mdadm+zfs, but after some testing it seems it might work: The use case is a server with RAID6 for some data that is backed-up somewhat infrequently. I think I'm well served by any of ZFS or RAID6. Platform is Linux. Performance is secondary. So the two setups I am considering are: A RAID6 array plus regular LVM and ext4 A RAID6 array plus ZFS (without redundancy). Is this second option that I don't see discussed at all. Why ZFS+RAID6? It's mainly because the inability of ZFS to grow a raidz2 with new disks. You can replace disks with larger ones, I know, but not add another disk. You can accomplish 2-disk redundancy and ZFS disk growth using mdadm as the redundancy layer. Besides that main point (otherwise I could go directly to raidz2 without RAID under it), these are the pros-cons that I see for each option: ZFS has snapshots without preallocated space. LVM requires preallocation (might be no longer true). ZFS has checksumming (very interested in this) and compression (nice bonus). LVM has online filesystem growth (ZFS can do it offline with export/mdadm --grow/import). LVM has encryption (ZFS-on-Linux has not). This is the only major con of this combo I see. I guess I could go RAID6+LVM+ZFS... seems too heavy, or not? So, to close with a proper question: 1) Is there anything that inherently discourages or precludes RAID6+ZFS? Anyone has experience with a setup like this? 2) Are there possibilities for checksumming and compression that would make ZFS unnecessary (maintaining the possibility of filesystem growth)? Because the RAID6+LVM combo seems the sanctioned, tested way.

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  • ZFS pool broken after upgrading to 14.04 LTS

    - by cruiserparts
    Well, I have been putting off upgrading to 14.04 for fear that I would break something. Actually for fear that it would break zfs (or I would break it). I am bascially slightly better than novice at linux. Spent the last couple of hours trying to get the pool back. Now I am at the stage where I don't think I have a complete failure, but I am worried that I may break it. So if could help me not break it, and recover it, I would be thankful. My zfs is file storage and not boot. It was working fine for a year and was working perfectly before the upgrade (scrub and everything was fine). I was confident that the upgrade would work (or at least I could fix it) because I had upgraded once in the past, the pool went missing, but I was able to get it back. I have reinstalled zfs, zfs utilities, and some dependencies (after searching this forum) I think what happened is 14.04 deleted some config file, or specified disk names differntly, but I could be wrong. When I set the pool up originally, I was using specific device Ids as I recall (because I did not want to break things if they got reassigned at boot) So see if this helps. I can confirm that old mountpoint folders are there but empty. no talloc stackframe at ../source3/param/loadparm.c:4864, leaking memory pool: naspool1 state: UNAVAIL status: One or more devices could not be used because the label is missing or invalid. There are insufficient replicas for the pool to continue functioning. action: Destroy and re-create the pool from a backup source. see: http://zfsonlinux.org/msg/ZFS-8000-5E scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM naspool1 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 insufficient replicas raidz1-0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 insufficient replicas scsi-SATA_WDC_WD1001FALS-_WD-WMATV0990825 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_WDC_WD1001FALS-_WD-WMATV2995365 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_WDC_WD10EARS-00_WD-WMAV51894349 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 [email protected]:~$ sudo zpool import naspool1 cannot import 'naspool1': a pool with that name is already created/imported, and no additional pools with that name were found [email protected]:~$ sudo zfs list no datasets available What other output can I post to help? I'm thinking the update deleted some zfs config files. It seems like the pool exists and certainly 3 perfectly working disks did not fail at once. I am worried that I may break something without a little bit of guideance. Thanks.

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  • Installing ZFS changed my sudoers file

    - by MaxMackie
    Following the wiki's advice, I installed ubuntu-zfs. However, once everything installed correctly, and I tried installing another application via apt-get, I get a weird issue with my sudoers file: [email protected]:~$ sudo apt-get install deluge deluge-web sudo: /etc/sudoers.d/zfs is mode 0644, should be 0440 >>> /etc/sudoers.d/README: /etc/sudoers.d/zfs near line 18 <<< sudo: parse error in /etc/sudoers.d/README near line 18 sudo: no valid sudoers sources found, quitting *** glibc detected *** sudo: double free or corruption (!prev): 0x08909d08 *** ======= Backtrace: ========= .... Why has zfs messed with the sudoers file? I can post the backtrace if needed.

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  • Reading a ZFS USB drive with Mac OS X Mountain Lion

    - by Karim Berrah
    The problem: I'm using a MacBook, mainly with Solaris 11, but something with Mac OS X (ML). The only missing thing is that Mac OS X can't read my external ZFS based USB drive, where I store all my data. So, I decided to look for a solution. Possible solution: I decided to use VirtualBox with a Solaris 11 VM as a passthrough to my data. Here are the required steps: Installing a Solaris 11 VM Install VirtualBox on your Mac OS X, add the extension pack (needed for USB) Plug your ZFS based USB drive on your Mac, ignore it when asked to initialize it. Create a VM for Solaris (bridged network), and before installing it, create a USB filter (in the settings of your Vbox VM, go to Ports, then USB, then add a new USB filter from the attached device "grey usb-connector logo with green plus sign")  Install a Solaris 11 VM, boot it, and install the Guest addition check with "ifconfg -a" the IP address of your Solaris VM Creating a path to your ZFS USB drive In MacOS X, use the "Disk Utility" to unmount the USB attached drive, and unplug the USB device. Switch back to VirtualBox, select the top of the window where your Solaris 11 is running plug your ZFS USB drive, select "ignore" if Mac OS invite you to initialize the disk In the VirtualBox VM menu, go to "Devices" then "USB Devices" and select from the dropping menu your "USB device" Connection your Solaris VM to the USB drive Inside Solaris, you might now check that your device is accessible by using the "format" cli command If not, repeat previous steps Now, with root privilege, force a zpool import -f myusbdevicepoolname because this pool was created on another system check that you see your new pool with "zpool status" share your pool with NFS: share -F NFS /myusbdevicepoolname Accessing the USB ZFS drive from Mac OS X This is the easiest step: access an NFS share from mac OS Create a "ZFSdrive" folder on your MacOS desktop from a terminal under mac OS: mount -t nfs IPadressofMySoalrisVM:/myusbdevicepoolname  /Users/yourusername/Desktop/ZFSdrive et voila ! you might access your data, on a ZFS USB drive, directly from your Mountain Lion Desktop. You might play with the share rights in order to alter any read/write rights as needed. You might activate compression, encryption inside the Solaris 11 VM ...

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  • Error when installing ubuntu-zfs

    - by ubiquibacon
    I'm switching from FreeNAS to Ubuntu 12.04 LTS. After a vanilla install of Ubuntu has been completed I run the following commands in the order shown to install ZFS: apt-get install python-software-properties add-apt-repository ppa:zfs-native/stable apt-get -y -q update && apt-get -y -q upgrade apt-get install ubuntu-zfs When the last command is run ZFS is installed and seems to be working correctly... mostly (more on that later). However, when the last command is run I get this error (full log here): configure: error: *** Please make sure the kmod spl devel <kernel> package for your *** distribution is installed then try again. If that fails you *** can specify the location of the spl objects with the *** '--with-spl-obj=PATH' option. What is this error and how do I fix it? Now I said mostly earlier because my pool's don't auto mount when the server restarts the way they should. All my reading (mostly from this page) indicates that mountall should just take care of the mounting. I have followed the instructions on that page and I cannot get mountall to work correctly. My pools will only auto mount on restart if I edit /etc/fstab or change the ZFS_MOUNT and ZFS_UNMOUNT options in /etc/default/zfs.

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  • ZFS - Impact of L2ARC cache device failure (Nexenta)

    - by ewwhite
    I have an HP ProLiant DL380 G7 server running as a NexentaStor storage unit. The server has 36GB RAM, 2 LSI 9211-8i SAS controllers (no SAS expanders), 2 SAS system drives, 12 SAS data drives, a hot-spare disk, an Intel X25-M L2ARC cache and a DDRdrive PCI ZIL accelerator. This system serves NFS to multiple VMWare hosts. I also have about 90-100GB of deduplicated data on the array. I've had two incidents where performance tanked suddenly, leaving the VM guests and Nexenta SSH/Web consoles inaccessible and requiring a full reboot of the array to restore functionality. In both cases, it was the Intel X-25M L2ARC SSD that failed or was "offlined". NexentaStor failed to alert me on the cache failure, however the general ZFS FMA alert was visible on the (unresponsive) console screen. The zpool status output showed: pool: vol1 state: ONLINE scan: scrub repaired 0 in 0h57m with 0 errors on Sat May 21 05:57:27 2011 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM vol1 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c8t5000C50031B94409d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c9t5000C50031BBFE25d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 c10t5000C50031D158FDd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c11t5000C5002C823045d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-2 ONLINE 0 0 0 c12t5000C50031D91AD1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c2t5000C50031D911B9d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-3 ONLINE 0 0 0 c13t5000C50031BC293Dd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c14t5000C50031BD208Dd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-4 ONLINE 0 0 0 c15t5000C50031BBF6F5d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c16t5000C50031D8CFADd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-5 ONLINE 0 0 0 c17t5000C50031BC0E01d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c18t5000C5002C7CCE41d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 logs c19t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 cache c6t5001517959467B45d0 FAULTED 2 542 0 too many errors spares c7t5000C50031CB43D9d0 AVAIL errors: No known data errors This did not trigger any alerts from within Nexenta. I was under the impression that an L2ARC failure would not impact the system. But in this case, it surely was the culprit. I've never seen any recommendations to RAID L2ARC. Removing the bad SSD entirely from the server got me back running, but I'm concerned about the impact of the device failure (and maybe the lack of notification from NexentaStor as well). Edit - What's the current best-choice SSD for L2ARC cache applications these days?

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  • Using Windows Previous Versions to access ZFS Snapshots (July 14, 2009)

    - by user12612012
    The Previous Versions tab on the Windows desktop provides a straightforward, intuitive way for users to view or recover files from ZFS snapshots.  ZFS snapshots are read-only, point-in-time instances of a ZFS dataset, based on the same copy-on-write transactional model used throughout ZFSZFS snapshots can be used to recover deleted files or previous versions of files and they are space efficient because unchanged data is shared between the file system and its snapshots.  Snapshots are available locally via the .zfs/snapshot directory and remotely via Previous Versions on the Windows desktop. Shadow Copies for Shared Folders was introduced with Windows Server 2003 but subsequently renamed to Previous Versions with the release of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.  Windows shadow copies, or snapshots, are based on the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS) and, as the [Shared Folders part of the] name implies, are accessible to clients via SMB shares, which is good news when using the Solaris CIFS Service.  And the nice thing is that no additional configuration is required - it "just works". On Windows clients, snapshots are accessible via the Previous Versions tab in Windows Explorer using the Shadow Copy client, which is available by default on Windows XP SP2 and later.  For Windows 2000 and pre-SP2 Windows XP, the client software is available for download from Microsoft: Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Client. Assuming that we already have a shared ZFS dataset, we can create ZFS snapshots and view them from a Windows client. zfs snapshot tank/home/[email protected] snapshot tank/home/[email protected] To view the snapshots on Windows, map the dataset on the client then right click on a folder or file and select Previous Versions.  Note that Windows will only display previous versions of objects that differ from the originals.  So you may have to modify files after creating a snapshot in order to see previous versions of those files. The screenshot above shows various snapshots in the Previous Versions window, created at different times.  On the left panel, the .zfs folder is visible, illustrating that this is a ZFS share.  The .zfs setting can be toggled as desired, it makes no difference when using previous versions.  To make the .zfs folder visible: zfs set snapdir=visible tank/home/administrator To hide the .zfs folder: zfs set snapdir=hidden tank/home/administrator The following screenshot shows the Previous Versions panel when a file has been selected.  In this case the user is prompted to view, copy or restore the file from one of the available snapshots. As can be seen from the screenshots above, the Previous Versions window doesn't display snapshot names: snapshots are listed by snapshot creation time, sorted in time order from most recent to oldest.  There's nothing we can do about this, it's the way that the interface works.  Perhaps one point of note, to avoid confusion, is that the ZFS snapshot creation time isnot the same as the root directory creation timestamp. In ZFS, all object attributes in the original dataset are preserved when a snapshot is taken, including the creation time of the root directory.  Thus the root directory creation timestamp is the time that the directory was created in the original dataset. # ls -d% all /home/administrator         timestamp: atime         Mar 19 15:40:23 2009         timestamp: ctime         Mar 19 15:40:58 2009         timestamp: mtime         Mar 19 15:40:58 2009         timestamp: crtime         Mar 19 15:18:34 2009 # ls -d% all /home/administrator/.zfs/snapshot/snap101         timestamp: atime         Mar 19 15:40:23 2009         timestamp: ctime         Mar 19 15:40:58 2009         timestamp: mtime         Mar 19 15:40:58 2009         timestamp: crtime         Mar 19 15:18:34 2009 The snapshot creation time can be obtained using the zfs command as shown below. # zfs get all tank/home/[email protected]                             PROPERTY  VALUEtank/home/[email protected]  type      snapshottank/home/[email protected]  creation  Mon Mar 23 18:21 2009 In this example, the dataset was created on March 19th and the snapshot was created on March 23rd. In conclusion, Shadow Copies for Shared Folders provides a straightforward way for users to view or recover files from ZFS snapshots.  The Windows desktop provides an easy to use, intuitive GUI and no configuration is required to use or access previous versions of files or folders. REFERENCES FOR MORE INFORMATION ZFS ZFS Learning Center Introduction to Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Client

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  • Copying files to zfs mountpoint doesn't work - the files aren't actually copied to the other filesystem,

    - by user113904
    I have 3 x 4 TB disks in a NAS that I want to group together and access as if they were one whole 'unit' of some kind. I also have a 250GB disk containing the OS - this is full of films and tv shows currently. I thought zfs sounded good so I created a raidz zpool, after installing the ppa sudo zpool create store raidz /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd and set the mountpoint to /mnt/store sudo zfs set mountpoint=/mnt/store /store checked it was successful - I think it was sudo zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT store 266K 7.16T 170K /mnt/store Then I wanted to move over a whole load of files from my home directory. I went to where the to-be-copied folder was (called media) and entered sudo cp -R * /mnt/store cp: cannot create directory `/mnt/store/media': No space left on device It seems like it's not copying over to the new filesystem I made (or thought I did). I've never really done this type of thing until a few days ago so may be running before I can walk... is this not the right way to copy files across? I've only used windows before so the idea of mountpoints is a bit mind boggling. I'm using XBMCbuntu 12 beta 2.0 which is based on 12.04. Will retry with normal Ubuntu 12.04 desktop to see if that's the problem. thanks for the help!

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  • Strange ZFS hidden filesystem problem

    - by RandomInsano
    Half of my ZFS filesystems are hidden in ZFS-fuse. Here's my story: So, I love ZFS. I used it for about six months on FreeBSD, but due to it crashing the kernel during heavy inter-filesystem IO load, I tried switching to Solaris 5.10. That was good, but when I attempted to do an import of my Version 13 pool into its Version 4 version of ZFS, there were some heafty problems. It may have tried to correct the filesystem definitions, I don't know. Since that version wasn't compatible with my pool, I've now switched to Ubuntu Server 10.4. That version more than supports that of my pool, but I can only see half of my filesystems. The filesystems I can see are the same as those Solaris could see. Now, despite those filesystems not being preset in a 'zfs list' command, I can still set properties on them and I can even still mount them and read and write files, but they just plain don't show up in 'zfs list'. I've mounted the major ones, but I'm not sure what other filesystems there are anymore (I have about eight that I can't see). Anyone have any idea what the heck is going on? I think I might try booting back into FreeBSD 8 (I still have the main boot drive laying around for that) and see if at least it is able to view the filesystems. I've also done a scrub while in Linux, and it found no errors with any of the data. Oddly, DMA read errors which caused problems on FreeBSD ZFS are reported by Linux, but ZFS-fuse doesn't find an error. That's a topic for another post however.

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  • zfs raidz1-0 corrupted data, all disk are online

    - by gkcr2d2
    my zfs pool "datas" is unavailable but all my disk are online, Do you know how the problem can be fixed? Thank you for your help. [email protected]:~# zpool status pool: datas state: UNAVAIL scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM datas UNAVAIL 0 0 0 insufficient replicas raidz1-0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 corrupted data scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0LBVX ONLINE 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0KYX9 ONLINE 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0LCC8 ONLINE 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0LBXZ ONLINE 0 0 0

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  • zfs raidz1-0 corrupted data, all disks are online

    - by gkcr2d2
    My zfs pool "datas" is unavailable but all my disks are online. Do you know how the problem can be fixed? [email protected]:~# zpool status pool: datas state: UNAVAIL scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM datas UNAVAIL 0 0 0 insufficient replicas raidz1-0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 corrupted data scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0LBVX ONLINE 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0KYX9 ONLINE 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0LCC8 ONLINE 0 0 0 scsi-SATA_ST3000DM001-9YN_W1F0LBXZ ONLINE 0 0 0

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  • ZFS on Linux for RHEL/OEL NFS Sharing

    - by BBK
    I'm trying ZFS on Linux for Oracle Linux (OLE) 6.1 (Red Hat RHEL 6.1 compatible clone). I successfully compiled and installed spl and zfs on it for Oracle Unbreakable Kernel. Zfs is working and I created mirror by zpool create -f -o ashift=12 tank mirror sdb sdc Now I'm trying to share my zfs pool caled "tank/nfs" as mentioned at zfsonlinux site. zfs set sharenfs=on tank/nfs So I created tank/nfs and set nfs to on. Now I'm trying to mount nfs share at local host to test it by mount -t nfs4 127.0.0.1:/tank/nfs /mnt But I get mount.nfs4: mount system call failed So question is: How to share NFS Folder or iSCSI Volumes at OLE rightly and mount it with Linux Client via ZFS on Linux.

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  • Scripting with the Sun ZFS Storage 7000 Appliance

    - by Geoff Ongley
    The Sun ZFS Storage 7000 appliance has a user friendly and easy to understand graphical web based interface we call the "BUI" or "Browser User Interface".This interface is very useful for many tasks, but in some cases a script (or workflow) may be more appropriate, such as:Repetitive tasksTasks which work on (or obtain information about) a large number of shares or usersTasks which are triggered by an alert threshold (workflows)Tasks where you want a only very basic input, but a consistent output (workflows)The appliance scripting language is based on ECMAscript 3 (close to javascript). I'm not going to cover ECMAscript 3 in great depth (I'm far from an expert here), but I would like to show you some neat things you can do with the appliance, to get you started based on what I have found from my own playing around.I'm making the assumption you have some sort of programming background, and understand variables, arrays, functions to some extent - but of course if something is not clear, please let me know so I can fix it up or clarify it.Variable Declarations and ArraysVariablesECMAScript is a dynamically and weakly typed language. If you don't know what that means, google is your friend - but at a high level it means we can just declare variables with no specific type and on the fly.For example, I can declare a variable and use it straight away in the middle of my code, for example:projects=list();Which makes projects an array of values that are returned from the list(); function (which is usable in most contexts). With this kind of variable, I can do things like:projects.length (this property on array tells you how many objects are in it, good for for loops etc). Alternatively, I could say:projects=3;and now projects is just a simple number.Should we declare variables like this so loosely? In my opinion, the answer is no - I feel it is a better practice to declare variables you are going to use, before you use them - and given them an initial value. You can do so as follows:var myVariable=0;To demonstrate the ability to just randomly assign and change the type of variables, you can create a simple script at the cli as follows (bold for input):fishy10:> script("." to run)> run("cd /");("." to run)> run ("shares");("." to run)> var projects;("." to run)> projects=list();("." to run)> printf("Number of projects is: %d\n",projects.length);("." to run)> projects=152;("." to run)> printf("Value of the projects variable as an integer is now: %d\n",projects);("." to run)> .Number of projects is: 7Value of the projects variable as an integer is now: 152You can also confirm this behaviour by checking the typeof variable we are dealing with:fishy10:> script("." to run)> run("cd /");("." to run)> run ("shares");("." to run)> var projects;("." to run)> projects=list();("." to run)> printf("var projects is of type %s\n",typeof(projects));("." to run)> projects=152;("." to run)> printf("var projects is of type %s\n",typeof(projects));("." to run)> .var projects is of type objectvar projects is of type numberArraysSo you likely noticed that we have already touched on arrays, as the list(); (in the shares context) stored an array into the 'projects' variable.But what if you want to declare your own array? Easy! This is very similar to Java and other languages, we just instantiate a brand new "Array" object using the keyword new:var myArray = new Array();will create an array called "myArray".A quick example:fishy10:> script("." to run)> testArray = new Array();("." to run)> testArray[0]="This";("." to run)> testArray[1]="is";("." to run)> testArray[2]="just";("." to run)> testArray[3]="a";("." to run)> testArray[4]="test";("." to run)> for (i=0; i < testArray.length; i++)("." to run)> {("." to run)>    printf("Array element %d is %s\n",i,testArray[i]);("." to run)> }("." to run)> .Array element 0 is ThisArray element 1 is isArray element 2 is justArray element 3 is aArray element 4 is testWorking With LoopsFor LoopFor loops are very similar to those you will see in C, java and several other languages. One of the key differences here is, as you were made aware earlier, we can be a bit more sloppy with our variable declarations.The general way you would likely use a for loop is as follows:for (variable; test-case; modifier for variable){}For example, you may wish to declare a variable i as 0; and a MAX_ITERATIONS variable to determine how many times this loop should repeat:var i=0;var MAX_ITERATIONS=10;And then, use this variable to be tested against some case existing (has i reached MAX_ITERATIONS? - if not, increment i using i++);for (i=0; i < MAX_ITERATIONS; i++){ // some work to do}So lets run something like this on the appliance:fishy10:> script("." to run)> var i=0;("." to run)> var MAX_ITERATIONS=10;("." to run)> for (i=0; i < MAX_ITERATIONS; i++)("." to run)> {("." to run)>    printf("The number is %d\n",i);("." to run)> }("." to run)> .The number is 0The number is 1The number is 2The number is 3The number is 4The number is 5The number is 6The number is 7The number is 8The number is 9While LoopWhile loops again are very similar to other languages, we loop "while" a condition is met. For example:fishy10:> script("." to run)> var isTen=false;("." to run)> var counter=0;("." to run)> while(isTen==false)("." to run)> {("." to run)>    if (counter==10) ("." to run)>    { ("." to run)>            isTen=true;   ("." to run)>    } ("." to run)>    printf("Counter is %d\n",counter);("." to run)>    counter++;    ("." to run)> }("." to run)> printf("Loop has ended and Counter is %d\n",counter);("." to run)> .Counter is 0Counter is 1Counter is 2Counter is 3Counter is 4Counter is 5Counter is 6Counter is 7Counter is 8Counter is 9Counter is 10Loop has ended and Counter is 11So what do we notice here? Something has actually gone wrong - counter will technically be 11 once the loop completes... Why is this?Well, if we have a loop like this, where the 'while' condition that will end the loop may be set based on some other condition(s) existing (such as the counter has reached 10) - we must ensure that we  terminate this iteration of the loop when the condition is met - otherwise the rest of the code will be followed which may not be desirable. In other words, like in other languages, we will only ever check the loop condition once we are ready to perform the next iteration, so any other code after we set "isTen" to be true, will still be executed as we can see it was above.We can avoid this by adding a break into our loop once we know we have set the condition - this will stop the rest of the logic being processed in this iteration (and as such, counter will not be incremented). So lets try that again:fishy10:> script("." to run)> var isTen=false;("." to run)> var counter=0;("." to run)> while(isTen==false)("." to run)> {("." to run)>    if (counter==10) ("." to run)>    { ("." to run)>            isTen=true;   ("." to run)>            break;("." to run)>    } ("." to run)>    printf("Counter is %d\n",counter);("." to run)>    counter++;    ("." to run)> }("." to run)> printf("Loop has ended and Counter is %d\n", counter);("." to run)> .Counter is 0Counter is 1Counter is 2Counter is 3Counter is 4Counter is 5Counter is 6Counter is 7Counter is 8Counter is 9Loop has ended and Counter is 10Much better!Methods to Obtain and Manipulate DataGet MethodThe get method allows you to get simple properties from an object, for example a quota from a user. The syntax is fairly simple:var myVariable=get('property');An example of where you may wish to use this, is when you are getting a bunch of information about a user (such as quota information when in a shares context):var users=list();for(k=0; k < users.length; k++){     user=users[k];     run('select ' + user);     var username=get('name');     var usage=get('usage');     var quota=get('quota');...Which you can then use to your advantage - to print or manipulate infomation (you could change a user's information with a set method, based on the information returned from the get method). The set method is explained next.Set MethodThe set method can be used in a simple manner, similar to get. The syntax for set is:set('property','value'); // where value is a string, if it was a number, you don't need quotesFor example, we could set the quota on a share as follows (first observing the initial value):fishy10:shares default/test-geoff> script("." to run)> var currentQuota=get('quota');("." to run)> printf("Current Quota is: %s\n",currentQuota);("." to run)> set('quota','30G');("." to run)> run('commit');("." to run)> currentQuota=get('quota');("." to run)> printf("Current Quota is: %s\n",currentQuota);("." to run)> .Current Quota is: 0Current Quota is: 32212254720This shows us using both the get and set methods as can be used in scripts, of course when only setting an individual share, the above is overkill - it would be much easier to set it manually at the cli using 'set quota=3G' and then 'commit'.List MethodThe list method can be very powerful, especially in more complex scripts which iterate over large amounts of data and manipulate it if so desired. The general way you will use list is as follows:var myVar=list();Which will make "myVar" an array, containing all the objects in the relevant context (this could be a list of users, shares, projects, etc). You can then gather or manipulate data very easily.We could list all the shares and mountpoints in a given project for example:fishy10:shares another-project> script("." to run)> var shares=list();("." to run)> for (i=0; i < shares.length; i++)("." to run)> {("." to run)>    run('select ' + shares[i]);("." to run)>    var mountpoint=get('mountpoint');("." to run)>    printf("Share %s discovered, has mountpoint %s\n",shares[i],mountpoint);("." to run)>    run('done');("." to run)> }("." to run)> .Share and-another discovered, has mountpoint /export/another-project/and-anotherShare another-share discovered, has mountpoint /export/another-project/another-shareShare bob discovered, has mountpoint /export/another-projectShare more-shares-for-all discovered, has mountpoint /export/another-project/more-shares-for-allShare yep discovered, has mountpoint /export/another-project/yepWriting More Complex and Re-Usable CodeFunctionsThe best way to be able to write more complex code is to use functions to split up repeatable or reusable sections of your code. This also makes your more complex code easier to read and understand for other programmers.We write functions as follows:function functionName(variable1,variable2,...,variableN){}For example, we could have a function that takes a project name as input, and lists shares for that project (assuming we're already in the 'project' context - context is important!):function getShares(proj){        run('select ' + proj);        shares=list();        printf("Project: %s\n", proj);        for(j=0; j < shares.length; j++)        {                printf("Discovered share: %s\n",shares[i]);        }        run('done'); // exit selected project}Commenting your CodeLike any other language, a large part of making it readable and understandable is to comment it. You can use the same comment style as in C and Java amongst other languages.In other words, sngle line comments use://at the beginning of the comment.Multi line comments use:/*at the beginning, and:*/ at the end.For example, here we will use both:fishy10:> script("." to run)> // This is a test comment("." to run)> printf("doing some work...\n");("." to run)> /* This is a multi-line("." to run)> comment which I will span across("." to run)> three lines in total */("." to run)> printf("doing some more work...\n");("." to run)> .doing some work...doing some more work...Your comments do not have to be on their own, they can begin (particularly with single line comments this is handy) at the end of a statement, for examplevar projects=list(); // The variable projects is an array containing all projects on the system.Try and Catch StatementsYou may be used to using try and catch statements in other languages, and they can (and should) be utilised in your code to catch expected or unexpected error conditions, that you do NOT wish to stop your code from executing (if you do not catch these errors, your script will exit!):try{  // do some work}catch(err) // Catch any error that could occur{ // do something here under the error condition}For example, you may wish to only execute some code if a context can be reached. If you can't perform certain actions under certain circumstances, that may be perfectly acceptable.For example if you want to test a condition that only makes sense when looking at a SMB/NFS share, but does not make sense when you hit an iscsi or FC LUN, you don't want to stop all processing of other shares you may not have covered yet.For example we may wish to obtain quota information on all shares for all users on a share (but this makes no sense for a LUN):function getShareQuota(shar) // Get quota for each user of this share{        run('select ' + shar);        printf("  SHARE: %s\n", shar);        try        {                run('users');                printf("    %20s        %11s    %11s    %3s\n","Username","Usage(G)","Quota(G)","Quota(%)");                printf("    %20s        %11s    %11s    %4s\n","--------","--------","--------","----");                                users=list();                for(k=0; k < users.length; k++)                {                        user=users[k];                        getUserQuota(user);                }                run('done'); // exit user context        }        catch(err)        {                printf("    SKIPPING %s - This is NOT a NFS or CIFs share, not looking for users\n", shar);        }        run('done'); // done with this share}Running Scripts Remotely over SSHAs you have likely noticed, writing and running scripts for all but the simplest jobs directly on the appliance is not going to be a lot of fun.There's a couple of choices on what you can do here:Create scripts on a remote system and run them over sshCreate scripts, wrapping them in workflow code, so they are stored on the appliance and can be triggered under certain circumstances (like a threshold being reached)We'll cover the first one here, and then cover workflows later on (as these are for the most part just scripts with some wrapper information around them).Creating a SSH Public/Private SSH Key PairLog on to your handy Solaris box (You wouldn't be using any other OS, right? :P) and use ssh-keygen to create a pair of ssh keys. I'm storing this separate to my normal key:[[email protected] ~] ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 1024Generating public/private rsa key pair.Enter file in which to save the key (/export/home/geoff/.ssh/id_rsa): /export/home/geoff/.ssh/nas_key_rsaEnter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /export/home/geoff/.ssh/nas_key_rsa.Your public key has been saved in /export/home/geoff/.ssh/nas_key_rsa.pub.The key fingerprint is:7f:3d:53:f0:2a:5e:8b:2d:94:2a:55:77:66:5c:9b:14 [email protected] the Public Key on the ApplianceOn your Solaris host, observe the public key:[[email protected] ~] cat .ssh/nas_key_rsa.pub ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAIEAvYfK3RIaAYmMHBOvyhKM41NaSmcgUMC3igPN5gUKJQvSnYmjuWG6CBr1CkF5UcDji7v19jG3qAD5lAMFn+L0CxgRr8TNaAU+hA4/tpAGkjm+dKYSyJgEdMIURweyyfUFXoerweR8AWW5xlovGKEWZTAfvJX9Zqvh8oMQ5UJLUUc= [email protected], copy and paste everything after "ssh-rsa" and before "[email protected]" - in this case, [email protected] That is, this bit:AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAIEAvYfK3RIaAYmMHBOvyhKM41NaSmcgUMC3igPN5gUKJQvSnYmjuWG6CBr1CkF5UcDji7v19jG3qAD5lAMFn+L0CxgRr8TNaAU+hA4/tpAGkjm+dKYSyJgEdMIURweyyfUFXoerweR8AWW5xlovGKEWZTAfvJX9Zqvh8oMQ5UJLUUc=Logon to your appliance and get into the preferences -> keys area for this user (root):[[email protected] ~] ssh [email protected]: Last login: Mon Dec  6 17:13:28 2010 from 192.168.0.2fishy10:> configuration usersfishy10:configuration users> select rootfishy10:configuration users root> preferences fishy10:configuration users root preferences> keysOR do it all in one hit:fishy10:> configuration users select root preferences keysNow, we create a new public key that will be accepted for this user and set the type to RSA:fishy10:configuration users root preferences keys> createfishy10:configuration users root preferences key (uncommitted)> set type=RSASet the key itself using the string copied previously (between ssh-rsa and [email protected]), and set the key ensuring you put double quotes around it (eg. set key="<key>"):fishy10:configuration users root preferences key (uncommitted)> set key="AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAIEAvYfK3RIaAYmMHBOvyhKM41NaSmcgUMC3igPN5gUKJQvSnYmjuWG6CBr1CkF5UcDji7v19jG3qAD5lAMFn+L0CxgRr8TNaAU+hA4/tpAGkjm+dKYSyJgEdMIURweyyfUFXoerweR8AWW5xlovGKEWZTAfvJX9Zqvh8oMQ5UJLUUc="Now set the comment for this key (do not use spaces):fishy10:configuration users root preferences key (uncommitted)> set comment="LightningRSAKey" Commit the new key:fishy10:configuration users root preferences key (uncommitted)> commitVerify the key is there:fishy10:configuration users root preferences keys> lsKeys:NAME     MODIFIED              TYPE   COMMENT                                  key-000  2010-10-25 20:56:42   RSA    cycloneRSAKey                           key-001  2010-12-6 17:44:53    RSA    LightningRSAKey                         As you can see, we now have my new key, and a previous key I have created on this appliance.Running your Script over SSH from a Remote SystemHere I have created a basic test script, and saved it as test.ecma3:[[email protected] ~] cat test.ecma3 script// This is a test script, By Geoff Ongley 2010.printf("Testing script remotely over ssh\n");.Now, we can run this script remotely with our keyless login:[[email protected] ~] ssh -i .ssh/nas_key_rsa [email protected] < test.ecma3Pseudo-terminal will not be allocated because stdin is not a terminal.Testing script remotely over sshPutting it Together - An Example Completed Quota Gathering ScriptSo now we have a lot of the basics to creating a script, let us do something useful, like, find out how much every user is using, on every share on the system (you will recognise some of the code from my previous examples): script/************************************** Quick and Dirty Quota Check script ** Written By Geoff Ongley            ** 25 October 2010                    **************************************/function getUserQuota(usr){        run('select ' + usr);        var username=get('name');        var usage=get('usage');        var quota=get('quota');        var usage_g=usage / 1073741824; // convert bytes to gigabytes        var quota_g=quota / 1073741824; // as above        var quota_percent=0        if (quota > 0)        {                quota_percent=(usage / quota)*(100/1);        }        printf("    %20s        %8.2f           %8.2f           %d%%\n",username,usage_g,quota_g,quota_percent);        run('done'); // done with this selected user}function getShareQuota(shar){        //printf("DEBUG: selecting share %s\n", shar);        run('select ' + shar);        printf("  SHARE: %s\n", shar);        try        {                run('users');                printf("    %20s        %11s    %11s    %3s\n","Username","Usage(G)","Quota(G)","Quota(%)");                printf("    %20s        %11s    %11s    %4s\n","--------","--------","--------","--------");                                users=list();                for(k=0; k < users.length; k++)                {                        user=users[k];                        getUserQuota(user);                }                run('done'); // exit user context        }        catch(err)        {                printf("    SKIPPING %s - This is NOT a NFS or CIFs share, not looking for users\n", shar);        }        run('done'); // done with this share}function getShares(proj){        //printf("DEBUG: selecting project %s\n",proj);        run('select ' + proj);        shares=list();        printf("Project: %s\n", proj);        for(j=0; j < shares.length; j++)        {                share=shares[j];                getShareQuota(share);        }        run('done'); // exit selected project}function getProjects(){        run('cd /');        run('shares');        projects=list();                for (i=0; i < projects.length; i++)        {                var project=projects[i];                getShares(project);        }        run('done'); // exit context for all projects}getProjects();.Which can be run as follows, and will print information like this:[[email protected] ~/FISHWORKS_SCRIPTS] ssh -i ~/.ssh/nas_key_rsa [email protected] < get_quota_utilisation.ecma3Pseudo-terminal will not be allocated because stdin is not a terminal.Project: another-project  SHARE: and-another                Username           Usage(G)       Quota(G)    Quota(%)                --------           --------       --------    --------                  nobody            0.00            0.00        0%                 geoffro            0.05            0.00        0%                   Billy            0.10            0.00        0%                    root            0.00            0.00        0%            testing-user            0.05            0.00        0%  SHARE: another-share                Username           Usage(G)       Quota(G)    Quota(%)                --------           --------       --------    --------                    root            0.00            0.00        0%                  nobody            0.00            0.00        0%                 geoffro            0.05            0.49        9%            testing-user            0.05            0.02        249%                   Billy            0.10            0.29        33%  SHARE: bob                Username           Usage(G)       Quota(G)    Quota(%)                --------           --------       --------    --------                  nobody            0.00            0.00        0%                    root            0.00            0.00        0%  SHARE: more-shares-for-all                Username           Usage(G)       Quota(G)    Quota(%)                --------           --------       --------    --------                   Billy            0.10            0.00        0%            testing-user            0.05            0.00        0%                  nobody            0.00            0.00        0%                    root            0.00            0.00        0%                 geoffro            0.05            0.00        0%  SHARE: yep                Username           Usage(G)       Quota(G)    Quota(%)                --------           --------       --------    --------                    root            0.00            0.00        0%                  nobody            0.00            0.00        0%                   Billy            0.10            0.01        999%            testing-user            0.05            0.49        9%                 geoffro            0.05            0.00        0%Project: default  SHARE: Test-LUN    SKIPPING Test-LUN - This is NOT a NFS or CIFs share, not looking for users  SHARE: test-geoff                Username           Usage(G)       Quota(G)    Quota(%)                --------           --------       --------    --------                 geoffro            0.05            0.00        0%                    root            3.18           10.00        31%                    uucp            0.00            0.00        0%                  nobody            0.59            0.49        119%^CKilled by signal 2.Creating a WorkflowWorkflows are scripts that we store on the appliance, and can have the script execute either on request (even from the BUI), or on an event such as a threshold being met.Workflow BasicsA workflow allows you to create a simple process that can be executed either via the BUI interface interactively, or by an alert being raised (for some threshold being reached, for example).The basics parameters you will have to set for your "workflow object" (notice you're creating a variable, that embodies ECMAScript) are as follows (parameters is optional):name: A name for this workflowdescription: A Description for the workflowparameters: A set of input parameters (useful when you need user input to execute the workflow)execute: The code, the script itself to execute, which will be function (parameters)With parameters, you can specify things like this (slightly modified sample taken from the System Administration Guide):          ...parameters:        variableParam1:         {                             label: 'Name of Share',                             type: 'String'                  },                  variableParam2                  {                             label: 'Share Size',                             type: 'size'                  },execute: ....};  Note the commas separating the sections of name, parameters, execute, and so on. This is important!Also - there is plenty of properties you can set on the parameters for your workflow, these are described in the Sun ZFS Storage System Administration Guide.Creating a Basic Workflow from a Basic ScriptTo make a basic script into a basic workflow, you need to wrap the following around your script to create a 'workflow' object:var workflow = {name: 'Get User Quotas',description: 'Displays Quota Utilisation for each user on each share',execute: function() {// (basic script goes here, minus the "script" at the beginning, and "." at the end)}};However, it appears (at least in my experience to date) that the workflow object may only be happy with one function in the execute parameter - either that or I'm doing something wrong. As far as I can tell, after execute: you should only have a basic one function context like so:execute: function(){}To deal with this, and to give an example similar to our script earlier, I have created another simple quota check, to show the same basic functionality, but in a workflow format:var workflow = {name: 'Get User Quotas',description: 'Displays Quota Utilisation for each user on each share',execute: function () {        run('cd /');        run('shares');        projects=list();                for (i=0; i < projects.length; i++)        {                run('select ' + projects[i]);                shares=list('filesystem');                printf("Project: %s\n", projects[i]);                for(j=0; j < shares.length; j++)                {                        run('select ' +shares[j]);                        try                        {                                run('users');                                printf("  SHARE: %s\n", shares[j]);                                printf("    %20s        %11s    %11s    %3s\n","Username","Usage(G)","Quota(G)","Quota(%)");                                printf("    %20s        %11s    %11s    %4s\n","--------","--------","--------","-------");                                users=list();                                for(k=0; k < users.length; k++)                                {                                        run('select ' + users[k]);                                        username=get('name');                                        usage=get('usage');                                        quota=get('quota');                                        usage_g=usage / 1073741824; // convert bytes to gigabytes                                        quota_g=quota / 1073741824; // as above                                        quota_percent=0                                        if (quota > 0)                                        {                                                quota_percent=(usage / quota)*(100/1);                                        }                                        printf("    %20s        %8.2f   %8.2f   %d%%\n",username,usage_g,quota_g,quota_percent);                                        run('done');                                }                                run('done'); // exit user context                        }                        catch(err)                        {                        //      printf("    %s is a LUN, Not looking for users\n", shares[j]);                        }                        run('done'); // exit selected share context                }                run('done'); // exit project context        }        }};SummaryThe Sun ZFS Storage 7000 Appliance offers lots of different and interesting features to Sun/Oracle customers, including the world renowned Analytics. Hopefully the above will help you to think of new creative things you could be doing by taking advantage of one of the other neat features, the internal scripting engine!Some references are below to help you continue learning more, I'll update this post as I do the same! Enjoy...More information on ECMAScript 3A complete reference to ECMAScript 3 which will help you learn more of the details you may be interested in, can be found here:http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST-ARCH/ECMA-262,%203rd%20edition,%20December%201999.pdfMore Information on Administering the Sun ZFS Storage 7000The Sun ZFS Storage 7000 System Administration guide can be a useful reference point, and can be found here:http://wikis.sun.com/download/attachments/186238602/2010_Q3_2_ADMIN.pdf

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  • Restoring an Ubuntu Server using ZFS RAIDZ for data

    - by andybjackson
    Having become disillusioned with hacking Buffalo NAS devices, I've decided to roll my own Home server. After some research, I have settled on an HP Proliant Microserver with Ubuntu Server and ZFS (OS on 1 Ext4 disk, Data on 3 RAIDZ disks). As Joel Spolsky and Geoff Atwood say with regards to backup, I can't rest until I have done a restore in all of the failure scenarios that I am seeking to protect against. Q: How to configure Ubuntu Server to recognise a pre-existing RAIDZ array? Clearly if one of the data disks die - then that is a resilvering scenario, which is well documented. If two of the data disks die, then I am into regular backup/restore land. If the OS dies and I can restore, also an easy scenario. But if the OS dies and I can't restore, then I need to recreate an Ubuntu server. But how do I get this to recognise my RAID-Z array? Is the necessary configuration information stored within and across the RAIZ array and simply need to be found (if so, how)? Or does it reside on the OS ext4 disk (in which case how do I recreate it)?

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  • ZFS Basics

    - by user12614620
    Stage 1 basics: creating a pool # zpool create $NAME $REDUNDANCY $DISK1_0..N [$REDUNDANCY $DISK2_0..N]... $NAME = name of the pool you're creating. This will also be the name of the first filesystem and, by default, be placed at the mountpoint "/$NAME" $REDUNDANCY = either mirror or raidzN, and N can be 1, 2, or 3. If you leave N off, then it defaults to 1. $DISK1_0..N = the disks assigned to the pool. Example 1: zpool create tank mirror c4t1d0 c4t2d0 name of pool: tank redundancy: mirroring disks being mirrored: c4t1d0 and c4t2d0 Capacity: size of a single disk Example 2: zpool create tank raidz c4t1d0 c4t2d0 c4t3d0 c4t4d0 c4t5d0 Here the redundancy is raidz, and there are five disks, in a 4+1 (4 data, 1 parity) config. This means that the capacity is 4 times the disk size. If the command used "raidz2" instead, then the config would be 3+2. Likewise, "raidz3" would be a 2+3 config. Example 3: zpool create tank mirror c4t1d0 c4t2d0 mirror c4t3d0 c4t4d0 This is the same as the first mirror example, except there are two mirrors now. ZFS will stripe data across both mirrors, which means that writing data will go a bit faster. Note: you cannot create a mirror of two raidzs. You can create a raidz of mirrors, but to do that requires trickery.

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  • ZFS SAS/SATA controller recommendations

    - by ewwhite
    I've been working with OpenSolaris and ZFS for 6 months, primarily on a Sun Fire x4540 and standard Dell and HP hardware. One downside to standard Perc and HP Smart Array controllers is that they do not have a true "passthrough" JBOD mode to present individual disks to ZFS. One can configure multiple RAID 0 arrays and get them working in ZFS, but it impacts hotswap capabilities (thus requiring a reboot upon disk failure/replacement). I'm curious as to what SAS/SATA controllers are recommended for home-brewed ZFS storage solutions. In addition, what effect does battery-backed write cache (BBWC) have in ZFS storage?

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  • Where is the central ZFS website now?

    - by Stefan Lasiewski
    Oracle dumped OpenSolaris in Fall 2010, and it is unclear if Oracle will continue to publicly release updates to ZFS, except maybe after they release their next major version of Solaris. FreeBSD now has ZFS v28 available for testing. But where did v28 come from? I notice that the main ZFS website does not show version 28 available. Has this website been abandoned? If so, where is the central website for the ZFS project, so that I can browse the repo, read the mailing lists, read the release notes, etc. (I realize that OpenSolaris has been dumped by Oracle, and that they are limiting their ZFS releases to the community).

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  • ZFS + FreeBSD + virtualbox

    - by John
    Hi, I'm configuring a FreeBSD server hosting virtualbox serving half dozen mission critical busy mail servers. I just learned ZFS, I'm quite attracted, but have a few questions: what is the CPU overhead of ZFS? I googled and found little (or no) benchmark for that. from what I learned, when ZFS updates files, it keeps the old file as snapshot, and write the updated part for the new version. However that would mean for each snapshot it keeps that require significant storage overhead. How much is this storage overhead? For example, suppose I have 2TB usable space, how much space can actually be used for the latest version of files one year later? is FreeBSD with ZFS hosting virtualbox serving half dozen busy guest mission critical mail servers a reasonable combination? Anything particular to be careful with? And can I still choose ZFS for the guest OSs? This is because I may build another identical such box for redundancy, and will need to do some mirroring between each pair of the guest systems across the boxes. I'm trying to configure a Dell R710 for this. From what I learned, I shouldn't choose any RAID at all, is that true? In that case, are the drives still arrive hot swappable? this may sounds a bit pathetic, but since I have no experience with ZFS at all, and this is a mission critical server, so just ask just in case: I'm choosing twin Intel L5630 processors, and 6 x 600GB 15K RPM Serial-Attach SCSI drives. If I need more space in the future, I would just hot swap some drivers with larger capacity to expand the storage. There is no problem with these, right?

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  • Can't remove zfs log device from pool

    - by netmano
    I run a FreeBSD 9.0 server with ZFS pool version 28 and ZFS version 5. I had two pools with a log on ssd's two partitions. These pools was created on FreeBSD 8.2 with ZFS pool version 15, and ZFS version 4. After I upgraded to the new zfs version, I tried to remove the SSD log device from both pools both command was successful (no error message). One of the pools was the log removed, but the other still there, I down the server removed the ssd physically, and hoped it will be forgot by the zpool. The zpool became degraded as ssd was missing. I tied to remove again. No error message, but the log device entry still there. After it, to became the pool online again, I created a file on the root UFS partition and replaced the missing to device to this file. It was successful, the pool again online. However I can't remove the log device from the pool. Where can I have to look for error messages? (in dmesg there is nothing about it, also the zfs remove doesn't have any error message, it's seem like it was successful.

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  • Feedback on Using ZFS and FreeBSD

    - by ToiletOverflow
    I need to create a server that will be used solely for backing up files. The server will have 2TB of storage to begin with but I may want to add additional storage later on. As such, I am currently considering using FreeBSD + ZFS as the OS and file system. Is ZFS a reliable, trusted file system? Should I use it in this scenario? I have read that ZFS should be used with OpenSolaris over FreeBSD as OpenSolaris is usually ahead of the curve with ZFS as far as version updates and stability. However, I am not interested in using OpenSolaris for this project. An alternative option that I am considering is to stick with ext3 and create multiple volumes if need be, because I know that I will not need a single, continuous volume larger than 2TB. Thanks in advance for your feedback.

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