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  • FAT Volume and CE

    - by Kate Moss' Open Space
    Whenever we format a disk volume, it is a good idea to name the label so it will be easier to categorize. To label a volume, we can use LABEL command or UI depends on your preference. Windows CE does provide FAT driver and support various format (FAT12, FAT16,FAT32, ExFAT and TFAT - transaction-safe FAT) and many feature to let you scan and even defrag the volume but not labeling. At any time you format a volume in CE and then mount it on PC, the label is always empty! Of course, you can always label the volume on PC, even it is formatted in CE. So looks like CE does not care about the volume label at all, neither report the label to OS nor changing the label on FAT.So how can we set the volume label in CE? To Answer this question, we need to know how does FAT stores the volume label. Here are some on-line resources are handy for parsing FAT. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Allocation_Table http://www.pjrc.com/tech/8051/ide/fat32.html http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/platform/firmware/fatgen.mspx You can refer to PUBLIC\COMMON\OAK\DRIVERS\FSD\FATUTIL\MAIN\bootsec.h and dosbpb.h or the above links for the fields we discuss here. The first sector of a FAT Volume (it is not necessary to be the first sector of a disk.) is a FAT boot sector and BPB (BIOS Parameter Block). And at offset 43, bgbsVolumeLabel (or bsVolumeLabel on FAT16) is for storing the volume lable, but note in the spec also indicates "FAT file system drivers should make sure that they update this field when the volume label file in the root directory has its name changed or created.". So we can't just simply update the bgbsVolumeLabel but also need to create a volume lable file in root directory. The volume lable file is not a real file but just a file entry in root directory with zero file lenth and a very special file attribute, ATTR_VOLUME_ID. (defined in public\common\oak\drivers\fsd\fatutil\MAIN\fatutilp.h) Locating and accessing bootsector is quite straight forward, as long as we know the starting sector of a FAT volume, that's it. But where is the root directory? The layout of a typical FAT is like this Boot sector (Volume ID in the figure) followed by Reserved Sectors (1 on FAT12/16 and 32 on FAT32), then FAT chain table(s) (can be 1 or 2), after that is the root directory (FAT12/16 and not shows in the figure) then begining of the File and Directories. In FAT12/16, the root directory is placed right after FAT so it is not hard to caculate the offset in the volume. But in FAT32, this rule is no longer true: the first cluster of the root directory is determined by BGBPB_RootDirStrtClus (or offset 44 in boot sector). Although this field is usually 0x00000002 (it is how CE initial the root directory after formating a volume. Note we should never assume it is always true) which means the first cluster contains data but not like the root directory is contiguous in FAT12/16, it is just like a regular file can be fragmented. So we need to access the root directory (of FAT32) hopping one cluster to another by traversing FAT table. Let's trace the code now. Although the source of FAT driver is not available in CE Shared Source program, but the formatter, Fatutil.dll, is available in public\common\oak\drivers\fsd\fatutil\MAIN\formatdisk.cpp. Be aware the public code only provides formatter for FAT12/16/32 for ExFAT it is still not available. FormatVolumeInternal is the main worker function. With the knowledge here, you should be able the trace the code easily. But I would like to discuss the following code pieces     dwReservedSectors = (fo.dwFatVersion == 32) ? 32 : 1;     dwRootEntries = (fo.dwFatVersion == 32) ? 0 : fo.dwRootEntries; Note the dwReservedSectors is 32 in FAT32 and 1 in FAT12/16. Root Entries is another different mentioned in previous paragraph, 0 for FAT32 (dynamic allocated) and fixed size (usually 512, defined in DEFAULT_ROOT_ENTRIES in public\common\sdk\inc\fatutil.h) And then here   memset(pBootSec->bsVolumeLabel, 0x20, sizeof(pBootSec->bsVolumeLabel)); It sets the Volume Label as empty string. Now let's carry on to the next section - write the root directory.     if (fo.dwFatVersion == 32) {         if (!(fo.dwFlags & FATUTIL_FORMAT_TFAT)) {             dwRootSectors = dwSectorsPerCluster;         }         else {             DIRENTRY    dirEntry;             DWORD       offset;             int               iVolumeNo;             memset(pbBlock, 0, pdi->di_bytes_per_sect);             memset(&dirEntry, 0, sizeof(DIRENTRY));                         dirEntry.de_attr = ATTR_VOLUME_ID;             // the first one is volume label             memcpy(dirEntry.de_name, "TFAT       ", sizeof (dirEntry.de_name));             memcpy(pbBlock, &dirEntry, sizeof(dirEntry));              ...             // Skip the next step of zeroing out clusters             dwCurrentSec += dwSectorsPerCluster;             dwRootSectors = 0;         }     }     // Each new root directory sector needs to be zeroed.     memset(pbBlock, 0, cbSizeBlk);     iRootSec=0;     while ( iRootSec < dwRootSectors) { Basically, the code zero out the each entry in root directory depends on dwRootSectors. In FAT12/16, the dwRootSectors is calculated as the sectors we need for the root entries (512 for most of the case) and in FAT32 it just zero out the one cluster. Please note that, if it is a TFAT volume, it initialize the root directory with special volume label entries for some special purpose. Despite to its unusual initialization process for TFAT, it does provide a example for how to create a volume entry. With some minor modification, we can assign the volume label in FAT formatter and also remember to sync the volume label with bsVolumeLabel or bgbsVolumeLabel in boot sector.

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  • Hiding a directory through the FAT table

    - by hennobal
    I've looked into the FAT file system, trying to find a way to make a directory hidden from view of the user. This has been done with malware previously, so it should be possible. The SpyEye trojan hid inside a directory C:\cleansweep.exe\ which was only reachable through the command line. I know deletion is possible by substituting the first character of the directory in the FAT table with 0xE5, but then it will not be accessible. Any ideas on how the scenario from SpyEye can be recreated? Any filesystem is interesting, but ideally FAT or NTFS.

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  • How to delete/edit files from readonly filesystem

    - by Santosh Linkha
    I am having problem with my memory device (actually a memory card that act external memory device like pendrive). [email protected]:/var/www/zendtest$ sudo rm /media/A88F-8788/python-2.7.1-docs-html.zip rm: cannot remove `/media/A88F-8788/python-2.7.1-docs-html.zip': Read-only file system I tried to change the file permission of the system but that doesn't work [email protected]:/var/www/zendtest$ sudo chmod 0777 /media/A88F-8788/python-2.7.1-docs-html.zip chmod: changing permissions of `/media/A88F-8788/python-2.7.1-docs-html.zip': Read-only file system But it perfectly works on windows. UPDATE On opening the drive and running command sudo mount -o remount,rw /media/A88F-8788 /var/log/syslog: Mar 23 15:29:48 workmateX kernel: [18042.257407] fat_get_cluster: 11 callbacks suppressed Mar 23 15:29:48 workmateX kernel: [18042.257414] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:29:48 workmateX kernel: [18042.257418] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:29:48 workmateX kernel: [18042.257425] FAT: Filesystem has been set read-only Mar 23 15:29:48 workmateX kernel: [18042.258187] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:29:48 workmateX kernel: [18042.258194] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.333787] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.333795] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.335949] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.335957] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.354903] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.354911] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.357213] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.357221] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.359547] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.359555] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.361929] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.361936] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.377416] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.377424] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.379384] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.379392] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.381898] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.381906] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.383764] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:35 workmateX kernel: [18149.383772] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.569747] fat_get_cluster: 11 callbacks suppressed Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.569754] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.569758] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.569765] FAT: Filesystem has been set read-only Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.572022] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.572029] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.582933] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.582941] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.585921] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.585929] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.587819] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.587827] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.597547] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.597555] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.599503] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.599511] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.602896] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.602905] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.615338] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.615346] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.618574] FAT: Filesystem error (dev sdb1) Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.618581] fat_get_cluster: invalid cluster chain (i_pos 0) var/log/message: Mar 23 15:29:48 workmateX kernel: [18042.257407] fat_get_cluster: 11 callbacks suppressed Mar 23 15:31:40 workmateX kernel: [18154.569747] fat_get_cluster: 11 callbacks suppressed

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  • Does the FAT filesystem have a signature?

    - by DxCK
    Given the following BPB: The "MSWIN4.1" string is just the "OEM ID" field, and by Microsoft documentation it should not be used to identify FAT volumes. The "FAT32 " string is the BS_FilSysType field, and by Microsoft documentation it should not be used to identify FAT volumes either. So how do i identify that the volume is formatted to FAT? Is there any reliable signature I can relay on?

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  • How do i compile a static library (fat) for armv6, armv7 and i386

    - by unforgiven
    I know this question has been posed several times, but my goal is slightly different with regard to what I have found searching the web. Specifically, I am already able to build a static library for iPhone, but the final fat file I am able to build only contains arm and i386 architectures (and I am not sure to what arm refers: is v6 or v7?). I am not able to compile specifically for armv6 and armv7 and them merge both architectures using lipo. The lipo tool complains that the same architecture (arm, not armv6 or armv7) is present in both the armv6 and armv7 libraries. Can someone explain exactly how to build for armv6 and armv7, and them merge these libraries into a fat file using lipo?

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  • Fat ASP.NET MVC Controllers

    - by Mosh
    Hello, I have been reading about "Fat Controllers" but most of the articles out there focus on pulling the service/repository layer logic out of the controller. However, I have run into a different situation and am wondering if anyone has any ideas for improvement. I have a controller with too many actions and am wondering how I can break this down into many controllers with fewer actions. All these actions are responsible for inserting/updating/removing objects that all belong to the same aggregate. So I'm not quiet keen in having a seperate controller for each class that belongs to this aggregate... To give you more details, this controller is used in a tabbed page. Each tab represents a portion of the data for editing and all the domain model objects used here belong to the same aggregate. Any advice? Cheers, Mosh

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  • PHP - "Fat Free Framework" Find Methods and Showing Results in Template

    - by user1672808
    Just started trying the "Fat Free Framework" I'm building a site using a MySQL DB with 265 fields, and 5000+ rows in the DB; I can load() a specific record easily, no problems. When using find(), afind(), and even "select()", template will show blank lines or lines with "filler" text, with the correct number of rows for the query results, but no text/data from the DB itself; Same problem whether using objects or simply arrays from result (afind() and find()). I've copied/pasted the code verbatim from examples and from documentation, with only the DB specific items changed. Still, no luck. CODE IN PHP FILE (function from CLASS): static function home() { $featured=new Axon('boats'); $F3::set('boatlist',$featured->afind('D_CustomerID=173')); F3::set('content',TEMPLATE_DIR .'/home.html'); echo Template::serve(TEMPLATE_DIR .'/layout.html'); } TEMPLATE home.html: <div class="span8"> <h3> Featured Boats </h3> <F3:repeat group="{{@boatlist}}" value="{{@boat}}"> <div style="margin-left: 2em" class="thumbnails"> <p> <a href="boat/{{@boat['D_BoatNum']}}">{{trim(@boat['D_Description'])}}</a> by {{@boat['D_CustomerID']}} </p> <p> {{@boat['D_Price']}} </p> </div> </F3:repeat> </div> The number of rows this produces coincides with the correct number of rows in the DB. However, the actual data from each field does not show. Any ideas?

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  • File sizing issue in DOS/FAT

    - by Heather
    I've been tasked with writing a data collection program for a Unitech HT630, which runs a proprietary DOS operating system that can run executables compiled for 16-bit MS DOS with some restrictions. I'm using the Digital Mars C/C++ compiler, which is working well thus far. One of the application requirements is that the data file must be human-readable plain text, meaning the file can be imported into Excel or opened by Notepad. I'm using a variable length record format much like CSV that I've successfully implemented using the C standard library file I/O functions. When saving a record, I have to calculate whether the updated record is larger or smaller than the version of the record currently in the data file. If larger, I first shift all records immediately after the current record forward by the size difference calculated before saving the updated record. EOF is extended automatically by the OS to accommodate the extra data. If smaller, I shift all records backwards by my calculated offset. This is working well, however I have found no way to modify the EOF marker or file size to ignore the data after the end of the last record. Most of the time records will grow in size because the data collection program will be filling some of the empty fields with data when saving a record. Records will only shrink in size when a correction is made on an existing entry, or on a normal record save if the descriptive data in the record is longer than what the program reads in memory. In the situation of a shrinking record, after the last record in the file I'm left with whatever data was sitting there before the shift. I have been writing an EOF delimiter into the file after a "shrinking record save" to signal where the end of my records are and space-filling the remaining data, but then I no longer have a clean file until a "growing record save" extends the size of the file over the space-filled area. The truncate() function in unistd.h does not work (I'm now thinking this is for *nix flavors only?). One proposed solution I've seen involves creating a second file and writing all the data you wish to save into that file, and then deleting the original. Since I only have 4MB worth of disk space to use, this works if the file size is less than 2MB minus the size of my program executable and configuration files, but would fail otherwise. It is very likely that when this goes into production, users would end up with a file exceeding 2MB in size. I've looked at Ralph Brown's Interrupt List and the interrupt reference in IBM PC Assembly Language and Programming and I can't seem to find anything to update the file size or similar. Is reducing a file's size without creating a second file even possible in DOS?

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  • Introducing Oracle VM VirtualBox

    - by Fat Bloke
    I guess these things always take longer than expected and, while the dust is still not completely settled in all the ex-Sun geographies, it is high time we started looking at some of the great new assets in the Oracle VM portfolio. So let's start with one of the most exciting: Oracle VM VirtualBox. VirtualBox is cross-platform virtualization software, oftentimes called a hypervisor, and it runs on Windows, Linux, Solaris and the Mac. Which means that you download it, you install it on your existing platform, and start creating and running virtual machines alongside your existing applications. For example, on my Mac I can run Oracle Enterprise Linux and Windows 7 alongside my Mac apps like this...(Click to zoom)VirtualBox use has grown phenomenally to the point that at Sun it was the 3rd most popular download behind Java and MySQL. Its success can be attributed to the fact that it doesn't need dedicated hardware, it can be installed on either client or server classes of computers, is very easy to use and is free for personal use. And, as you might expect, VirtualBox has it's own vibrant community too, over at www.virtualbox.org There are hundreds of tutorials out there about how to use VirtualBox to create vm's and install different operating systems ranging from Windows 7 to ChromeOS, and if you don't want to install an operating system yourself, you can download pre-built virtual appliances from community sites such as VirtualBox Images or commercial companies selling subscriptions to whole application stacks, such as JumpBox . In no time you'll be creating and sharing your own vm's using the VirtualBox OVF export and import function. VirtualBox is deceptively powerful. Under the simple GUI lies a formidable engine capable of running heavyweight multi-CPU virtual workloads, exhibiting Enterprise capabilities including a built-in remote display server, an iSCSI initiator for connecting to shared storage, and the ability to teleport running vm's from one host to another. And for solution builders, you should be aware that VirtualBox has a scriptable command line interface and an SDK and rich web service APIs. To get a further feel for what VirtualBox is capable of, check out some of these short movies or simply go download it for yourself.- FB

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  • "wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock" error while mounting FAT Drives

    - by cshubhamrao
    I am unable to mount any fat32 or fat16 formatted usb disks under Ubuntu 13.10. The thing here to note is that it is happening only with fat formatted Disks. ntfs, ext formatted external usb disks work well (I tried formatting the same with ext4 and it worked) While mounting via nautilus: Error while mounting from terminal: [email protected]:~# mount -t vfat /dev/sdc1 /media/shubham/n mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/sdc1, missing codepage or helper program, or other error In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try dmesg | tail or so As suggested by the error: Output from dmesg | tail [email protected]:~# dmesg | tail [ 3545.482598] scsi8 : usb-storage 1-1:1.0 [ 3546.481530] scsi 8:0:0:0: Direct-Access SanDisk Cruzer 1.26 PQ: 0 ANSI: 5 [ 3546.482373] sd 8:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg3 type 0 [ 3546.483758] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdc] 15633408 512-byte logical blocks: (8.00 GB/7.45 GiB) [ 3546.485254] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdc] Write Protect is off [ 3546.485262] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdc] Mode Sense: 43 00 00 00 [ 3546.488314] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdc] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA [ 3546.499820] sdc: sdc1 [ 3546.503388] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdc] Attached SCSI removable disk [ 3547.273396] FAT-fs (sdc1): IO charset iso8859-1 not found Output from fsck.vfat: [email protected]:~# fsck.vfat /dev/sdc1 dosfsck 3.0.16, 01 Mar 2013, FAT32, LFN /dev/sdc1: 1 files, 1/1949978 clusters All normal Tried re-creating the whole partition table and then formatting as fat32 but to no avail so the possibility of corrupted drive is ruled out. Tried the same with around 4 Disks or so and all have the same things

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  • Ingredient Substitutes while Baking

    - by Rekha
    In our normal cooking, we substitute the vegetables for the gravies we prepare. When we start baking, we look for a good recipe. At least one or two ingredient will be missing. We do not know where to substitute what to bring same output. So we finally drop the plan of baking. Again after a month, we get the interest in baking. Again one or two lack of ingredient and that’s it. We keep on doing this for months. When I was going through the cooking blogs, I came across a site with the Ingredient Substitutes for Baking: (*) is to indicate that this substitution is ideal from personal experience. Flour Substitutes ( For 1 cup of Flour) All Purpose Flour 1/2 cup white cake flour plus 1/2 cup whole wheat flour 1 cup self-rising flour (omit using salt and baking powder if the recipe calls for it since self raising flour has it already) 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour 1/2 cup (75 grams) whole wheat flour 7/8 cup (130 grams) rice flour (starch) (do not replace all of the flour with the rice flour) 7/8 cup whole wheat Bread Flour 1 cup all purpose flour 1 cup all purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon wheat gluten (*) Cake Flour Place 2 tbsp cornstarch in 1 cup and fill the rest up with All Purpose flour (*) 1 cup all purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons Pastry flour Place 2 tbsp cornstarch in 1 cup and fill the rest up with All Purpose flour Equal parts of All purpose flour plus cake flour (*) Self-rising Flour 1½ teaspoons of baking powder plus ½ teaspoon of salt plus 1 cup of all-purpose flour. Cornstarch (1 tbsp) 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour 1 tablespoon arrowroot 4 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca 1 tablespoon potato starch or rice starch or flour Tapioca (1 tbsp) 1 – 1/2 tablespoons all-purpose flour Cornmeal (stone ground) polenta OR corn flour (gives baked goods a lighter texture) if using cornmeal for breading,crush corn chips in a blender until they have the consistency of cornmeal. maize meal Corn grits Sweeteners ( for Every 1 cup ) * * (HV) denotes Healthy Version for low fat or fat free substitution in Baking Light Brown Sugar 2 tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup of white sugar Dark Brown Sugar 3 tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup of white sugar Confectioner’s/Powdered Sugar Process 1 cup sugar plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch Corn Syrup 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water 1 cup Golden Syrup 1 cup honey (may be little sweeter) 1 cup molasses Golden Syrup Combine two parts light corn syrup plus one part molasses 1/2 cup honey plus 1/2 cup corn syrup 1 cup maple syrup 1 cup corn syrup Honey 1- 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water 3/4 cup maple syrup plus 1/2 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup corn syrup plus 1/2 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup light molasses plus 1/2 cup granulated white sugar 1 1/4 cups granulated white or brown sugar plus 1/4 cup additional liquid in recipe plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar Maple Syrup 1 cup honey,thinned with water or fruit juice like apple 3/4 cup corn syrup plus 1/4 cup butter 1 cup Brown Rice Syrup 1 cup Brown sugar (in case of cereals) 1 cup light molasses (on pancakes, cereals etc) 1 cup granulated sugar for every 3/4 cup of maple syrup and increase liquid in the recipe by 3 tbsp for every cup of sugar.If baking soda is used, decrease the amount by 1/4 teaspoon per cup of sugar substituted, since sugar is less acidic than maple syrup Molasses 1 cup honey 1 cup dark corn syrup 1 cup maple syrup 3/4 cup brown sugar warmed and dissolved in 1/4 cup of liquid ( use this if taste of molasses is important in the baked good) Cocoa Powder (Natural, Unsweetened) 3 tablespoons (20 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar 1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon) 3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder Semisweet baking chocolate (1 oz) 1 oz unsweetened baking chocolate plus 1 Tbsp sugar Unsweetened baking chocolate (1 oz ) 3 Tbsp baking cocoa plus 1 Tbsp vegetable oil or melted shortening or margarine Semisweet chocolate chips (1 cup) 6 oz semisweet baking chocolate, chopped (Alternatively) For 1 cup of Semi sweet chocolate chips you can use : 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder, 7 tablespoons sugar ,1/4 cup fat (butter or oil) Leaveners and Diary * * (HV) denotes Healthy Version for low fat or fat free substitution in Baking Compressed Yeast (1 cake) 1 envelope or 2 teaspoons active dry yeast 1 packet (1/4 ounce) Active Dry yeast 1 cake fresh compressed yeast 1 tablespoon fast-rising active yeast Baking Powder (1 tsp) 1/3 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 1/2 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/3 cup molasses. When using the substitutions that include liquid, reduce other liquid in recipe accordingly Baking Soda(1 tsp) 3 tsp Baking Powder ( and reduce the acidic ingredients in the recipe. Ex Instead of buttermilk add milk) 1 tsp potassium bicarbonate Ideal substitution – 2 tsp Baking powder and omit salt in recipe Cream of tartar (1 tsp) 1 teaspoon white vinegar 1 tsp lemon juice Notes from What’s Cooking America – If cream of tartar is used along with baking soda in a cake or cookie recipe, omit both and use baking powder instead. If it calls for baking soda and cream of tarter, just use baking powder.Normally, when cream of tartar is used in a cookie, it is used together with baking soda. The two of them combined work like double-acting baking powder. When substituting for cream of tartar, you must also substitute for the baking soda. If your recipe calls for baking soda and cream of tarter, just use baking powder. One teaspoon baking powder is equivalent to 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar. If there is additional baking soda that does not fit into the equation, simply add it to the batter. Buttermilk (1 cup) 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar (white or cider) plus enough milk to make 1 cup (let stand 5-10 minutes) 1 cup plain or low fat yogurt 1 cup sour cream 1 cup water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder 1 cup milk plus 1 1/2 – 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar Plain Yogurt (1 cup) 1 cup sour cream 1 cup buttermilk 1 cup crème fraiche 1 cup heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1 tablespoon freshly squeezed lemon juice Whole Milk (1 cup) 1 cup fat free milk plus 1 tbsp unsaturated Oil like canola (HV) 1 cup low fat milk (HV) Heavy Cream (1 cup) 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup melted butter.(whipping wont work) Sour Cream (1 cup) (pls refer also Substitutes for Fats in Baking below) 7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk plus 3 tablespoons butter. 1 cup thickened yogurt plus 1 teaspoon baking soda. 3/4 cup sour milk plus 1/3 cup butter. 3/4 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup butter. Cooked sauces: 1 cup yogurt plus 1 tablespoon flour plus 2 teaspoons water. Cooked sauces: 1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice. Let stand 5 minutes to thicken. Dips: 1 cup yogurt (drain through a cheesecloth-lined sieve for 30 minutes in the refrigerator for a thicker texture). Dips: 1 cup cottage cheese plus 1/4 cup yogurt or buttermilk, briefly whirled in a blender. Dips: 6 ounces cream cheese plus 3 tablespoons milk,briefly whirled in a blender. Lower fat: 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice plus 2 tablespoons skim milk, whipped until smooth in a blender. Lower fat: 1 can chilled evaporated milk whipped with 1 teaspoon lemon juice. 1 cup plain yogurt plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch 1 cup plain nonfat yogurt Substitutes for Fats in Baking * * (HV) denoted Healthy Version for low fat or fat free substitution in Baking Butter (1 cup) 1 cup trans-free vegetable shortening 3/4 cups of vegetable oil (example. Canola oil) Fruit purees (example- applesauce, pureed prunes, baby-food fruits). Add it along with some vegetable oil and reduce any other sweeteners needed in the recipe since fruit purees are already sweet. 1 cup polyunsaturated margarine (HV) 3/4 cup polyunsaturated oil like safflower oil (HV) 1 cup mild olive oil (not extra virgin)(HV) Note: Butter creates the flakiness and the richness which an oil/purees cant provide. If you don’t want to compromise that much to taste, replace half the butter with the substitutions. Shortening(1 cup) 1 cup polyunsaturated margarine like Earth Balance or Smart Balance(HV) 1 cup + 2tbsp Butter ( better tasting than shortening but more expensive and has cholesterol and a higher level of saturated fat; makes cookies less crunchy, bread crusts more crispy) 1 cup + 2 tbsp Margarine (better tasting than shortening but more expensive; makes cookies less crunchy, bread crusts tougher) 1 Cup – 2tbsp Lard (Has cholesterol and a higher level of saturated fat) Oil equal amount of apple sauce stiffly beaten egg whites into batter equal parts mashed banana equal parts yogurt prune puree grated raw zucchini or seeds removed if cooked. Works well in quick breads/muffins/coffee cakes and does not alter taste pumpkin puree (if the recipe can handle the taste change) Low fat cottage cheese (use only half of the required fat in the recipe). Can give rubbery texture to the end result Silken Tofu – (use only half of the required fat in the recipe). Can give rubbery texture to the end result Equal parts of fruit juice Note: Fruit purees can alter the taste of the final product is used in large quantities. Cream Cheese (1 cup) 4 tbsps. margarine plus 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese – blended. Add few teaspoons of fat-free milk if needed (HV) Heavy Cream (1 cup) 1 cup evaporated skim milk (or full fat milk) 1/2 cup low fat Yogurt plus 1/2 low fat Cottage Cheese (HV) 1/2 cup Yogurt plus 1/2 Cottage Cheese Sour Cream (1 cup) 1 cup plain yogurt (HV) 3/4 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt plus 1/3 cup melted butter 1 cup crème fraiche 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough whole milk to fill 1 cup (let stand 5-10 minutes) 1/2 cup low-fat cottage cheese plus 1/2 cup low-fat or nonfat yogurt (HV) 1 cup fat-free sour cream (HV) Note: How to Make Maple Syrup Substitute at home For 1 Cup Maple Syrup 1/2 cup granulated sugar 1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed 1 cup boiling water 1 teaspoon butter 1 teaspoon maple extract or vanilla extract Method In a heavy saucepan, place the granulated sugar and keep stirring until it melts and turns slightly brown. Alternatively in another pan, place brown sugar and water and bring to a boil without stirring. Now mix both the sugars and simmer in low heat until they come together as one thick syrup. Remove from heat, add butter and the extract. Use this in place of maple syrup. Store it in a fridge in an air tight container. Even though this was posted in their site long back, I found it helpful. So posting it for you. via chefinyou . cc image credit: flickr/zetrules

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  • Proxy settings do not promulgate to fat or thin clients

    - by solizin47
    I work in Hertfordshire schools, which use a proxy eg http://wf1.thegrid.org.uk on port 80 to allow graded access by all users, within the schools, to the Internet. I have Ubuntu 10.04LTS successfully running and I want to set up 12.04LTS to replace it. Many other replies to this question have answered questions about stand-alone computers and not addressed the LTSP server and its clients. I have come to a complete stop over the problem of the proxy server settings not promulgating over the local network to Ubuntu 12.04 thin or fat clients. When you input this setting (there are others for HTTPS and FTP) into the System Settings/Network Manager GUI on the server, then when a user logs into the server, both Firefox and Chrome can read the settings and will gain access to the Internet. HOWEVER, these settings are not promulgated to either thin or fat clients on the local network. Their System Settings/Network Manager GUI remains stubbornly blank. I have rebuilt the image after inputting the proxy settings, but it appears they are not part of the image. /etc/environment (on the server) already has: PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games" http_proxy="http://wf1.thegrid.org.uk:80/" https_proxy="https://wf1.thegrid.org.uk:80/" ftp_proxy="ftp://proxy.intra.thegrid.org.uk:3128/" I have also tried this export http_proxy="http://wf1.thegrid.org.uk:80" export https_proxy="http://wf1.thegrid.org.uk:80" export ftp_proxy="http://proxy.intra.thegrid.org.uk:3128" within /etc/environment, and that had no effect, either. etc/apt/apt.conf also has: Acquire::http::proxy "http://wf1.thegrid.org.uk:80/"; Acquire::https::proxy "https://wf1.thegrid.org.uk:80/"; Acquire::ftp::proxy "ftp://proxy.intra.thegrid.org.uk:3128/"; The clients still have no proxy settings in their Network Manager, and no client user can access the Internet from Firefox or Chrome. Three questions: Why doesn't the “Apply system wide” button work? It does on 10.04, and every new user, and all existing users have access to the internet through the proxy without problem. How can I set up proxy settings that work for all the 12.04 clients? I noticed that if user West input the settings himself, they would follow him around the clients. However, this is not secure, because there are grades of settings which prevent visits to various sites, eg wf3 allows fewer sites than wf2 or wf1, so I can't allow users to input this setting themselves. Since the proxy setting followed the user around the clients, the setting must be somewhere in the user profile, since none of the other users have the proxy settings. Do you know where, and how I could fix the setting for users, or better, groups? The setting must then be unchangeable by the user, with no access to the Network Manager. If either 2. or 3. can't be done, then the Ubuntu 12.04LTS server is simply no use to us...

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  • BFCM &ndash; Big Fat Check Mark

    - by onefloridacoder
    I was installing TFS on my local laptop last week and just got around to setting up my initial collection using the TFS Console tool and “Bang!”  I received a message that told me that my local database didn’t have the full-text search option installed.  I remember the option in a (long) list of options and didn’t remember fiddling with it.   Whatever the reason, if you are installing TFS Basic on your box, make sure you have that little check ticked, or you won’t get the big fat one pictured above.  I installed SQL 2008 Developer edition which worked well for what I needed so far, and just needed to run the “Add Feature” option instead of the “Repair” option. HTH

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  • How to recover a file using the FAT cluster chain instead of using the stored length in the FAT table?

    - by cadrian
    I'm trying to recover movie files from my TNT receiver hard drive but it corrupts its FAT32 allocation table (crappy cheap device...) Using dosfsck is useless because the correct file length is the cluster length, not the (shorter) one in the table, and dosfsck only proposes to shorten the file, which I won't do. Question: how to recover a file using the FAT cluster chain instead of using the stored length in the FAT table? Edit I forgot to say: Linux solutions only please (I have no windows box)

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  • rsync not working between NTFS/FAT and EXT

    - by wim
    I have music that I play in my car, from an FAT32 USB stick. The folder which I use to put songs on is stored on my EXT4 hard drive. I add/remove/retag songs regularly and occassionally want to rsync the changes to the USB stick. But for some unknown reason (maybe permissions?), rsync copies all the files every time rather than just changed ones. I am calling rsync like : rsync -vrlptgD source dest How can I make it work like I want it to (i.e. know when a file hasn't been changed and don't copy it)?

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  • Windows FAT/NTFS Low-Level Disk Viewer (Norton DiskEdit alternative)

    - by Synetech inc.
    Hi, One of my most valuable software tools has always been Norton DiskEdit from Norton Utilities/Symantec Systemworks. I have used it for years for so many things, including, but not limited to learning file-systems. I am now in search of a similar tool that can let me view FAT and NTFS disks at a low and high level under Windows. I have seen Runtime Software’s DiskExplorer, but unfortunately, it is limited in a number of ways, particularly annoying is that it does not really let you view the disk as structured (it does not let you see directory entries from a directory that is fragmented like DiskEdit can without doing a too-exhaustive scan which doesn’t even work for FAT partitions that have cluster sizes <4KB). Does anyone know of a Windows alternative of a Norton DiskEditor? Thanks a lot.

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  • Does my fat-client application belong in the MVC pattern?

    - by boatingcow
    The web-based application I’m currently working on is growing arms and legs! It’s basically an administration system which helps users to keep track of bookings, user accounts, invoicing etc. It can also be accessed via a couple of different websites using a fairly crude API. The fat-client design loosely follows the MVC pattern (or perhaps MVP) with a php/MySQL backend, Front Controller, several dissimilar Page Controllers, a liberal smattering of object-oriented and procedural Models, a confusing bunch of Views and templates, some JavaScripts, CSS files and Flash objects. The programmer in me is a big fan of the principle of “Separation of Concerns” and on that note, I’m currently trying to figure out the best way to separate and combine the various concerns as the project grows and more people contribute to it. The problem we’re facing is that although JavaScript (or Flash with ActionScript) is normally written with the template, hence part of the View and decoupled from the Controller and Model, we find that it actually encompasses the entire MVC pattern... Swap an image with an onmouseover event - that’s Behaviour. Render a datagrid - we’re manipulating the View. Send the result of reordering a list via AJAX - now we’re in Control. Check a form field to see if an email address is in a valid format - we’re consulting the Model. Is it wise to let the database people write up the validation Model with jQuery? Can the php programmers write the necessary Control structures in JavaScript? Can the web designers really write a functional AJAX form for their View? Should there be a JavaScript overlord for every project? If the MVC pattern could be applied to the people instead of the code, we would end up with this: Model - the database boffins - “SELECT * FROM mind WHERE interested IS NULL” Control - pesky programmers - “class Something extends NothingAbstractClass{…}” View - traditionally the domain of the graphic/web designer - “” …and a new layer: Behaviour - interaction and feedback designer - “CSS3 is the new black…” So, we’re refactoring and I’d like to stick to best practice design, but I’m not sure how to proceed. I don’t want to reinvent the wheel, so would anyone have any hints or tips as to what pattern I should be looking at or any code samples from someone who’s already done the dirty work? As the programmer guy, how can I rewrite the app for backend and front end whilst keeping the two separate? And before you ask, yes I’ve looked at Zend, CodeIgnitor, Symfony, etc., and no, they don’t seem to cross the boundary between server logic and client logic!

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  • FAT filesystem analysis tool

    - by Andy
    I have a dump a FAT file system. Is there a windows tool I can use to analyse it, including: Provide basic information (sector size etc.) Validate the file system, basic corruption checking Allow the files and directory structure to be viewed and possibly edited (i.e mounting as a windows partition) Thanks, Andy

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  • Creating a FAT file system and save it into a file in GNU/linux?

    - by RubenT
    I tell you my problem: I want to create a FAT file system and save it into a so I can mount it in linux using something like: sudo mount -t msdos <file> <dest_folder> Maybe I'm wrong and this cannot be done. Anyway, the problem is this: I'm trying to create the file containing a FAT file system, and I'm running this command: sudo mkfs.vfat -F 32 -r 112 -S 512 -v -C "test.fat" 100 That, accordingly to the mkfs man page, will create a FAT32 file system with 112 rootdir entries, logical sector size of 512 bytes, 100 blocks in total, and save it into "test.fat". But it fails, and the bash tells me: mkfs.vfat: unable to create test.fat What is going on? I think I am misunderstanding how mkfs works and how to use it. It is possible to write a filesystem into a file?

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  • SD card mounted as bootable image instead of FAT 32

    - by Benny Wong
    I have an SD card that I recently used to take photos on vacation. It have taken a lot of photos using it and worked fine on the camera. However, I had forgotten that a few months before this trip, I tried to make the SD card a bootable Xubuntu USB drive. So when I plugged my SD card in to copy the photos, the card mounts as the Xubuntu image, rather than mounting as the FAT32 drive with the images on it. The files must still be on the drive. Any ideas on how to fix this? (I'm using Mac OS X) Thanks!

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  • Best undelete tool for NTFS/FAT?

    - by Vinko Vrsalovic
    What is the best tool for file undeletion in your experience? Google shows a gazillion of them, but I'd like to hear about good (or bad) experiences with any of those. Objective: Restoring 500.000 audio (WAV PCM) files. Doesn't matter if it's commercial, free or open source, it matters how quick and reliable it is.

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  • Autocorrect for "fat fingers" - MS Word

    - by Jamie Bull
    I'm wondering if anyone knows of a plug-in for MS Word which can handle key-presses of surrounding keys when typing at speed (rather like iPhone or Android autocorrect)? My use case is in transcribing interviews where I need to type quickly (even with the playback at half speed) - but I don't do this often enough to become a proficient touch typist. I will also be paying close attention to the text produced in subsequent analysis so I have a reasonable expectation that I'll catch any "hilarious" autocorrect errors. Any pointers to plug-ins which work at either a system level or within MS Word would be great. Even in an open source word processor at a pinch, though I'd miss the MS Word environment and my macros. Thanks.

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