# Search Results

• ### Graph Isomorphism > What kind of Graph is this?

##### - by oodavid
Essentially, this is a variation of Comparing Two Tree Structures, however I do not have "trees", but rather another type of graph. I need to know what kind of Graph I have in order to figure out if there's a Graph Isomorphism Special Case... As you can see, they are: Not Directed Not A Tree Cyclic Max 4 connections But I still don't know the correct terminology, nor the which Isomorphism algorithm to pursue, guidance appreciated.

• ### Finding most Important Node(s) in a Directed Graph

##### - by Srikar Appal
I have a large (˜ 20 million nodes) directed Graph with in-edges & out-edges. I want to figure out which parts of of the graph deserve the most attention. Often most of the graph is boring, or at least it is already well understood. The way I am defining "attention" is by the concept of "connectedness" i.e. How can i find the most connected node(s) in the graph? In what follows, One can assume that nodes by themselves have no score, the edges have no weight & they are either connected or not. This website suggest some pretty complicated procedures like n-dimensional space, Eigen Vectors, graph centrality concepts, pageRank etc. Is this problem that complex? Can I not do a simple Breadth-First Traversal of the entire graph where at each node I figure out a way to find the number of in-edges. The node with most in-edges is the most important node in the graph. Am I missing something here?

• ### Class instance clustering in object reference graph for multi-entries serialization

##### - by Juh_
My question is on the best way to cluster a graph of class instances (i.e. objects, the graph nodes) linked by object references (the -directed- edges of the graph) around specifically marked objects. To explain better my question, let me explain my motivation: I currently use a moderately complex system to serialize the data used in my projects: "marked" objects have a specific attributes which stores a "saving entry": the path to an associated file on disc (but it could be done for any storage type providing the suitable interface) Those object can then be serialized automatically (eg: obj.save()) The serialization of a marked object 'a' contains implicitly all objects 'b' for which 'a' has a reference to, directly s.t: a.b = b, or indirectly s.t.: a.c.b = b for some object 'c' This is very simple and basically define specific storage entries to specific objects. I have then "container" type objects that: can be serialized similarly (in fact their are or can-be "marked") they don't serialize in their storage entries the "marked" objects (with direct reference): if a and a.b are both marked, a.save() calls b.save() and stores a.b = storage_entry(b) So, if I serialize 'a', it will serialize automatically all objects that can be reached from 'a' through the object reference graph, possibly in multiples entries. That is what I want, and is usually provides the functionalities I need. However, it is very ad-hoc and there are some structural limitations to this approach: the multi-entry saving can only works through direct connections in "container" objects, and there are situations with undefined behavior such as if two "marked" objects 'a'and 'b' both have a reference to an unmarked object 'c'. In this case my system will stores 'c' in both 'a' and 'b' making an implicit copy which not only double the storage size, but also change the object reference graph after re-loading. I am thinking of generalizing the process. Apart for the practical questions on implementation (I am coding in python, and use Pickle to serialize my objects), there is a general question on the way to attach (cluster) unmarked objects to marked ones. So, my questions are: What are the important issues that should be considered? Basically why not just use any graph parsing algorithm with the "attach to last marked node" behavior. Is there any work done on this problem, practical or theoretical, that I should be aware of? Note: I added the tag graph-database because I think the answer might come from that fields, even if the question is not.

• ### Is finding graph minors without single node pinch points possible?

##### - by Alturis
Is it possible to robustly find all the graph minors within an arbitrary node graph where the pinch points are generally not single nodes? I have read some other posts on here about how to break up your graph into a Hamiltonian cycle and then from that find the graph minors but it seems to be such an algorithm would require that each "room" had "doorways" consisting of single nodes. To explain a bit more a visual aid is necessary. Lets say the nodes below are an example of the typical node graph. What I am looking for is a way to automatically find the different colored regions of the graph (or graph minors)

• ### Best Planar graph program

##### - by brian
In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints. What is the best open source program for drawing the planar graph with support of input nodes size and fixed drawing boundary region

• ### Chris Date on "SQL and Relational Theory - How to Write Accurate SQL Code"

##### - by MartinBell
The importance of relational theory......(read more)

• ### evaluating a code of a graph [migrated]

##### - by mazen.r.f
This is relatively a long code,if you have the tolerance and the will to find out how to make this code work then take a look please, i will appreciate your feed back. i have spent two days trying to come up with a code to represent a graph , then calculate the shortest path using dijkastra algorithm , but i am not able to get the right result , even the code runs without errors , but the result is not correct , always i am getting 0. briefly,i have three classes , Vertex, Edge, Graph , the Vertex class represents the nodes in the graph and it has id and carried ( which carry the weight of the links connected to it while using dijkastra algorithm ) and a vector of the ids belong to other nodes the path will go through before arriving to the node itself , this vector is named previous_nodes. the Edge class represents the edges in the graph it has two vertices ( one in each side ) and a wight ( the distance between the two vertices ). the Graph class represents the graph , it has two vectors one is the vertices included in this graph , and the other is the edges included in the graph. inside the class Graph there is a method its name shortest takes the sources node id and the destination and calculates the shortest path using dijkastra algorithm, and i think that it is the most important part of the code. my theory about the code is that i will create two vectors one for the vertices in the graph i will name it vertices and another vector its name is ver_out it will include the vertices out of calculation in the graph, also i will have two vectors of type Edge , one its name edges for all the edges in the graph and the other its name is track to contain temporarily the edges linked to the temporarily source node in every round , after the calculation of every round the vector track will be cleared. in main() i created five vertices and 10 edges to simulate a graph , the result of the shortest path supposedly to be 4 , but i am always getting 0 , that means i am having something wrong in my code , so if you are interesting in helping me find my mistake and how to make the code work , please take a look. the way shortest work is as follow at the beginning all the edges will be included in the vector edges , we select the edges related to the source and put them in the vector track , then we iterate through track and add the wight of every edge to the vertex (node ) related to it ( not the source vertex ) , then after we clear track and remove the source vertex from the vector vertices and select a new source , and start over again select the edges related to the new source , put them in track , iterate over edges in tack , adding the weights to the corresponding vertices then remove this vertex from the vector vertices, and clear track , and select a new source , and so on . here is the code. #include<iostream> #include<vector> #include <stdlib.h> // for rand() using namespace std; class Vertex { private: unsigned int id; // the name of the vertex unsigned int carried; // the weight a vertex may carry when calculating shortest path vector<unsigned int> previous_nodes; public: unsigned int get_id(){return id;}; unsigned int get_carried(){return carried;}; void set_id(unsigned int value) {id = value;}; void set_carried(unsigned int value) {carried = value;}; void previous_nodes_update(unsigned int val){previous_nodes.push_back(val);}; void previous_nodes_erase(unsigned int val){previous_nodes.erase(previous_nodes.begin() + val);}; Vertex(unsigned int init_val = 0, unsigned int init_carried = 0) :id (init_val), carried(init_carried) // constructor { } ~Vertex() {}; // destructor }; class Edge { private: Vertex first_vertex; // a vertex on one side of the edge Vertex second_vertex; // a vertex on the other side of the edge unsigned int weight; // the value of the edge ( or its weight ) public: unsigned int get_weight() {return weight;}; void set_weight(unsigned int value) {weight = value;}; Vertex get_ver_1(){return first_vertex;}; Vertex get_ver_2(){return second_vertex;}; void set_first_vertex(Vertex v1) {first_vertex = v1;}; void set_second_vertex(Vertex v2) {second_vertex = v2;}; Edge(const Vertex& vertex_1 = 0, const Vertex& vertex_2 = 0, unsigned int init_weight = 0) : first_vertex(vertex_1), second_vertex(vertex_2), weight(init_weight) { } ~Edge() {} ; // destructor }; class Graph { private: std::vector<Vertex> vertices; std::vector<Edge> edges; public: Graph(vector<Vertex> ver_vector, vector<Edge> edg_vector) : vertices(ver_vector), edges(edg_vector) { } ~Graph() {}; vector<Vertex> get_vertices(){return vertices;}; vector<Edge> get_edges(){return edges;}; void set_vertices(vector<Vertex> vector_value) {vertices = vector_value;}; void set_edges(vector<Edge> vector_ed_value) {edges = vector_ed_value;}; unsigned int shortest(unsigned int src, unsigned int dis) { vector<Vertex> ver_out; vector<Edge> track; for(unsigned int i = 0; i < edges.size(); ++i) { if((edges[i].get_ver_1().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id()) || (edges[i].get_ver_2().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id())) { track.push_back (edges[i]); edges.erase(edges.begin()+i); } }; for(unsigned int i = 0; i < track.size(); ++i) { if(track[i].get_ver_1().get_id() != vertices[src].get_id()) { track[i].get_ver_1().set_carried((track[i].get_weight()) + track[i].get_ver_2().get_carried()); track[i].get_ver_1().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } else { track[i].get_ver_2().set_carried((track[i].get_weight()) + track[i].get_ver_1().get_carried()); track[i].get_ver_2().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } } for(unsigned int i = 0; i < vertices.size(); ++i) if(vertices[i].get_id() == src) vertices.erase(vertices.begin() + i); // removing the sources vertex from the vertices vector ver_out.push_back (vertices[src]); track.clear(); if(vertices[0].get_id() != dis) {src = vertices[0].get_id();} else {src = vertices[1].get_id();} for(unsigned int i = 0; i < vertices.size(); ++i) if((vertices[i].get_carried() < vertices[src].get_carried()) && (vertices[i].get_id() != dis)) src = vertices[i].get_id(); //while(!edges.empty()) for(unsigned int round = 0; round < vertices.size(); ++round) { for(unsigned int k = 0; k < edges.size(); ++k) { if((edges[k].get_ver_1().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id()) || (edges[k].get_ver_2().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id())) { track.push_back (edges[k]); edges.erase(edges.begin()+k); } }; for(unsigned int n = 0; n < track.size(); ++n) if((track[n].get_ver_1().get_id() != vertices[src].get_id()) && (track[n].get_ver_1().get_carried() > (track[n].get_ver_2().get_carried() + track[n].get_weight()))) { track[n].get_ver_1().set_carried((track[n].get_weight()) + track[n].get_ver_2().get_carried()); track[n].get_ver_1().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } else if(track[n].get_ver_2().get_carried() > (track[n].get_ver_1().get_carried() + track[n].get_weight())) { track[n].get_ver_2().set_carried((track[n].get_weight()) + track[n].get_ver_1().get_carried()); track[n].get_ver_2().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } for(unsigned int t = 0; t < vertices.size(); ++t) if(vertices[t].get_id() == src) vertices.erase(vertices.begin() + t); track.clear(); if(vertices[0].get_id() != dis) {src = vertices[0].get_id();} else {src = vertices[1].get_id();} for(unsigned int tt = 0; tt < edges.size(); ++tt) { if(vertices[tt].get_carried() < vertices[src].get_carried()) { src = vertices[tt].get_id(); } } } return vertices[dis].get_carried(); } }; int main() { cout<< "Hello, This is a graph"<< endl; vector<Vertex> vers(5); vers[0].set_id(0); vers[1].set_id(1); vers[2].set_id(2); vers[3].set_id(3); vers[4].set_id(4); vector<Edge> eds(10); eds[0].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[0].set_second_vertex(vers[1]); eds[0].set_weight(5); eds[1].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[1].set_second_vertex(vers[2]); eds[1].set_weight(9); eds[2].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[2].set_second_vertex(vers[3]); eds[2].set_weight(4); eds[3].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[3].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[3].set_weight(6); eds[4].set_first_vertex(vers[1]); eds[4].set_second_vertex(vers[2]); eds[4].set_weight(2); eds[5].set_first_vertex(vers[1]); eds[5].set_second_vertex(vers[3]); eds[5].set_weight(5); eds[6].set_first_vertex(vers[1]); eds[6].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[6].set_weight(7); eds[7].set_first_vertex(vers[2]); eds[7].set_second_vertex(vers[3]); eds[7].set_weight(1); eds[8].set_first_vertex(vers[2]); eds[8].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[8].set_weight(8); eds[9].set_first_vertex(vers[3]); eds[9].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[9].set_weight(3); unsigned int path; Graph graf(vers, eds); path = graf.shortest(2, 4); cout<< path << endl; return 0; }

• ### Evaluating code for a graph [migrated]

##### - by mazen.r.f
This is relatively long code. Please take a look at this code if you are still willing to do so. I will appreciate your feedback. I have spent two days trying to come up with code to represent a graph, calculating the shortest path using Dijkstra's algorithm. But I am not able to get the right result, even though the code runs without errors. The result is not correct and I am always getting 0. I have three classes: Vertex, Edge, and Graph. The Vertex class represents the nodes in the graph and it has id and carried (which carry the weight of the links connected to it while using Dijkstra's algorithm) and a vector of the ids belong to other nodes the path will go through before arriving to the node itself. This vector is named previous_nodes. The Edge class represents the edges in the graph and has two vertices (one in each side) and a width (the distance between the two vertices). The Graph class represents the graph. It has two vectors, where one is the vertices included in this graph, and the other is the edges included in the graph. Inside the class Graph, there is a method named shortest() that takes the sources node id and the destination and calculates the shortest path using Dijkstra's algorithm. I think that it is the most important part of the code. My theory about the code is that I will create two vectors, one for the vertices in the graph named vertices, and another vector named ver_out (it will include the vertices out of calculation in the graph). I will also have two vectors of type Edge, where one is named edges (for all the edges in the graph), and the other is named track (to temporarily contain the edges linked to the temporary source node in every round). After the calculation of every round, the vector track will be cleared. In main(), I've created five vertices and 10 edges to simulate a graph. The result of the shortest path supposedly is 4, but I am always getting 0. That means I have something wrong in my code. If you are interesting in helping me find my mistake and making the code work, please take a look. The way shortest work is as follow: at the beginning, all the edges will be included in the vector edges. We select the edges related to the source and put them in the vector track, then we iterate through track and add the width of every edge to the vertex (node) related to it (not the source vertex). After that, we clear track and remove the source vertex from the vector vertices and select a new source. Then we start over again and select the edges related to the new source, put them in track, iterate over edges in track, adding the weights to the corresponding vertices, then remove this vertex from the vector vertices. Then clear track, and select a new source, and so on. #include<iostream> #include<vector> #include <stdlib.h> // for rand() using namespace std; class Vertex { private: unsigned int id; // the name of the vertex unsigned int carried; // the weight a vertex may carry when calculating shortest path vector<unsigned int> previous_nodes; public: unsigned int get_id(){return id;}; unsigned int get_carried(){return carried;}; void set_id(unsigned int value) {id = value;}; void set_carried(unsigned int value) {carried = value;}; void previous_nodes_update(unsigned int val){previous_nodes.push_back(val);}; void previous_nodes_erase(unsigned int val){previous_nodes.erase(previous_nodes.begin() + val);}; Vertex(unsigned int init_val = 0, unsigned int init_carried = 0) :id (init_val), carried(init_carried) // constructor { } ~Vertex() {}; // destructor }; class Edge { private: Vertex first_vertex; // a vertex on one side of the edge Vertex second_vertex; // a vertex on the other side of the edge unsigned int weight; // the value of the edge ( or its weight ) public: unsigned int get_weight() {return weight;}; void set_weight(unsigned int value) {weight = value;}; Vertex get_ver_1(){return first_vertex;}; Vertex get_ver_2(){return second_vertex;}; void set_first_vertex(Vertex v1) {first_vertex = v1;}; void set_second_vertex(Vertex v2) {second_vertex = v2;}; Edge(const Vertex& vertex_1 = 0, const Vertex& vertex_2 = 0, unsigned int init_weight = 0) : first_vertex(vertex_1), second_vertex(vertex_2), weight(init_weight) { } ~Edge() {} ; // destructor }; class Graph { private: std::vector<Vertex> vertices; std::vector<Edge> edges; public: Graph(vector<Vertex> ver_vector, vector<Edge> edg_vector) : vertices(ver_vector), edges(edg_vector) { } ~Graph() {}; vector<Vertex> get_vertices(){return vertices;}; vector<Edge> get_edges(){return edges;}; void set_vertices(vector<Vertex> vector_value) {vertices = vector_value;}; void set_edges(vector<Edge> vector_ed_value) {edges = vector_ed_value;}; unsigned int shortest(unsigned int src, unsigned int dis) { vector<Vertex> ver_out; vector<Edge> track; for(unsigned int i = 0; i < edges.size(); ++i) { if((edges[i].get_ver_1().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id()) || (edges[i].get_ver_2().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id())) { track.push_back (edges[i]); edges.erase(edges.begin()+i); } }; for(unsigned int i = 0; i < track.size(); ++i) { if(track[i].get_ver_1().get_id() != vertices[src].get_id()) { track[i].get_ver_1().set_carried((track[i].get_weight()) + track[i].get_ver_2().get_carried()); track[i].get_ver_1().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } else { track[i].get_ver_2().set_carried((track[i].get_weight()) + track[i].get_ver_1().get_carried()); track[i].get_ver_2().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } } for(unsigned int i = 0; i < vertices.size(); ++i) if(vertices[i].get_id() == src) vertices.erase(vertices.begin() + i); // removing the sources vertex from the vertices vector ver_out.push_back (vertices[src]); track.clear(); if(vertices[0].get_id() != dis) {src = vertices[0].get_id();} else {src = vertices[1].get_id();} for(unsigned int i = 0; i < vertices.size(); ++i) if((vertices[i].get_carried() < vertices[src].get_carried()) && (vertices[i].get_id() != dis)) src = vertices[i].get_id(); //while(!edges.empty()) for(unsigned int round = 0; round < vertices.size(); ++round) { for(unsigned int k = 0; k < edges.size(); ++k) { if((edges[k].get_ver_1().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id()) || (edges[k].get_ver_2().get_id() == vertices[src].get_id())) { track.push_back (edges[k]); edges.erase(edges.begin()+k); } }; for(unsigned int n = 0; n < track.size(); ++n) if((track[n].get_ver_1().get_id() != vertices[src].get_id()) && (track[n].get_ver_1().get_carried() > (track[n].get_ver_2().get_carried() + track[n].get_weight()))) { track[n].get_ver_1().set_carried((track[n].get_weight()) + track[n].get_ver_2().get_carried()); track[n].get_ver_1().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } else if(track[n].get_ver_2().get_carried() > (track[n].get_ver_1().get_carried() + track[n].get_weight())) { track[n].get_ver_2().set_carried((track[n].get_weight()) + track[n].get_ver_1().get_carried()); track[n].get_ver_2().previous_nodes_update(vertices[src].get_id()); } for(unsigned int t = 0; t < vertices.size(); ++t) if(vertices[t].get_id() == src) vertices.erase(vertices.begin() + t); track.clear(); if(vertices[0].get_id() != dis) {src = vertices[0].get_id();} else {src = vertices[1].get_id();} for(unsigned int tt = 0; tt < edges.size(); ++tt) { if(vertices[tt].get_carried() < vertices[src].get_carried()) { src = vertices[tt].get_id(); } } } return vertices[dis].get_carried(); } }; int main() { cout<< "Hello, This is a graph"<< endl; vector<Vertex> vers(5); vers[0].set_id(0); vers[1].set_id(1); vers[2].set_id(2); vers[3].set_id(3); vers[4].set_id(4); vector<Edge> eds(10); eds[0].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[0].set_second_vertex(vers[1]); eds[0].set_weight(5); eds[1].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[1].set_second_vertex(vers[2]); eds[1].set_weight(9); eds[2].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[2].set_second_vertex(vers[3]); eds[2].set_weight(4); eds[3].set_first_vertex(vers[0]); eds[3].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[3].set_weight(6); eds[4].set_first_vertex(vers[1]); eds[4].set_second_vertex(vers[2]); eds[4].set_weight(2); eds[5].set_first_vertex(vers[1]); eds[5].set_second_vertex(vers[3]); eds[5].set_weight(5); eds[6].set_first_vertex(vers[1]); eds[6].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[6].set_weight(7); eds[7].set_first_vertex(vers[2]); eds[7].set_second_vertex(vers[3]); eds[7].set_weight(1); eds[8].set_first_vertex(vers[2]); eds[8].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[8].set_weight(8); eds[9].set_first_vertex(vers[3]); eds[9].set_second_vertex(vers[4]); eds[9].set_weight(3); unsigned int path; Graph graf(vers, eds); path = graf.shortest(2, 4); cout<< path << endl; return 0; }

• ### C++: Error in Xcode; "Graph::Coordinate::Coordinate()", referenced from: ...

##### - by Alexandstein
In a program I am writing, I wrote for two classes (Coordinate, and Graph), with one of them taking the other as constructor arguments. When I try to compile it I get the following error for Graph.cpp: Undefined symbols: "Graph::Coordinate::Coordinate(double)", referenced from: Graph::Graph() in Graph.o Graph::Graph() in Graph.o "Graph::Coordinate::Coordinate()", referenced from: Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate, Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph(Graph::Coordinate)in Graph.o Graph::Graph() in Graph.o Graph::Graph() in Graph.o Graph::Graph() in Graph.o Graph::Graph() in Graph.o Graph::Graph() in Graph.o Graph::Graph() in Graph.o ld: symbol(s) not found collect2: ld returned 1 exit status I checked the code and couldn't find anything out of the ordinary. Here are the four class files: (Sorry if it's a lot of code to sift through.) Coordinate.h class Graph{ #include "Coordinate.h" public: Graph(); Graph(Coordinate); Graph(Coordinate, Coordinate); Graph(Coordinate, Coordinate, Coordinate); void setXSize(int); void setYSize(int); void setX(int); //int corresponds to coordinates 1, 2, or 3 void setY(int); void setZ(int); int getXSize(); int getYSize(); double getX(int); //int corresponds to coordinates 1, 2, or 3 double getY(int); double getZ(int); void outputGraph(); void animateGraph(); private: int xSize; int ySize; Coordinate coord1; Coordinate coord2; Coordinate coord3; }; Coordinate.cpp #include <iostream> #include "Coordinate.h" Coordinate::Coordinate() { xCoord = 1; yCoord = 1; zCoord = 1; xVel = 1; yVel = 1; zVel = 1; } Coordinate::Coordinate(double xCoo) { xCoord = xCoo; yCoord = 1; zCoord = 1; xVel = 1; yVel = 1; zVel = 1; } Coordinate::Coordinate(double xCoo,double yCoo) { xCoord = xCoo; yCoord = yCoo; zCoord = 1; xVel = 1; yVel = 1; zVel = 1; } Coordinate::Coordinate(double xCoo,double yCoo,double zCoo) { xCoord = xCoo; yCoord = yCoo; zCoord = zCoo; xVel = 1; yVel = 1; zVel = 1; } void Coordinate::setXCoord(double xCoo) { xCoord = xCoo; } void Coordinate::setYCoord(double yCoo) { yCoord = yCoo; } void Coordinate::setZCoord(double zCoo) { zCoord = zCoo; } void Coordinate::setXVel(double xVelo) { xVel = xVelo; } void Coordinate::setYVel(double yVelo) { yVel = yVelo; } void Coordinate::setZVel(double zVelo) { zVel = zVelo; } double Coordinate::getXCoord() { return xCoord; } double Coordinate::getYCoord() { return yCoord; } double Coordinate::getZCoord() { return zCoord; } double Coordinate::getXVel() { return xVel; } double Coordinate::GetYVel() { return yVel; } double Coordinate::GetZVel() { return zVel; } Graph.h class Graph{ #include "Coordinate.h" public: Graph(); Graph(Coordinate); Graph(Coordinate, Coordinate); Graph(Coordinate, Coordinate, Coordinate); void setXSize(int); void setYSize(int); void setX(int); //int corresponds to coordinates 1, 2, or 3 void setY(int); void setZ(int); int getXSize(); int getYSize(); double getX(int); //int corresponds to coordinates 1, 2, or 3 double getY(int); double getZ(int); void outputGraph(); void animateGraph(); private: int xSize; int ySize; Coordinate coord1; Coordinate coord2; Coordinate coord3; }; Graph.cpp #include "Graph.h" #include "Coordinate.h" #include <iostream> #include <ctime> using namespace std; Graph::Graph() { Coordinate coord1(0); } Graph::Graph(Coordinate cOne) { coord1 = cOne; xSize = 20; ySize = 20; } Graph::Graph(Coordinate cOne, Coordinate cTwo) { coord1 = cOne; coord2 = cTwo; xSize = 20; ySize = 20; } Graph::Graph(Coordinate cOne, Coordinate cTwo, Coordinate cThree) { coord1 = cOne; coord2 = cTwo; coord3 = cThree; xSize = 20; ySize = 20; } void Graph::setXSize(int size) { xSize = size; } void Graph::setYSize(int size) { ySize = size; } int Graph::getXSize() { return xSize; } int Graph::getYSize() { return ySize; } void Graph::outputGraph() { } void Graph::animateGraph() { } Thanks very much for any help!

• ### How to use Boost 1.41.0 graph layout algorithmes

##### - by daniil-k
Hi I have problem using boost graph layout algorithmes. boost verision 1_41_0 mingw g++ 4.4.0. So there are issues I have encountered Can you suggest me with them? The function fruchterman_reingold_force_directed_layout isn't compiled. The kamada_kawai_spring_layout compiled but program crashed. Boost documentation to layout algorithms is wrong, sample to fruchterman_reingold_force_directed_layout isn't compiled. This is my example. To use function just uncomment one. String 60, 61, 63. #include <boost/config.hpp> #include <boost/graph/adjacency_list.hpp> #include <boost/graph/graph_utility.hpp> #include <boost/graph/simple_point.hpp> #include <boost/property_map/property_map.hpp> #include <boost/graph/circle_layout.hpp> #include <boost/graph/fruchterman_reingold.hpp> #include <boost/graph/kamada_kawai_spring_layout.hpp> #include <iostream> //typedef boost::square_topology<>::point_difference_type Point; typedef boost::square_topology<>::point_type Point; struct VertexProperties { std::size_t index; Point point; }; struct EdgeProperty { EdgeProperty(const std::size_t &w):weight(w) {} double weight; }; typedef boost::adjacency_list<boost::listS, boost::listS, boost::undirectedS, VertexProperties, EdgeProperty > Graph; typedef boost::property_map<Graph, std::size_t VertexProperties::*>::type VertexIndexPropertyMap; typedef boost::property_map<Graph, Point VertexProperties::*>::type PositionMap; typedef boost::property_map<Graph, double EdgeProperty::*>::type WeightPropertyMap; typedef boost::graph_traits<Graph>::vertex_descriptor VirtexDescriptor; int main() { Graph graph; VertexIndexPropertyMap vertexIdPropertyMap = boost::get(&VertexProperties::index, graph); for (int i = 0; i < 3; ++i) { VirtexDescriptor vd = boost::add_vertex(graph); vertexIdPropertyMap[vd] = i + 2; } boost::add_edge(boost::vertex(1, graph), boost::vertex(0, graph), EdgeProperty(5), graph); boost::add_edge(boost::vertex(2, graph), boost::vertex(0, graph), EdgeProperty(5), graph); std::cout << "Vertices\n"; boost::print_vertices(graph, vertexIdPropertyMap); std::cout << "Edges\n"; boost::print_edges(graph, vertexIdPropertyMap); PositionMap positionMap = boost::get(&VertexProperties::point, graph); WeightPropertyMap weightPropertyMap = boost::get(&EdgeProperty::weight, graph); boost::circle_graph_layout(graph, positionMap, 100); // boost::fruchterman_reingold_force_directed_layout(graph, positionMap, boost::square_topology<>()); boost::kamada_kawai_spring_layout(graph, positionMap, weightPropertyMap, boost::square_topology<>(), boost::side_length<double>(10), boost::layout_tolerance<>(), 1, vertexIdPropertyMap); std::cout << "Coordinates\n"; boost::graph_traits<Graph>::vertex_iterator i, end; for (boost::tie(i, end) = boost::vertices(graph); i != end; ++i) { std::cout << "ID: (" << vertexIdPropertyMap[*i] << ") x: " << positionMap[*i][0] << " y: " << positionMap[*i][1] << "\n"; } return 0; }

• ### Theory Of A Weird Thought - Forms Submission

##### - by user2738336
In theory, if you were to open two computers that were perfectly synced together on a website that has a form. This form has fields where say for example the username has to be unique. Assuming both computers have the same information on the form, and in theory let's say that the submit button was pressed at the same time, and that these two computers have the exact same build and internet speed and the same response time from the server, whose information would be submitted to the database and whose information would be denied knowing the username field is unique.

• ### category theory based language

##### - by pagoda_5b
It may sound naive, but is there any programming language, or research thereof, based entirely on category theory? I mean this as opposed to embedding CT concepts as an additional feature (like for Haskell or scala). Would it be too abstract or too complex as an approach, or are there any known reasons that makes it impossible or impractical? I have only a relative understanding of the theory as related to programming, so please give me some explanation if the question doesn't makes sense at all

• ### Randomly generate directed graph on a grid

##### - by Talon876
I am trying to randomly generate a directed graph for the purpose of making a puzzle game similar to the ice sliding puzzles from Pokemon. This is essentially what I want to be able to randomly generate: http://bulbanews.bulbagarden.net/wiki/Crunching_the_numbers:_Graph_theory. I need to be able to limit the size of the graph in an x and y dimension. In the example given in the link, it would be restricted to an 8x4 grid. The problem I am running into is not randomly generating the graph, but randomly generating a graph, which I can properly map out in a 2d space, since I need something (like a rock) on the opposite side of a node, to make it visually make sense when you stop sliding. The problem with this is that sometimes the rock ends up in the path between two other nodes or possibly on another node itself, which causes the entire graph to become broken. After discussing the problem with a few people I know, we came to a couple of conclusions that may lead to a solution. Including the obstacles in the grid as part of the graph when constructing it. Start out with a fully filled grid and just draw a random path and delete out blocks that will make that path work. The problem then becomes figuring out which ones to delete to avoid introducing an additional, shorter path. We were also thinking a dynamic programming algorithm may be beneficial, though none of us are too skilled with creating dynamic programming algorithms from nothing. Any ideas or references about what this problem is officially called (if it's an official graph problem) would be most helpful. Here are some examples of what I have accomplished so far by just randomly placing blocks and generating the navigation graph from the chosen start/finish. The idea (as described in the previous link) is you start at the green S and want to get to the green F. You do this by moving up/down/left/right and you continue moving in the direction chosen until you hit a wall. In these pictures, grey is a wall, white is the floor, and the purple line is the minimum length from start to finish, and the black lines and grey dots represented possible paths. Here are some bad examples of randomly generated graphs: http://i.stack.imgur.com/9uaM6.png Here are some good examples of randomly generated (or hand tweaked) graphs: i.stack.imgur.com/uUGeL.png (can't post another link, sorry) I've also seemed to notice the more challenging ones when actually playing this as a puzzle are ones which have lots of high degree nodes along the minimum path.

• ### Color schemes generation - theory and algorithms

##### - by daniel.sedlacek
Hi I will be generating charts and diagrams and I am looking for some theory on color schemes and algorithm examples. Example questions: How to generate complementary or analogous colors? How to generate pastel, cold and warm colors? How to generate any number of random but distinct colors? How to translate all that to the hex triplet (web color)? My implementation will be in AS3 but any examples in metacode are welcome.

• ### [C++] Write connected components of a graph using Boost Graph

I have an file that is a long list of weighted edges, in the following form node1_id node2_id weight node1_id node3_id weight and so on. So one weighted edge per line. I want to load this file into boost graph and find the connected components in the graph. Each of these connected components is a subgraph. For each of these component subgraphs, I want to write the edges in the above-described format. I want to do all this using boost graph. This problem is in principle simple, it's just I'm not sure how to implement it neatly because I don't know my way around Boost Graph. I have already spent some hours and have code that will find the connected components, but my version is surely much longer and more complicated that necessary---I'm hoping there's a boost-graph ninja out there that can show me the right, easy way.

• ### Scene Graph for Deferred Rendering Engine

##### - by Roy T.
As a learning exercise I've written a deferred rendering engine. Now I'd like to add a scene graph to this engine but I'm a bit puzzled how to do this. On a normal (forward rendering engine) I would just add all items (All implementing IDrawable and IUpdateAble) to my scene graph, than travel the scene-graph breadth first and call Draw() everywhere. However in a deferred rendering engine I have to separate draw calls. First I have to draw the geometry, then the shadow casters and then the lights (all to different render targets), before I combine them all. So in this case I can't just travel over the scene graph and just call draw. The way I see it I either have to travel over the entire scene graph 3 times, checking what kind of object it is that has to be drawn, or I have to create 3 separate scene graphs that are somehow connected to each other. Both of these seem poor solutions, I'd like to handle scene objects more transparent. One other solution I've thought of was traveling trough the scene graph as normal and adding items to 3 separate lists, separating geometry, shadow casters and lights, and then iterating these lists to draw the correct stuff, is this better, and is it wise to repopulate 3 lists every frame?

• ### Subsumption architecture vs. perceptual control theory

##### - by Yasir G.
I'm a new person to AI field and I have to research and compare 2 different architectures for a thesis I'm writing. Before you scream (homework thread), I've been reading on these 2 topics only to find that I'm confusing myself more.. let me first start with stating briefly what I know so far. Subsumption is based on the fact that targets of a system are different in sophistication, thus that requires them to be added as layers, each layer can suppress (modify) the command of the layers below it, and there are inhibitors to stop signals from execution lets say. PCT stresses on the fact that there are nodes to handle environmental changes (negative feedback), so the inputs coming from an environment go through a comparator node and then an action is generated by that node, HPCT or (Hierarchical PCT) is based on nesting these cycles inside each other so a small cycle to avoid crashing would be nested in a more sophisticated cycle that targets a certain location for example. My questions, am I getting this the right way? am I missing any critical understanding about these 2 models? also any idea where I can find simplified explanations for each theory (so far been struggling trying to understand the papers from Google scholar :< ) /Y

• ### Display Graph using Boost Graph Library

##### - by TheTSPSolver
Can anyone please tell me that once I've created a graph using Boost Graph library, how can I display that graph? My biggest concern is that the edge weights are coming from an exernal data source over the network. And I need to be able to display the edgeweights live as they get updated.

• ### Architecture for Social Graph data that has a Time Frame Associated?

##### - by Jay Stevens
I am adding some "social" type features to an existing application. There are a limited # of node & edge types. Overall the data itself is relatively small (50,000 - 70,000 for each type of node) there will be a number of edges (relationships) between them (almost all directional). This, I know, is relatively easy to represent with an SDF store (such as BrightstarDB) or something like Microsoft's Trinity (or really many of the noSQL options). The thing that, I think, makes this a unique use case is that each relationship will have a timeframe associated with it (start and end dates). Right now, I'm thinking of just storing this in a relational structure and dealing with the headaches of "traversing the graph", but I'm looking for suggestions on a better approach (both in terms of data structure and server): Column ================ From_Node_ID Relationship To_Node_ID StartDate EndDate Any suggestions or thoughts are welcomed.

• ### How to fit a custom graph to the boost graph library template?

##### - by Michael
I'm rusty on C++ templates and I'm using the boost graph library (a fatal combination). I've searched the web and can't find any direct instructions on how to take a custom graph structure and fit enough of it to BGL (boost graph library) that I can use boosts graph traversing algorithms. Anyone familiar enough with the library to help me out?

• ### C# graph library to be used from Unity3D

##### - by Heisenbug
I'm looking for a C# graph library to be used inside Unity3D script. I'm not looking for pathfinding libraries (I know there are good one available). I could consider using a path finding library only if it gives me direct access to underlying graph classes (I need nodes and edges, and classic graph algorithms) The only product I've seen that seems intersting is QuickGraph. I have the following question: Is it possible to use QuickGraph inside Unity3d? If yes. Is this a good idea? Does it have any drawbacks? Is it a quite fast and well written/supported library? Does anyone has ever used it? Are available other C# graph library that can be easily integrated in Unity3d?

• ### Scene Graph as Object Container?

##### - by Bunkai.Satori
Scene graph contains game nodes representing game objects. At a first glance, it might seem practical to use Scene Graph as physical container for in game objects, instead of std::vector< for example. My question is, is it practical to use Scene Graph to contain the game objects, or should it be used only to define scene objects/nodes linkages, while keepig the objects stored in separate container, such as std::vector<?

• ### Splitting Graph into distinct polygons in O(E) complexity

##### - by Arthur Wulf White
If you have seen my last question: trapped inside a Graph : Find paths along edges that do not cross any edges How do you split an entire graph into distinct shapes 'trapped' inside the graph(like the ones described in my last question) with good complexity? What I am doing now is iterating over all edges and then starting to traverse while always taking the rightmost turn. This does split the graph into distinct shapes. Then I eliminate all the excess shapes (that are repeats of previous shapes) and return the result. The complexity of this algorithm is O(E^2). I am wondering if I could do it in O(E) by removing edges I already traversed previously. My current implementation of that returns unexpected results.

• ### Operating systems theory -- using minimum number of semaphores

##### - by stackuser
This situation is prone to deadlock of processes in an operating system and I'd like to solve it with the minimum of semaphores. Basically there are three cooperating processes that all read data from the same input device. Each process, when it gets the input device, must read two consecutive data. I want to use mutual exclusion to do this. Semaphores should be used to synchronize: P1: P2: P3: input(a1,a2) input (b1,b2) input(c1,c2) Y=a1+c1 W=b2+c2 Z=a2+b1 Print (X) X=Z-Y+W The declaration and initialization that I think would work here are: semaphore s=1 sa1 = 0, sa2 = 0, sb1 = 0, sb2 = 0, sc1 = 0, sc2 = 0 I'm sure that any kernel programmers that happen on this can knock this out in a minute or 2. Diagram of cooperating Processes and one input device: It seems like P1 and P2 would start something like: wait(s) input (a1/b1, a2/b2) signal(s)