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  • Improving first person camera and implementing third person camera

    - by brainydexter
    I want to improve upon my first person camera implementation and extend it to, so the user can toggle between third person/first person view. My current setup: draw():: glPushMatrix(); m_pCamera->ApplyCameraTransform(); // Render gameObjects glPopMatrix(); Camera is strongly coupled to the player, so much so, that it is a friend of player. This is what the Camera::ApplyCameraTransform looks like: glm::mat4 l_TransformationMatrix; m_pPlayer->m_pTransformation->GetTransformation(l_TransformationMatrix, false); l_TransformationMatrix = glm::core::function::matrix::inverse(l_TransformationMatrix); glMultMatrixf(glm::value_ptr(l_TransformationMatrix)); So, I take the player's transformation matrix and invert it to yield First person camera view. Since, Third person camera view is just a 'translated' first person view behind the player; what would be a good way to improve upon this (keeping in mind that I will be extending it to Third person camera as well. Thanks

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  • Inverted textures

    - by brainydexter
    I'm trying to draw textures aligned with this physics body whose coordinate system's origin is at the center of the screen. (XNA)Spritebatch has its default origin set to top-left corner. I got the textures to be positioned correctly, but I noticed my textures are vertically inverted. That is, an arrow texture pointing Up , when rendered points down. I'm not sure where I am going wrong with the math. My approach is to convert everything in physic's meter units and draw accordingly. Matrix proj = Matrix.CreateOrthographic(scale * graphics.GraphicsDevice.Viewport.AspectRatio, scale, 0, 1); Matrix view = Matrix.Identity; effect.World = Matrix.Identity; effect.View = view; effect.Projection = proj; effect.TextureEnabled = true; effect.VertexColorEnabled = true; effect.Techniques[0].Passes[0].Apply(); SpriteBatch.Begin(SpriteSortMode.BackToFront, BlendState.AlphaBlend, null, DepthStencilState.Default, RasterizerState.CullNone, effect); m_Paddles[1].Draw(gameTime); SpriteBatch.End(); where Paddle::Draw looks like: SpriteBatch.Draw(paddleTexture, mBody.Position, null, Color.White, 0f, new Vector2(16f, 16f), // origin of the texture 0.1875f, SpriteEffects.None, // width of box is 3*2 = 6 meters. texture is 32 pixels wide. to make it 6 meters wide in world space: 6/32 = 0.1875f 0); The orthographic projection matrix seem fine to me, but I am obviously doing something wrong somewhere! Can someone please help me figure out what am i doing wrong here ? Thanks

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  • If not gamedev, what do I do !

    - by brainydexter
    Hi, I am a game dev who was working in the game-industry and then..got laid off. Ever since then, life couldn't get less stressful! During this time, I have met so many other devs who have also been laid off irrespective of the number of years they have been in the game. Now, the problem really gets worse, since I am not a US citizen (yes, I am in US) , and am on an international visa here, I might have to soon pack my bags and go back to my native country. Going back is not bad at all, apart from the fact, that gamedev is still in a very nascent stage there. There just aren't many opportunities. So, employment is the key to maintain a valid visa status. After giving it a lot of thought, I am thinking of staying away from gamedev jobs for the time being, given its job unstablity. This brings me to my current problem. I can't think of a domain/place where I can use my game development skills. I know graphics/simulation/visualization is huge, but I can't think straight and am left clueless where to go from here. What are some of the domains/companies where I can use my skills ? I'd appreciate any insight on this (and I apologize if this is not the place to post this kind of a question).

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  • Rendering skybox in first person shooter

    - by brainydexter
    I am trying to get a skybox rendered correctly in my first person shooter game. I have the skybox cube rendering using GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP. I author the cube with extents of -1 and 1 along X,Y and Z. However, I can't wrap my head around the camera transformations that I need to apply to get it right. My render loop looks something like this: mp_Camera-ApplyTransform() :: Takes the current player transformation and inverts it and pushes that on the modelview stack. Draw GameObjects Draw Skybox DrawSkybox does the following: glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP); glDepthMask(GL_FALSE); // draw the cube here with extents glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP); glDepthMask(GL_TRUE); Do I need to translate the skybox by the translation of the camera ? (btw, that didn't help either) EDIT: I forgot to mention: It looks like a small cube with unit extents. Also, I can strafe in/out of the cube. Screenshot:

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  • How to restrict paddle movement using Farseer Physics engine 3.2

    - by brainydexter
    I am new to using Farseer Physics Engine 3.2(FPE), so please bear with my questions. Also, since FPE 3.2 is based on Box2D, I have been reading Box2D manual and pieces of code scattered in samples to better understand terminology and usage. Pong is usually my testbed whenever I try to do something new. Here is one of the issue I am running into: How can I restrict paddles to move only along Y axis, because the ball comes in and knocks off the paddles and everything floats in space afterwards ? (Box = Rectangle and ball = circle) I know MKS is the unit system, but is there a recommendation for sizes/position to be used ? I know this is a very generic question, but it would be good to know a simple set of values that one could use for making a game as simple as pong. Between box2d and FPE, I have some doubts: what is the recommended way of making a body in FPE ? world.CreateBody() does not exist in FPE Box2d manual recommends never to "new" body(since Box2D uses Small Object allocators), so is there a recommended way in Farseer to create a body (apart from factories) ? In box2d, it is recommended to keep a track of the body object, since it is also the parent to fixture(s). Why is it that in most of the examples, the fixture object is tracked ? Is there a reason why body is not tracked ? Thanks

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  • FrameBuffer Render to texture not working all the way

    - by brainydexter
    I am learning to use Frame Buffer Objects. For this purpose, I chose to render a triangle to a texture and then map that to a quad. When I render the triangle, I clear the color to something blue. So, when I render the texture on the quad from fbo, it only renders everything blue, but doesn't show up the triangle. I can't seem to figure out why this is happening. Can someone please help me out with this ? I'll post the rendering code here, since glCheckFramebufferStatus doesn't complain when I setup the FBO. I've pasted the setup code at the end. Here is my rendering code: void FrameBufferObject::Render(unsigned int elapsedGameTime) { glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, m_FBO); glClearColor(0.0, 0.6, 0.5, 1); glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); // adjust viewport and projection matrices to texture dimensions glPushAttrib(GL_VIEWPORT_BIT); glViewport(0,0, m_FBOWidth, m_FBOHeight); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glOrtho(0, m_FBOWidth, 0, m_FBOHeight, 1.0, 100.0); glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadIdentity(); DrawTriangle(); glPopAttrib(); // setting FrameBuffer back to window-specified Framebuffer glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, 0); //unbind // back to normal viewport and projection matrix //glViewport(0, 0, 1280, 768); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); gluPerspective(45.0, 1.33, 1.0, 1000.0); glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadIdentity(); glClearColor(0, 0, 0, 0); glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); render(elapsedGameTime); } void FrameBufferObject::DrawTriangle() { glPushMatrix(); glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES); glColor3f(1, 0, 0); glVertex2d(0, 0); glVertex2d(m_FBOWidth, 0); glVertex2d(m_FBOWidth, m_FBOHeight); glEnd(); glPopMatrix(); } void FrameBufferObject::render(unsigned int elapsedTime) { glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, m_TextureID); glPushMatrix(); glTranslated(0, 0, -20); glBegin(GL_QUADS); glColor4f(1, 1, 1, 1); glTexCoord2f(1, 1); glVertex3f(1,1,1); glTexCoord2f(0, 1); glVertex3f(-1,1,1); glTexCoord2f(0, 0); glVertex3f(-1,-1,1); glTexCoord2f(1, 0); glVertex3f(1,-1,1); glEnd(); glPopMatrix(); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0); glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); } void FrameBufferObject::Initialize() { // Generate FBO glGenFramebuffers(1, &m_FBO); glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, m_FBO); // Add depth buffer as a renderbuffer to fbo // create depth buffer id glGenRenderbuffers(1, &m_DepthBuffer); glBindRenderbuffer(GL_RENDERBUFFER, m_DepthBuffer); // allocate space to render buffer for depth buffer glRenderbufferStorage(GL_RENDERBUFFER, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, m_FBOWidth, m_FBOHeight); // attaching renderBuffer to FBO // attach depth buffer to FBO at depth_attachment glFramebufferRenderbuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_DEPTH_ATTACHMENT, GL_RENDERBUFFER, m_DepthBuffer); // Adding a texture to fbo // Create a texture glGenTextures(1, &m_TextureID); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, m_TextureID); glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA8, m_FBOWidth, m_FBOHeight, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, 0); // onlly allocating space glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0); // attach texture to FBO glFramebufferTexture2D(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0, GL_TEXTURE_2D, m_TextureID, 0); // Check FBO Status if( glCheckFramebufferStatus(GL_FRAMEBUFFER) != GL_FRAMEBUFFER_COMPLETE) std::cout << "\n Error:: FrameBufferObject::Initialize() :: FBO loading not complete \n"; // switch back to window system Framebuffer glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, 0); } Thanks!

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  • Restoring projection matrix

    - by brainydexter
    I am learning to use FBOs and one of the things that I need to do when rendering something onto user defined FBO, I have to setup the projection, modelview and viewport for it. Once I am done rendering to the FBO, I need to restore these matrices. I found: glPushAttrib(GL_VIEWPORT_BIT); glPopAttrib(); to restore the viewport to its old state. Is there a way to restore the projection and modelview matrix to whatever it was earlier ? Tech: C++/OpenGL Thanks!

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  • Improve mouse movement in First person game

    - by brainydexter
    In my current FPS game, I have the mouse setup in a way, that it always forces the position of the mouse to be centered at the screen. This gets the job done, but also gets very annoying, since the mouse is "fixed" at the center of the screen. Here is what I am doing: get mouse current position find offset from center of the screen set mouse current position to center of the screen apply difference to m_pTransformation (transformation matrix of the player) Is there a better way to deal with this ?

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  • Make Pong on android using OpenGL-ES

    - by brainydexter
    I am trying to make a simple pong game using opengl-es. I have checked out some of the tutorials/samples, but most of them are pre-dated to 2009. I am familiar with game programming, and consider pong to be the hello-world! Right now, I intend to make it using their supplied SDK (2.3), but eventually I want to make it in NDK, so I can port my other work to android. Would anyone have a good reference for a starting point ? Thanks

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  • how to add water effect to an image

    - by brainydexter
    This is what I am trying to achieve: A given image would occupy say 3/4th height of the screen. The remaining 1/4th area would be a reflection of it with some waves (water effect) on it. I'm not sure how to do this. But here's my approach: render the given texture to another texture called mirror texture (maybe FBOs can help me?) invert mirror texture (scale it by -1 along Y) render mirror texture at height = 3/4 of the screen add some sense of noise to it OR using pixel shader and time, put pixel.z = sin(time) to make it wavy (Tech: C++/OpenGL/glsl) Is my approach correct ? Is there a better way to do this ? Also, can someone please recommend me if using FrameBuffer Objects would be the right thing here ? Thanks

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  • how to add water effect to an image

    - by brainydexter
    This is what I am trying to achieve: A given image would occupy say 3/4th height of the screen. The remaining 1/4th area would be a reflection of it with some waves (water effect) on it. I'm not sure how to do this. But here's my approach: render the given texture to another texture called mirror texture (maybe FBOs can help me?) invert mirror texture (scale it by -1 along Y) render mirror texture at height = 3/4 of the screen add some sense of noise to it OR using pixel shader and time, put pixel.z = sin(time) to make it wavy (Tech: C++/OpenGL/glsl) Is my approach correct ? Is there a better way to do this ? Also, can someone please recommend me if using FrameBuffer Objects would be the right thing here ? Thanks

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  • Mandelbrot set not displaying properly

    - by brainydexter
    I am trying to render mandelbrot set using glsl. I'm not sure why its not rendering the correct shape. Does the mandelbrot calculation require values to be within a range for the (x,y) [ or (real, imag) ] ? Here is a screenshot: I render a quad as follows: float w2 = 6; float h2 = 5; glBegin(GL_QUADS); glVertex3f(-w2, h2, 0.0); glVertex3f(-w2, -h2, 0.0); glVertex3f(w2, -h2, 0.0); glVertex3f(w2, h2, 0.0); glEnd(); My vertex shader: varying vec3 Position; void main(void) { Position = gl_Vertex.xyz; gl_Position = gl_ModelViewProjectionMatrix * gl_Vertex; } My fragment shader (where all the meat is): uniform float MAXITERATIONS; varying vec3 Position; void main (void) { float zoom = 1.0; float centerX = 0.0; float centerY = 0.0; float real = Position.x * zoom + centerX; float imag = Position.y * zoom + centerY; float r2 = 0.0; float iter; for(iter = 0.0; iter < MAXITERATIONS && r2 < 4.0; ++iter) { float tempreal = real; real = (tempreal * tempreal) + (imag * imag); imag = 2.0 * real * imag; r2 = (real * real) + (imag * imag); } vec3 color; if(r2 < 4.0) color = vec3(1.0); else color = vec3( iter / MAXITERATIONS ); gl_FragColor = vec4(color, 1.0); }

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  • glsl demo suggestions ?

    - by brainydexter
    In a lot of places I interviewed recently, I have been asked many a times if I have worked with shaders. Even though, I have read and understand the pipeline, the answer to that question has been no. Recently, one of the places asked me if I can send them a sample of 'something' that is "visually polished". So, I decided to take the plunge and wrote some simple shader in GLSL(with opengl).I now have a basic setup where I can use vbos with glsl shaders. I have a very short window left to send something to them and I was wondering if someone with experience, could suggest an idea that is interesting enough to grab someone's attention. Thanks

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  • design for supporting entities with images

    - by brainydexter
    I have multiple entities like Hotels, Destination Cities etc which can contain images. The way I have my system setup right now is, I think of all the images belonging to this universal set (a table in the DB contains filePaths to all the images). When I have to add an image to an entity, I see if the entity exists in this universal set of images. If it exists, attach the reference to this image, else create a new image. E.g.: class ImageEntityHibernateDAO { public void addImageToEntity(IContainImage entity, String filePath, String title, String altText) { ImageEntity image = this.getImage(filePath); if (image == null) image = new ImageEntity(filePath, title, altText); getSession().beginTransaction(); entity.getImages().add(image); getSession().getTransaction().commit(); } } My question is: Earlier I had to write this code for each entity (and each entity would have a Set collection). So, instead of re-writing the same code, I created the following interface: public interface IContainImage { Set<ImageEntity> getImages(); } Entities which have image collections also implements IContainImage interface. Now, for any entity that needs to support adding Image functionality, all I have to invoke from the DAO looks something like this: // in DestinationDAO::addImageToDestination { imageDao.addImageToEntity(destination, imageFileName, imageTitle, imageAltText); // in HotelDAO::addImageToHotel { imageDao.addImageToEntity(hotel, imageFileName, imageTitle, imageAltText); It'd be great help if someone can provide me some critique on this design ? Are there any serious flaws that I'm not seeing right away ?

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  • how should I design Objects around this business requirement?

    - by brainydexter
    This is the business requirement: " A Holiday Package (e.g. New York NY Holiday Package) can be offered in different ways based on the Origin city: From New Delhi to NY From Bombay to NY NY itself ( Land package ) (Bold implies default selection) a. and b. User can fly from either New Delhi or Bombay to NY. c. NY is a Land package, where a user can reach NY by himself and is a standalone holidayPackage. " Let's say I have a class that represents HolidayPackage, Destination (aka City). public class HolidayPackage{ Destination holidayCity; ArrayList<BaseHolidayPackageVariant> variants; BaseHolidayPackageVariant defaultVariant; } public abstract class BaseHolidayPackageVariant { private Integer variantId; private HolidayPackage holidayPackage; private String holidayPackageType; } public class LandHolidayPackageVariant extends BaseHolidayPackageVariant{ } public class FlightHolidayPackageVariant extends BaseHolidayPackageVariant{ private Destination originCity; } What data structure/objects should I design to support: options a default within those options Sidenote: A HolidayPackage can also be offered in different ways based on Hotel selections. I'd like to follow a design which I can leverage to support that use case in the future. This is the backend design I have in mind.

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  • return value (not a reference) from the function, bound to a const reference in the calling function

    - by brainydexter
    "If you return a value (not a reference) from the function, then bind it to a const reference in the calling function, its lifetime would be extended to the scope of the calling function." So: const BoundingBox Player::GetBoundingBox(void) { return BoundingBox( &GetBoundingSphere() ); } Returns a value of type const BoundingBox from function GetBoundingBox() Called function: (From within function Update() the following is called:) variant I: (Bind it to a const reference) const BoundingBox& l_Bbox = l_pPlayer->GetBoundingBox(); variant II: (Bind it to a const copy) const BoundingBox l_Bbox = l_pPlayer->GetBoundingBox(); Both work fine and I don't see the l_Bbox object going out of scope. (Though, I understand in variant one, the copy constructor is not called and thus is slightly better than variant II). Also, for comparison, I made the following changes. BoundingBox Player::GetBoundingBox(void) { return BoundingBox( &GetBoundingSphere() ); } with Variants: I BoundingBox& l_Bbox = l_pPlayer->GetBoundingBox(); and II: BoundingBox l_Bbox = l_pPlayer->GetBoundingBox(); The objet l_Bbox still does not out scope. So, I don't see how "bind it to a const reference in the calling function, its lifetime would be extended to the scope of the calling function", really extends the lifetime of the object to the scope of the calling function ? Am I missing something trivial here..please explain .. Thanks a lot

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  • Why does this Object wonk out & get deleted ?

    - by brainydexter
    Stepping through the debugger, the BBox object is okay at the entry of the function, but as soon as it enters the function, the vfptr object points to 0xccccc. I don't get it. What is causing this ? Why is there a virtual table reference in there when the object is not derived from other class. (Though, it resides in GameObject from which my Player class inherits and I retrieve the BBox from within player. But, why does the BBox have the reference ? Shouldn't it be player who should be maintained in that reference ?) For 1; some code for reference: A. I retrieve the bounding box from player. This returns a bounding box as expected. I then send its address to GetGridCells. const BoundingBox& l_Bbox = l_pPlayer-GetBoundingBox(); boost::unordered_set < Cell*, CellPHash & l_GridCells = GetGridCells ( &l_Bbox ); B. This is where a_pBoundingBox goes crazy and gets that garbage value. boost::unordered_set< Cell*, CellPHash CollisionMgr::GetGridCells(const BoundingBox *a_pBoundingBox) { I think the following code is also pertinent, so I'm sticking this in here anyways: const BoundingBox& Player::GetBoundingBox(void) { return BoundingBox( &GetBoundingSphere() ); } const BoundingSphere& Player::GetBoundingSphere(void) { BoundingSphere& l_BSphere = m_pGeomMesh-m_BoundingSphere; l_BSphere.m_Center = GetPosition(); return l_BSphere; } // BoundingBox Constructor BoundingBox(const BoundingSphere* a_pBoundingSphere); Can anyone please give me some idea as to why this is happening? Also, if you want me to post more code, please do let me know. Thanks!

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  • How to structure class to support imported 3d model ?

    - by brainydexter
    Hello, I've written a C++ library that reads in this 3d model file (collada DAE). uptil now, I would output a list of triangles and handle each at rendering stage. But now, I need to attach some Bounding sphere information with the imported model. I need some advice on how should I organize this in code. Here are some specs of the 3D file format: - 3D model is represented as a Tree consisting of nodes - each node can contain other nodes, geometry information, transformation etc My requirements: - a bounding sphere associated with each node, thereby yielding a tree of bounding sphere hierarchy for the model itself. - actual vertex information What would be the recommended way to deal with this situation? Thanks

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  • Free website hosting service for student portfolio

    - by brainydexter
    Hi, I am a student trying to find a host for my portfolio website. The website is made of simple .html and .css, and I don't need any support for database/php etc. What I am looking for is: Free No ads about 200 mb of space Some reliability since I will be sending it out to potential employers What will I host: html pages Some of my projects in a .zip format Really, that is it. Can someone please suggest me some reliable option ? Thanks

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  • How do I find hash value of a 3D vector ?

    - by brainydexter
    I am trying to perform broad-phase collision detection with a fixed-grid size approach. Thus, for each entity's position: (x,y,z) (each of type float), I need to find which cell does the entity lie in. I then intend to store all the cells in a hash-table and then iterate through to report (if any) collisions. So, here is what I am doing: Grid-cell's position: (int type) (Gx, Gy, Gz) = (x / M, y / M, z / M) where M is the size of the grid. Once, I have a cell, I'd like to add it to a hash-table with its key being a unique hash based on (Gx, Gy, Gz) and the value being the cell itself. Now, I cannot think of a good hash function and I need some help with that. Can someone please suggest me a good hash function? Thanks

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  • Returning object from function

    - by brainydexter
    I am really confused now on how and which method to use to return object from a function. I want some feedback on the solutions for the given requirements. Scenario A: The returned object is to be stored in a variable which need not be modified during its lifetime. Thus, const Foo SomeClass::GetFoo() { return Foo(); } invoked as: someMethod() { const Foo& l_Foo = someClassPInstance->GetFoo(); //... } Scneraio B: The returned object is to be stored in a variable which will be modified during its lifetime. Thus, void SomeClass::GetFoo(Foo& a_Foo_ref) { a_Foo_ref = Foo(); } invoked as: someMethod() { Foo l_Foo; someClassPInstance-GetFoo(l_Foo); //... } I have one question here: Lets say that Foo cannot have a default constructor. Then how would you deal with that in this situation, since we cant write this anymore: Foo l_Foo Scenario C: Foo SomeClass::GetFoo() { return Foo(); } invoked as: someMethod() { Foo l_Foo = someClassPInstance->GetFoo(); //... } I think this is not the recommended approach since it would incur constructing extra temporaries. What do you think ? Also, do you recommend a better way to handle this instead ?

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  • C++ Report alternatives ?

    - by brainydexter
    I came across this recommendation for reading the C++ report magazine. However, when I searched for it, i realized it has become defunct. Can someone please recommend me some other magazine / rss etc which is of the same genre ? I look forward to read more about some of the elusive and other C++ techniques that veterans are using in the field. I came across Dr. Dobb's journal - C++ feeds and I think they're pretty good too. Subscribed++ Thanks!

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  • Remove pointer object whose reference is mantained in three different lists

    - by brainydexter
    I am not sure how to approach this problem: 'Player' class mantains a list of Bullet* objects: class Player { protected: std::list< Bullet* > m_pBullet_list; } When the player fires a Bullet, it is added to this list. Also, inside the constructor of bullet, a reference of the same object is updated in CollisionMgr, where CollisionMgr also mantains a list of Bullet*. Bullet::Bullet(GameGL*a_pGameGL, Player*a_pPlayer) : GameObject( a_pGameGL ) { m_pPlayer = a_pPlayer; m_pGameGL->GetCollisionMgr()->AddBullet(this); } class CollisionMgr { void AddBullet(Bullet* a_pBullet); protected: std::list< Bullet*> m_BulletPList; } In CollisionMgr.Update(); based on some conditions, I populate class Cell which again contain a list of Bullet*. Finally, certain conditions qualify a Bullet to be deleted. Now, these conditions are tested upon while iterating through a Cell's list. So, if I have to delete the Bullet object, from all these places, how should I do it so that there are no more dangling references to it? std::list< Bullet*>::iterator bullet_it; for( bullet_it = (a_pCell->m_BulletPList).begin(); bullet_it != (a_pCell->m_BulletPList).end(); bullet_it++) { bool l_Bullet_trash = false; Bullet* bullet1 = *bullet_it; // conditions would set this to true if ( l_Bullet_Trash ) // TrashBullet( bullet1 ); continue; } Also, I was reading about list::remove, and it mentions that it calls the destructor of the object we are trying to delete. Given this info, if I delete from one list, the object does not exist, but the list would still contain a reference to it..How do I handle all these problems ? Can someone please help me here ? Thanks PS: If you want me to post more code or provide explanation, please do let me know.

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