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  • apt-get update mdadm scary warnings

    - by user568829
    Just ran an apt-get update on one of my dedicated servers to be left with a relatively scary warning: Processing triggers for initramfs-tools ... update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-2.6.26-2-686-bigmem W: mdadm: the array /dev/md/1 with UUID c622dd79:496607cf:c230666b:5103eba0 W: mdadm: is currently active, but it is not listed in mdadm.conf. if W: mdadm: it is needed for boot, then YOUR SYSTEM IS NOW UNBOOTABLE! W: mdadm: please inspect the output of /usr/share/mdadm/mkconf, compare W: mdadm: it to /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf, and make the necessary changes. W: mdadm: the array /dev/md/2 with UUID 24120323:8c54087c:c230666b:5103eba0 W: mdadm: is currently active, but it is not listed in mdadm.conf. if W: mdadm: it is needed for boot, then YOUR SYSTEM IS NOW UNBOOTABLE! W: mdadm: please inspect the output of /usr/share/mdadm/mkconf, compare W: mdadm: it to /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf, and make the necessary changes. W: mdadm: the array /dev/md/6 with UUID eef74de5:9267b2a1:c230666b:5103eba0 W: mdadm: is currently active, but it is not listed in mdadm.conf. if W: mdadm: it is needed for boot, then YOUR SYSTEM IS NOW UNBOOTABLE! W: mdadm: please inspect the output of /usr/share/mdadm/mkconf, compare W: mdadm: it to /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf, and make the necessary changes. W: mdadm: the array /dev/md/5 with UUID 5d45b20c:04d8138f:c230666b:5103eba0 W: mdadm: is currently active, but it is not listed in mdadm.conf. if W: mdadm: it is needed for boot, then YOUR SYSTEM IS NOW UNBOOTABLE! W: mdadm: please inspect the output of /usr/share/mdadm/mkconf, compare W: mdadm: it to /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf, and make the necessary changes. As instructed I inspected the output of /usr/share/mdadm/mkconf and compared with /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf and they are quite different. Here is the /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf contents: # mdadm.conf # # Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file. # # by default, scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) for MD superblocks. # alternatively, specify devices to scan, using wildcards if desired. DEVICE partitions # auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes # automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system HOMEHOST <system> # instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts MAILADDR root # definitions of existing MD arrays ARRAY /dev/md0 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=b93b0b87:5f7c2c46:0043fca9:4026c400 ARRAY /dev/md1 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=c0fa8842:e214fb1a:fad8a3a2:28f2aabc ARRAY /dev/md2 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=cdc2a9a9:63bbda21:f55e806c:a5371897 ARRAY /dev/md3 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=eca75495:9c9ce18c:d2bac587:f1e79d80 # This file was auto-generated on Wed, 04 Nov 2009 11:32:16 +0100 # by mkconf $Id$ And here is the out put from /usr/share/mdadm/mkconf # mdadm.conf # # Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file. # # by default, scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) for MD superblocks. # alternatively, specify devices to scan, using wildcards if desired. DEVICE partitions # auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes # automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system HOMEHOST <system> # instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts MAILADDR root # definitions of existing MD arrays ARRAY /dev/md1 UUID=c622dd79:496607cf:c230666b:5103eba0 ARRAY /dev/md2 UUID=24120323:8c54087c:c230666b:5103eba0 ARRAY /dev/md5 UUID=5d45b20c:04d8138f:c230666b:5103eba0 ARRAY /dev/md6 UUID=eef74de5:9267b2a1:c230666b:5103eba0 # This configuration was auto-generated on Sat, 25 Feb 2012 13:10:00 +1030 # by mkconf 3.1.4-1+8efb9d1+squeeze1 As I understand it I need to replace the four lines that start with 'ARRAY' in the /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf file with the different four 'ARRAY' lines from the /usr/share/mdadm/mkconf output. When I did this and then ran update-initramfs -u there were no more warnings. Is what I have done above correct? I am now terrified of rebooting the server for fear it will not reboot and being a remote dedicated server this would certainly mean downtime and possibly would be expensive to get running again. FOLLOW UP (response to question): the output from mount: /dev/md1 on / type ext3 (rw,usrquota,grpquota) tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755) proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev) udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755) tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=620) /dev/md2 on /boot type ext2 (rw) /dev/md5 on /tmp type ext3 (rw) /dev/md6 on /home type ext3 (rw,usrquota,grpquota) mdadm --detail /dev/md0 mdadm: md device /dev/md0 does not appear to be active. mdadm --detail /dev/md1 /dev/md1: Version : 0.90 Creation Time : Sun Aug 14 09:43:08 2011 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 31463232 (30.01 GiB 32.22 GB) Used Dev Size : 31463232 (30.01 GiB 32.22 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 1 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Sat Feb 25 14:03:47 2012 State : clean Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 UUID : c622dd79:496607cf:c230666b:5103eba0 Events : 0.24 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 1 0 active sync /dev/sda1 1 8 17 1 active sync /dev/sdb1 mdadm --detail /dev/md2 /dev/md2: Version : 0.90 Creation Time : Sun Aug 14 09:43:09 2011 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 104320 (101.89 MiB 106.82 MB) Used Dev Size : 104320 (101.89 MiB 106.82 MB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 2 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Sat Feb 25 13:20:20 2012 State : clean Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 UUID : 24120323:8c54087c:c230666b:5103eba0 Events : 0.30 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 2 0 active sync /dev/sda2 1 8 18 1 active sync /dev/sdb2 mdadm --detail /dev/md3 mdadm: md device /dev/md3 does not appear to be active. mdadm --detail /dev/md5 /dev/md5: Version : 0.90 Creation Time : Sun Aug 14 09:43:09 2011 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 2104448 (2.01 GiB 2.15 GB) Used Dev Size : 2104448 (2.01 GiB 2.15 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 5 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Sat Feb 25 14:09:03 2012 State : clean Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 UUID : 5d45b20c:04d8138f:c230666b:5103eba0 Events : 0.30 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 5 0 active sync /dev/sda5 1 8 21 1 active sync /dev/sdb5 mdadm --detail /dev/md6 /dev/md6: Version : 0.90 Creation Time : Sun Aug 14 09:43:09 2011 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 453659456 (432.64 GiB 464.55 GB) Used Dev Size : 453659456 (432.64 GiB 464.55 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 6 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Sat Feb 25 14:10:00 2012 State : active Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 UUID : eef74de5:9267b2a1:c230666b:5103eba0 Events : 0.31 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 6 0 active sync /dev/sda6 1 8 22 1 active sync /dev/sdb6 FOLLOW UP 2 (response to question): Output from /etc/fstab /dev/md1 / ext3 defaults,usrquota,grpquota 1 1 devpts /dev/pts devpts mode=0620,gid=5 0 0 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 #usbdevfs /proc/bus/usb usbdevfs noauto 0 0 /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom auto ro,noauto,user,exec 0 0 /dev/dvd /media/dvd auto ro,noauto,user,exec 0 0 # # # /dev/md2 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 /dev/sda3 swap swap pri=42 0 0 /dev/sdb3 swap swap pri=42 0 0 /dev/md5 /tmp ext3 defaults 0 0 /dev/md6 /home ext3 defaults,usrquota,grpquota 1 2

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  • mdadm+zfs vs mdadm+lvm

    - by Alex
    This may be a naive question since I'm new to this and I cannot find any results about mdadm+zfs, but after some testing it seems it might work: The use case is a server with RAID6 for some data that is backed-up somewhat infrequently. I think I'm well served by any of ZFS or RAID6. Platform is Linux. Performance is secondary. So the two setups I am considering are: A RAID6 array plus regular LVM and ext4 A RAID6 array plus ZFS (without redundancy). Is this second option that I don't see discussed at all. Why ZFS+RAID6? It's mainly because the inability of ZFS to grow a raidz2 with new disks. You can replace disks with larger ones, I know, but not add another disk. You can accomplish 2-disk redundancy and ZFS disk growth using mdadm as the redundancy layer. Besides that main point (otherwise I could go directly to raidz2 without RAID under it), these are the pros-cons that I see for each option: ZFS has snapshots without preallocated space. LVM requires preallocation (might be no longer true). ZFS has checksumming (very interested in this) and compression (nice bonus). LVM has online filesystem growth (ZFS can do it offline with export/mdadm --grow/import). LVM has encryption (ZFS-on-Linux has not). This is the only major con of this combo I see. I guess I could go RAID6+LVM+ZFS... seems too heavy, or not? So, to close with a proper question: 1) Is there anything that inherently discourages or precludes RAID6+ZFS? Anyone has experience with a setup like this? 2) Are there possibilities for checksumming and compression that would make ZFS unnecessary (maintaining the possibility of filesystem growth)? Because the RAID6+LVM combo seems the sanctioned, tested way.

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  • Can't start system due to mdadm failing

    - by user101212
    I used to have a 5-disk RAID5 partition, all working very well. I have then decided to add 3 more disks on it, totaling 8 equal disks. I've opened Webmin and just asked to add the disks. Then I've realized the three disks had NTFS partitions, wich mdadm didn't complain, so I tried to stop the growing to remove the Windows partitions. I've tried to remove a disk using the same Webmin, but (as you might guess and call me fool...), the system became unstable. By restarting the system, I've started receiving these messages: "udev[126]: timeout: killing '/sbin/mdadm --incremental /dev/sdh1' [311]" "udev[124]: timeout: killing '/sbin/mdadm --detail --export /dev/md0' [316]" I've formated the system disk, hoping to get a system up and running. I did that with all RAID disks disconected, so everything was fine. I then reconnected the disks, wich was also ok. And finally installed mdadm using apt-get. By reboot, the system has found the mdadm intention of growing the system, so the same messages appear again. I other words: I can't even reach a command prompt to do something. Any ideas of what to do? I believe I could turn off the system, disconnect the disks and look for the mdadm.conf file. Would that be a good idead? I'm no Linux expert, so I'm really lost here.

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  • Raid 5 mdadm Problem - Help Please

    - by user66260
    My Raid 5 array (4 1tb Disks WD10EARS) had was showing as degraded. I looked and one of the disks wasnt installed, so i re-added it with the mdadm add command. the array is now showing as (null)Array , but cant be mounted if i run: [email protected]:/home/warren# sudo mdadm --misc --detail /dev/md0 I get: mdadm: cannot open /dev/md0: No such file or directory and running: [email protected]:/home/warren# cat /proc/mdstat gives me: Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10] unused devices: < none > The data is very important [email protected]:/home/warren# mdadm --examine /dev/sda /dev/sda: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 0.90.00 UUID : 00000000:00000000:00000000:00000000 Creation Time : Sat May 26 12:08:14 2012 Raid Level : -unknown- Raid Devices : 0 Total Devices : 4 Preferred Minor : 0 Update Time : Sat May 26 12:08:40 2012 State : active Active Devices : 0 Working Devices : 4 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 4 Checksum : 82d5b792 - correct Events : 1 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State this 1 8 0 1 spare /dev/sda 0 0 8 16 0 spare /dev/sdb 1 1 8 0 1 spare /dev/sda 2 2 8 32 2 spare /dev/sdc 3 3 8 48 3 spare /dev/sdd [email protected]:/home/warren# mdadm --examine /dev/sdb /dev/sdb: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 0.90.00 UUID : 00000000:00000000:00000000:00000000 Creation Time : Sat May 26 12:08:14 2012 Raid Level : -unknown- Raid Devices : 0 Total Devices : 4 Preferred Minor : 0 Update Time : Sat May 26 12:08:40 2012 State : active Active Devices : 0 Working Devices : 4 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 4 Checksum : 82d5b7a0 - correct Events : 1 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State this 0 8 16 0 spare /dev/sdb 0 0 8 16 0 spare /dev/sdb 1 1 8 0 1 spare /dev/sda 2 2 8 32 2 spare /dev/sdc 3 3 8 48 3 spare /dev/sdd [email protected]:/home/warren# [email protected]:/home/warren# mdadm --examine /dev/sdc /dev/sdc: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 0.90.00 UUID : 00000000:00000000:00000000:00000000 Creation Time : Sat May 26 12:08:14 2012 Raid Level : -unknown- Raid Devices : 0 Total Devices : 4 Preferred Minor : 0 Update Time : Sat May 26 12:08:40 2012 State : active Active Devices : 0 Working Devices : 4 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 4 Checksum : 82d5b7b4 - correct Events : 1 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State this 2 8 32 2 spare /dev/sdc 0 0 8 16 0 spare /dev/sdb 1 1 8 0 1 spare /dev/sda 2 2 8 32 2 spare /dev/sdc 3 3 8 48 3 spare /dev/sdd [email protected]:/home/warren# mdadm --examine /dev/sdd /dev/sdd: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 0.90.00 UUID : 00000000:00000000:00000000:00000000 Creation Time : Sat May 26 12:08:14 2012 Raid Level : -unknown- Raid Devices : 0 Total Devices : 4 Preferred Minor : 0 Update Time : Sat May 26 12:08:40 2012 State : active Active Devices : 0 Working Devices : 4 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 4 Checksum : 82d5b7c6 - correct Events : 1 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State this 3 8 48 3 spare /dev/sdd 0 0 8 16 0 spare /dev/sdb 1 1 8 0 1 spare /dev/sda 2 2 8 32 2 spare /dev/sdc 3 3 8 48 3 spare /dev/sdd That on the 4 drives.

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  • Upon reboot, Linux software raid fails to include one device of a RAID1 array

    - by user1389890
    One of my four Linux software raid arrays drops one of its two devices when I reboot my system. The other three arrays work fine. I am running RAID1 on kernel version 2.6.32-5-amd64 (Debian Squeeze). Every time I reboot, /dev/md2 comes up with only one device. I can manually add the device by saying $ sudo mdadm /dev/md2 --add /dev/sdc1. This works fine, and mdadm confirms that the device has been re-added as follows: mdadm: re-added /dev/sdc1 After adding the device and allowing the array time to resynch, this is what the output of $ cat /proc/mdstat looks like: Personalities : [raid1] md3 : active raid1 sda4[0] sdb4[1] 244186840 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md2 : active raid1 sdc1[0] sdd1[1] 732574464 blocks [2/2] [UU] md1 : active raid1 sda3[0] sdb3[1] 722804416 blocks [2/2] [UU] md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1] 6835520 blocks [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> Then after I reboot, this is what the output of $ cat /proc/mdstat looks like: Personalities : [raid1] md3 : active raid1 sda4[0] sdb4[1] 244186840 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md2 : active raid1 sdd1[1] 732574464 blocks [2/1] [_U] md1 : active raid1 sda3[0] sdb3[1] 722804416 blocks [2/2] [UU] md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1] 6835520 blocks [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> During reboot, here is the output of $ sudo cat /var/log/syslog | grep mdadm : Jun 22 19:00:08 rook mdadm[1709]: RebuildFinished event detected on md device /dev/md2 Jun 22 19:00:08 rook mdadm[1709]: SpareActive event detected on md device /dev/md2, component device /dev/sdc1 Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446412] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446415] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446782] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446785] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.515844] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.515847] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.606829] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.606832] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855616] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855620] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855950] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855952] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8027.962169] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8027.962171] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8028.054365] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8028.054368] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.588662] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.588664] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.601990] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.601991] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.602693] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.602695] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.605981] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.605983] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.606138] mdadm: sending ioctl 800c0910 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.606139] mdadm: sending ioctl 800c0910 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:48 rook mdadm[1737]: DegradedArray event detected on md device /dev/md2 Here is the result of $ cat /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf: ARRAY /dev/md0 metadata=0.90 UUID=92121d42:37f46b82:926983e9:7d8aad9b ARRAY /dev/md1 metadata=0.90 UUID=9c1bafc3:1762d51d:c1ae3c29:66348110 ARRAY /dev/md2 metadata=0.90 UUID=98cea6ca:25b5f305:49e8ec88:e84bc7f0 ARRAY /dev/md3 metadata=1.2 name=rook:3 UUID=ca3fce37:95d49a09:badd0ddc:b63a4792 Here is the output of $ sudo mdadm -E /dev/sdc1 after re-adding the device and letting it resync: /dev/sdc1: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 0.90.00 UUID : 98cea6ca:25b5f305:49e8ec88:e84bc7f0 (local to host rook) Creation Time : Sun Jul 13 08:05:55 2008 Raid Level : raid1 Used Dev Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Array Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 2 Update Time : Mon Jun 24 07:42:49 2013 State : clean Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 Checksum : 5fd6cc13 - correct Events : 180998 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State this 0 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1 0 0 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1 1 1 8 49 1 active sync /dev/sdd1 Here is the output of $ sudo mdadm -D /dev/md2 after re-adding the device and letting it resync: /dev/md2: Version : 0.90 Creation Time : Sun Jul 13 08:05:55 2008 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Used Dev Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 2 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Mon Jun 24 07:42:49 2013 State : clean Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 UUID : 98cea6ca:25b5f305:49e8ec88:e84bc7f0 (local to host rook) Events : 0.180998 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1 1 8 49 1 active sync /dev/sdd1 I also ran $ sudo smartctl -t long /dev/sdc and no hardware issues were detected. As long as I do not reboot, /dev/md2 seems to work fine. Does anyone have any suggestions?

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  • Why is my RAID /dev/md1 showing up as /dev/md126? Is mdadm.conf being ignored?

    - by mmorris
    I created a RAID with: sudo mdadm --create --verbose /dev/md1 --level=mirror --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 sudo mdadm --create --verbose /dev/md2 --level=mirror --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdc2 sudo mdadm --detail --scan returns: ARRAY /dev/md1 metadata=1.2 name=ion:1 UUID=aa1f85b0:a2391657:cfd38029:772c560e ARRAY /dev/md2 metadata=1.2 name=ion:2 UUID=528e5385:e61eaa4c:1db2dba7:44b556fb Which I appended it to /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf, see below: # mdadm.conf # # Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file. # # by default (built-in), scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) and all # containers for MD superblocks. alternatively, specify devices to scan, using # wildcards if desired. #DEVICE partitions containers # auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes # automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system HOMEHOST <system> # instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts MAILADDR root # definitions of existing MD arrays # This file was auto-generated on Mon, 29 Oct 2012 16:06:12 -0500 # by mkconf $Id$ ARRAY /dev/md1 metadata=1.2 name=ion:1 UUID=aa1f85b0:a2391657:cfd38029:772c560e ARRAY /dev/md2 metadata=1.2 name=ion:2 UUID=528e5385:e61eaa4c:1db2dba7:44b556fb cat /proc/mdstat returns: Personalities : [raid1] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10] md2 : active raid1 sdb2[0] sdc2[1] 208629632 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md1 : active raid1 sdb1[0] sdc1[1] 767868736 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> ls -la /dev | grep md returns: brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 1 Oct 30 11:06 md1 brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 2 Oct 30 11:06 md2 So I think all is good and I reboot. After the reboot, /dev/md1 is now /dev/md126 and /dev/md2 is now /dev/md127????? sudo mdadm --detail --scan returns: ARRAY /dev/md/ion:1 metadata=1.2 name=ion:1 UUID=aa1f85b0:a2391657:cfd38029:772c560e ARRAY /dev/md/ion:2 metadata=1.2 name=ion:2 UUID=528e5385:e61eaa4c:1db2dba7:44b556fb cat /proc/mdstat returns: Personalities : [raid1] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10] md126 : active raid1 sdc2[1] sdb2[0] 208629632 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md127 : active (auto-read-only) raid1 sdb1[0] sdc1[1] 767868736 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> ls -la /dev | grep md returns: drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 80 Oct 30 11:18 md brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 126 Oct 30 11:18 md126 brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 127 Oct 30 11:18 md127 All is not lost, I: sudo mdadm --stop /dev/md126 sudo mdadm --stop /dev/md127 sudo mdadm --assemble --verbose /dev/md1 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 sudo mdadm --assemble --verbose /dev/md2 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdc2 and verify everything: sudo mdadm --detail --scan returns: ARRAY /dev/md1 metadata=1.2 name=ion:1 UUID=aa1f85b0:a2391657:cfd38029:772c560e ARRAY /dev/md2 metadata=1.2 name=ion:2 UUID=528e5385:e61eaa4c:1db2dba7:44b556fb cat /proc/mdstat returns: Personalities : [raid1] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10] md2 : active raid1 sdb2[0] sdc2[1] 208629632 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md1 : active raid1 sdb1[0] sdc1[1] 767868736 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> ls -la /dev | grep md returns: brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 1 Oct 30 11:26 md1 brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 2 Oct 30 11:26 md2 So once again, I think all is good and I reboot. Again, after the reboot, /dev/md1 is /dev/md126 and /dev/md2 is /dev/md127????? sudo mdadm --detail --scan returns: ARRAY /dev/md/ion:1 metadata=1.2 name=ion:1 UUID=aa1f85b0:a2391657:cfd38029:772c560e ARRAY /dev/md/ion:2 metadata=1.2 name=ion:2 UUID=528e5385:e61eaa4c:1db2dba7:44b556fb cat /proc/mdstat returns: Personalities : [raid1] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10] md126 : active raid1 sdc2[1] sdb2[0] 208629632 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md127 : active (auto-read-only) raid1 sdb1[0] sdc1[1] 767868736 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> ls -la /dev | grep md returns: drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 80 Oct 30 11:42 md brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 126 Oct 30 11:42 md126 brw-rw---- 1 root disk 9, 127 Oct 30 11:42 md127 What am I missing here?

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  • Linux software raid fails to include one device for one RAID1 array

    - by user1389890
    One of my four Linux software raid arrays drops one of its two devices when I reboot my system. The other three arrays work fine. I am running RAID1 on kernel version 2.6.32-5-amd64. Every time I reboot, /dev/md2 comes up with only one device. I can manually add the device by saying $ sudo mdadm /dev/md2 --add /dev/sdc1. This works fine, and mdadm confirms that the device has been re-added as follows: mdadm: re-added /dev/sdc1 After adding the device and and allowing the array time to resynch, this is what the output of $ cat /proc/mdstat looks like: Personalities : [raid1] md3 : active raid1 sda4[0] sdb4[1] 244186840 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md2 : active raid1 sdc1[0] sdd1[1] 732574464 blocks [2/2] [UU] md1 : active raid1 sda3[0] sdb3[1] 722804416 blocks [2/2] [UU] md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1] 6835520 blocks [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> Then after I reboot, this is what the output of $ cat /proc/mdstat looks like: Personalities : [raid1] md3 : active raid1 sda4[0] sdb4[1] 244186840 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md2 : active raid1 sdd1[1] 732574464 blocks [2/1] [_U] md1 : active raid1 sda3[0] sdb3[1] 722804416 blocks [2/2] [UU] md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1] 6835520 blocks [2/2] [UU] unused devices: <none> During reboot, here is the output of $ sudo cat /var/log/syslog | grep mdadm : Jun 22 19:00:08 rook mdadm[1709]: RebuildFinished event detected on md device /dev/md2 Jun 22 19:00:08 rook mdadm[1709]: SpareActive event detected on md device /dev/md2, component device /dev/sdc1 Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446412] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446415] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446782] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.446785] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.515844] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.515847] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.606829] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:00:20 rook kernel: [ 7819.606832] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855616] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855620] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855950] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:48 rook kernel: [ 8027.855952] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8027.962169] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8027.962171] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8028.054365] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:03:49 rook kernel: [ 8028.054368] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.588662] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.588664] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.601990] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.601991] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.602693] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.602695] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.605981] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.605983] mdadm: sending ioctl 1261 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.606138] mdadm: sending ioctl 800c0910 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:23 rook kernel: [ 9.606139] mdadm: sending ioctl 800c0910 to a partition! Jun 22 19:10:48 rook mdadm[1737]: DegradedArray event detected on md device /dev/md2 Here is the mdadm.conf file: ARRAY /dev/md0 metadata=0.90 UUID=92121d42:37f46b82:926983e9:7d8aad9b ARRAY /dev/md1 metadata=0.90 UUID=9c1bafc3:1762d51d:c1ae3c29:66348110 ARRAY /dev/md2 metadata=0.90 UUID=98cea6ca:25b5f305:49e8ec88:e84bc7f0 ARRAY /dev/md3 metadata=1.2 name=rook:3 UUID=ca3fce37:95d49a09:badd0ddc:b63a4792 I also ran $ sudo smartctl -t long /dev/sdc and no hardware issues were detected. As long as I do not reboot, /dev/md2 seems to work fine. Does anyone have any suggestions? Here is the output of $ sudo mdadm -E /dev/sdc1 after re-adding the device and letting it resync: /dev/sdc1: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 0.90.00 UUID : 98cea6ca:25b5f305:49e8ec88:e84bc7f0 (local to host rook) Creation Time : Sun Jul 13 08:05:55 2008 Raid Level : raid1 Used Dev Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Array Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 2 Update Time : Mon Jun 24 07:42:49 2013 State : clean Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 Checksum : 5fd6cc13 - correct Events : 180998 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State this 0 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1 0 0 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1 1 1 8 49 1 active sync /dev/sdd1 Here is the output of $ sudo mdadm -D /dev/md2 after re-adding the device and letting it resync: /dev/md2: Version : 0.90 Creation Time : Sun Jul 13 08:05:55 2008 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Used Dev Size : 732574464 (698.64 GiB 750.16 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 2 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Mon Jun 24 07:42:49 2013 State : clean Active Devices : 2 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 UUID : 98cea6ca:25b5f305:49e8ec88:e84bc7f0 (local to host rook) Events : 0.180998 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1 1 8 49 1 active sync /dev/sdd1

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  • mdadm: breaks boot due to "is not ready yet or not present" error

    - by BarsMonster
    This is so damn frustrating :-| I've spent like 20 hours on this nice error, and seems like dozens of people over Internet too, and no clear solution yet. I have non-system RAID-5 of 5 disks, and it's fine. But during boot up it says that "/dev/md0 is not ready yet or not present" and asks to press 'S'. Very nice for Ubuntu Server - I have to bring monitor and keyboard to go next. After this system boots and it's all fine. md0 device works, /proc/mdstat is fine. When I do mount -a - it mounts this array without errors and works fine. As a dumb and shameful workaround I added noauto in /etc/fstab, and did mounting in /etc/rc.local - it works fine then. Any hints how to make it work properly? fstab: UUID=3588dfed-47ae-4c32-9855-2d69df713b86 /var/bigfatdisk ext4 noauto,noatime,data=writeback,barrier=0,nobh,commit=5 0 0 mdadm config: It is autogenerated: # mdadm.conf # # Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file. # # by default, scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) for MD superblocks. # alternatively, specify devices to scan, using wildcards if desired. DEVICE partitions # auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes # automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system HOMEHOST <system> # instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts MAILADDR CENSORED # definitions of existing MD arrays ARRAY /dev/md/0 metadata=1.2 bitmap=/var/md0_intent UUID=efccbeb6:a0a65cd6:470dcdf3:62781188 name=LBox2:0 # This file was auto-generated on Mon, 10 Jan 2011 04:06:55 +0200 # by mkconf 3.1.2-2

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  • mdadm: brakes boot due to "is not ready yet or not present" error

    - by BarsMonster
    This is so damn frustrating :-| I've spent like 20 hours on this nice error, and seems like dozens of people over Internet too, and no clear solution yet. I have non-system RAID-5 of 5 disks, and it's fine. But during boot up it says that "/dev/md0 is not ready yet or not present" and asks to press 'S'. Very nice for Ubuntu Server - I have to bring monitor and keyboard to go next. After this system boots and it's all fine. md0 device works, /proc/mdstat is fine. When I do mount -a - it mounts this array without errors and works fine. As a dumb and shameful workaround I added noauto in /etc/fstab, and did mounting in /etc/rc.local - it works fine then. Any hints how to make it work properly? fstab: UUID=3588dfed-47ae-4c32-9855-2d69df713b86 /var/bigfatdisk ext4 noauto,noatime,data=writeback,barrier=0,nobh,commit=5 0 0 mdadm config: It is autogenerated: # mdadm.conf # # Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file. # # by default, scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) for MD superblocks. # alternatively, specify devices to scan, using wildcards if desired. DEVICE partitions # auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes # automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system HOMEHOST <system> # instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts MAILADDR CENSORED # definitions of existing MD arrays ARRAY /dev/md/0 metadata=1.2 bitmap=/var/md0_intent UUID=efccbeb6:a0a65cd6:470dcdf3:62781188 name=LBox2:0 # This file was auto-generated on Mon, 10 Jan 2011 04:06:55 +0200 # by mkconf 3.1.2-2

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  • Build and migrated to software raid (mdadm) on GPT disk, now can't assemble array

    - by John H
    mdadm, gpt issues, unrecognized partitions. Simplified question: How do I get mdadm to recognize GPT partitions? I have been attempting to convert/copy my Ubuntu 11.10 OS from a single drive to software raid 1. I have done similar in the past, but in this case, I was adding in a drive that has been configured for GPT and I tried to work with that without fully looking into the implications. Currently, I have a non-booting mdadm RAID 1 array of /dev/md127 (the OS assigned that and it keeps picking up). I am booting off of live USB keys, currently System Rescue CD from sysresccd. While gdisk and parted can see all the partitions, most of the OS utilities do not, including mdadm. My main goal is just to make the raid array accessible so I can get pull the data and start fresh (without using GPT). /dev/md127 /dev/sda /dev/sda1 <- GPT type partition /dev/sda1 <- exists within the GPT part, member of md127 /dev/sda2 <- exists within the GPT part, empty /dev/sdb /dev/sdb1 <- GPT type partition /dev/sdb1 <- exists within the GPT part, member of md127 History: POINT A: The original OS was install on sda (actually /dev/sda6). I used a the Ubuntu live usb to add sdb. I got warning from fdisk about GPT so I used gdisk to create a raid partition (sdb1) and mdadm to create a raid1 mirror with a missing drive. I had many issues getting this working (including being unable to get grub to install) but I eventually got it to boot using grub on sda and /dev/md127 off of sdb. So at point A, I had copied my OS from sda6 to md127 on sdb. I then booted into a rescue mode and attempted to get a bootloader onto sdb, which failed. I then discovered my mistake: I had installed the raid onto sdb instead of sdb1, essentially overwriting the sdb1 partition. POINT B: I now had two copies of my data- one on md127/sdb, and one on sda. I destroyed data on sda and created a new GPT table on sda. I then created sda1 for the raid array, and sda2 for a scratch partition. I added sda1 into the raid array and let it rebuild. md127 now covered /dev/sdb and /dev/sda1 as fully active and synced. POINT C: I rebooted onto linux rescue again and was still able to access the raid array. I then removed /dev/sdb from the array and created /dev/sdb1 for the raid. I added sdb1 to the array and let it sync. I was able to mount and access /dev/md127 without issues. Once it completed, both /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1 were GPT partitions and actively syncing. POINT D (current): I rebooted again to test if the array would boot and grub failed to load. I booted off of my live thumb drive and found that I can no longer assemble the raid array. mdadm doesn't see the required partitions. -- [email protected] /root % uname -a Linux freshdesk 3.0.24-std251-amd64 #2 SMP Sat Mar 17 12:08:55 UTC 2012 x86_64 AMD Athlon(tm) II X4 645 Processor AuthenticAMD GNU/Linux === /proc/partitions and parted look good: [email protected] /root % cat /proc/partitions major minor #blocks name 7 0 301788 loop0 8 0 976762584 sda 8 1 732579840 sda1 8 2 244181703 sda2 8 16 732574584 sdb 8 17 732573543 sdb1 8 32 7876607 sdc 8 33 7873349 sdc1 (parted) print all Model: ATA ST31000528AS (scsi) Disk /dev/sda: 1000GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 1049kB 750GB 750GB ext4 2 750GB 1000GB 250GB Linux/Windows data Model: ATA SAMSUNG HD753LJ (scsi) Disk /dev/sdb: 750GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 1049kB 750GB 750GB ext4 Linux RAID raid Model: SanDisk SanDisk Cruzer (scsi) Disk /dev/sdc: 8066MB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: msdos Number Start End Size Type File system Flags 1 31.7kB 8062MB 8062MB primary fat32 boot, lba === # no sda2, and I double the sdb1 is the one shown in parted [email protected] /root % blkid /dev/loop0: TYPE="squashfs" /dev/sda1: UUID="75dd6c2d-f0a8-4302-9da4-792cc7d72355" TYPE="ext4" /dev/sdc1: LABEL="PENDRIVE" UUID="1102-3720" TYPE="vfat" /dev/sdb1: UUID="2dd89f15-65bb-ff88-e368-bf24bd0fce41" TYPE="linux_raid_member" [email protected] /root % mdadm -E /dev/sda1 mdadm: No md superblock detected on /dev/sda1. # this is probably a result of me attempting to force the array up, putting superblocks on the GPT partition [email protected] /root % mdadm -E /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb1: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 0.90.00 UUID : 2dd89f15:65bbff88:e368bf24:bd0fce41 Creation Time : Fri Mar 30 19:25:30 2012 Raid Level : raid1 Used Dev Size : 732568320 (698.63 GiB 750.15 GB) Array Size : 732568320 (698.63 GiB 750.15 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 127 Update Time : Sat Mar 31 12:39:38 2012 State : clean Active Devices : 1 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 1 Spare Devices : 1 Checksum : a7d038b3 - correct Events : 20195 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State this 2 8 17 2 spare /dev/sdb1 0 0 8 1 0 active sync /dev/sda1 1 1 0 0 1 faulty removed 2 2 8 17 2 spare /dev/sdb1 === [email protected] /root % mdadm -A /dev/md127 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 mdadm: no recogniseable superblock on /dev/sda1 mdadm: /dev/sda1 has no superblock - assembly aborted [email protected] /root % mdadm -A /dev/md127 /dev/sdb1 mdadm: cannot open device /dev/sdb1: Device or resource busy mdadm: /dev/sdb1 has no superblock - assembly aborted

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  • mdadm cron job sends email that cron has run

    - by Andrew
    I've got an Ubuntu 8.04 server using mdadm to create several RAID1 arrays. I created /etc/cron.hourly/mdadm as follows: #! /bin/sh set -e mdadm --monitor /dev/md0 /dev/md3 /dev/md4 --oneshot (Yes, the array numbers are not sequential, and I'm not using --scan beacuse I have a degraded array that may or may not have been used as swap and I can't delete, but I think that's a separate issue. If it's the underlying cause of this, I need to fix it.) mdadm sends me email (configured in the /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf) on DegradedArray etc. events. This is the desired behaviour. What is not desired, and I can't work out, is why cron is sending me (relatively pointless) emails, via an alias in /etc/aliases: From: [email protected]<hostname> (Cron Daemon) To: [email protected]<hostname> Subject: Cron <[email protected]<hostname>> cd / && run-parts --report /etc/cron.hourly Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ANSI_X3.4-1968 X-Cron-Env: <SHELL=/bin/sh> X-Cron-Env: <PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin> X-Cron-Env: <HOME=/root> X-Cron-Env: <LOGNAME=root> Message-Id: <[email protected]> Date: Fri, 7 May 2010 13:17:01 +0930 (CST) /etc/cron.hourly/mdadm: mdadm: Monitor using email address "<[email protected]>" from config file I've got a dozen other servers behaving correctly (mdadm sends email, cron doesnt') with identical /etc/crontab files: # /etc/crontab: system-wide crontab # <snip comments> SHELL=/bin/sh PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin # m h dom mon dow user command 17 * * * * root cd / && run-parts --report /etc/cron.hourly <snip anacron jobs> Should I simply remove the --report, or is there something else in my cron config somewhere causing this?

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  • LVM2 vs MDADM performance

    - by archer
    I've used MDADM + LVM2 on many boxes for quite a while. MDADM was serving for both RAID0 and RAID1 arrays, while LVM2 where used for logical volumes on top of MDADM. Recently I've found that LVM2 could be used w/o MDADM (thus minus one layer, as the result - less overhead) for both mirroring and stripping. However, some guys claims that READ PERFORMANCE on LVM2 for mirrored array is not that fast as for LVM2 (linear) on top of MDADM (RAID1) as LVM2 does not read from 2+ devices at a time, but use 2nd and higher devices in case of 1st device failure. MDADM reads from 2 devices at a time (even in mirrored mode). Who could confirm that?

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  • mdadm email notification - change the default subject

    - by Shirker
    I have entry in my crontab 00 */1 * * * /sbin/mdadm --monitor --scan -1 [email protected] It works more than perfect, but I need to change the default email template. So instead of subject "mdadm monitoring" it wished to be "mdadm monitoring from «IP ADDRESS»" or like that. [[email protected] ~]# rpm -ql mdadm-3.2.5-4.el6_4.2.x86_64 | grep -v -E '(man|doc)' /etc/cron.d/raid-check /etc/rc.d/init.d/mdmonitor /etc/sysconfig/raid-check /lib/udev/rules.d/65-md-incremental.rules /sbin/mdadm /sbin/mdmon /usr/sbin/raid-check /var/run/mdadm Is it hardcoded or its possible to change?

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  • Improving mdadm RAID-6 write speed

    - by BarsMonster
    Hi! I have a mdadm RAID-6 in my home server of 5x1Tb WD Green HDDs. Read speed is more than enough - 268 Mb/s in dd. But write speed is just 37.1 Mb/s. (Both tested via dd on 48Gb file, RAM size is 1Gb, block size used in testing is 8kb) Could you please suggest why write speed is so low and is there any ways to improve it? CPU usage during writing is just 25% (i.e. half of 1 core of Opteron 165) No business critical data there & server is UPS-backed. mdstat is: Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] md0 : active raid6 sda1[0] sdd1[4] sde1[3] sdf1[2] sdb1[1] 2929683456 blocks super 1.2 level 6, 1024k chunk, algorithm 2 [5/5] [UUUUU] bitmap: 0/8 pages [0KB], 65536KB chunk unused devices: <none> Any suggestions?

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  • Removing mdadm array and converting to regular disks while preserving data

    - by Jeffrey Kevin Pry
    I have a 6 disk (2TB each) mdadm RAID 5 volume created in Ubuntu 12.04 Server. However, I'm moving to a different solution and want to "unraid" my disks but keep the data. Only 50% is in use. From what I can surmise I basically have to do this recursively for each physical disk. Fail the disk Format the failed disk Move a portion of files to the new disk. Reshape the array Shrink the logical volume md0 This seems like a very time consuming process. Is there an easier way to do this (automatically perhaps) without buying new disks to temporarily hold the data? I am also aware that during this processing my RAID volume will be degraded and vulnerable the entire time. I am not too concerned about this and will be using battery backup and moving the most important files off first. Thank you for your help!

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  • How to get rid of a stubborn 'removed' device in mdadm

    - by T.J. Crowder
    One of my server's drives failed and so I removed the failed drive from all three relevant arrays, had the drive swapped out, and then added the new drive to the arrays. Two of the arrays worked perfectly. The third added the drive back as a spare, and there's an odd "removed" entry in the mdadm details. I tried both mdadm /dev/md2 --remove failed and mdadm /dev/md2 --remove detached as suggested here and here, neither of which complained, but neither of which had any effect, either. Does anyone know how I can get rid of that entry and get the drive added back properly? (Ideally without resyncing a third time, I've already had to do it twice and it takes hours. But if that's what it takes, that's what it takes.) The new drive is /dev/sda, the relevant partition is /dev/sda3. Here's the detail on the array: # mdadm --detail /dev/md2 /dev/md2: Version : 0.90 Creation Time : Wed Oct 26 12:27:49 2011 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 729952192 (696.14 GiB 747.47 GB) Used Dev Size : 729952192 (696.14 GiB 747.47 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Preferred Minor : 2 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Tue Nov 12 17:48:53 2013 State : clean, degraded Active Devices : 1 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 1 UUID : 2fdbf68c:d572d905:776c2c25:004bd7b2 (local to host blah) Events : 0.34665 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 0 0 0 removed 1 8 19 1 active sync /dev/sdb3 2 8 3 - spare /dev/sda3 If it's relevant, it's a 64-bit server. It normally runs Ubuntu, but right now I'm in the data centre's "rescue" OS, which is Debian 7 (wheezy). The "removed" entry was there the last time I was in Ubuntu (it won't, currently, boot from the disk), so I don't think that's not some Ubuntu/Debian conflict (and they are, of course, closely related). Update: Having done extensive tests with test devices on a local machine, I'm just plain getting anomalous behavior from mdadm with this array. For instance, with /dev/sda3 removed from the array again, I did this: mdadm /dev/md2 --grow --force --raid-devices=1 And that got rid of the "removed" device, leaving me just with /dev/sdb3. Then I nuked /dev/sda3 (wrote a file system to it, so it didn't have the raid fs anymore), then: mdadm /dev/md2 --grow --raid-devices=2 ...which gave me an array with /dev/sdb3 in slot 0 and "removed" in slot 1 as you'd expect. Then mdadm /dev/md2 --add /dev/sda3 ...added it — as a spare again. (Another 3.5 hours down the drain.) So with the rebuilt spare in the array, given that mdadm's man page says RAID-DEVICES CHANGES ... When the number of devices is increased, any hot spares that are present will be activated immediately. ...I grew the array to three devices, to try to activate the "spare": mdadm /dev/md2 --grow --raid-devices=3 What did I get? Two "removed" devices, and the spare. And yet when I do this with a test array, I don't get this behavior. So I nuked /dev/sda3 again, used it to create a brand-new array, and am copying the data from the old array to the new one: rsync -r -t -v --exclude 'lost+found' --progress /mnt/oldarray/* /mnt/newarray This will, of course, take hours. Hopefully when I'm done, I can stop the old array entirely, nuke /dev/sdb3, and add it to the new array. Hopefully, it won't get added as a spare!

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  • mdadm starts resync on every boot

    - by Anteru
    Since a few days (and I'm positive it started shortly before I updated my server from 13.04-13.10) my mdadm is resyncing on every boot. In the syslog, I get the following output [ 0.809256] md: linear personality registered for level -1 [ 0.811412] md: multipath personality registered for level -4 [ 0.813153] md: raid0 personality registered for level 0 [ 0.815201] md: raid1 personality registered for level 1 [ 1.101517] md: raid6 personality registered for level 6 [ 1.101520] md: raid5 personality registered for level 5 [ 1.101522] md: raid4 personality registered for level 4 [ 1.106825] md: raid10 personality registered for level 10 [ 1.935882] md: bind<sdc1> [ 1.943367] md: bind<sdb1> [ 1.945199] md/raid1:md0: not clean -- starting background reconstruction [ 1.945204] md/raid1:md0: active with 2 out of 2 mirrors [ 1.945225] md0: detected capacity change from 0 to 2000396680192 [ 1.945351] md: resync of RAID array md0 [ 1.945357] md: minimum _guaranteed_ speed: 1000 KB/sec/disk. [ 1.945359] md: using maximum available idle IO bandwidth (but not more than 200000 KB/sec) for resync. [ 1.945362] md: using 128k window, over a total of 1953512383k. [ 2.220468] md0: unknown partition table I'm not sure what's up with that detected capacity change, looking at some old logs, this does have appeared earlier as well without a resync right afterwards. In fact, I let it run yesterday until completion and rebooted, and then it wouldn't resync, but today it does resync again. For instance, yesterday I got: [ 1.872123] md: bind<sdc1> [ 1.950946] md: bind<sdb1> [ 1.952782] md/raid1:md0: active with 2 out of 2 mirrors [ 1.952807] md0: detected capacity change from 0 to 2000396680192 [ 1.954598] md0: unknown partition table So it seems to be a problem that the RAID array does not get marked as clean after every shutdown? How can I troubleshoot this? The disks themselves are both fine, SMART tells me no errors, everything ok.

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  • Switching mdadm to an external bitmap

    - by Oli
    I've just read this in another post about improving RAID5/6 write speeds: After increasing stripe cache & switching to external bitmap, my speeds are 160 Mb/s writes, 260 Mb/s reads. :-D I've already found out how to increase the stripe cache and this worked pretty well but I'd like to know more about an external bitmap. I have an incredibly fast (540MB/s) RAID0 SSD that would do well if a bitmap does what I think it does but I'm still very unsure. I've only known about them as long as I've known this post. A few questions: What is a bitmap (in terms of mdadm)? What are the advantages of an internal bitmap (over external)? What are the advantages of an external bitmap (over internal)? How do I switch between the two? I should add that while this is a I'm-bored-let's-break-something thread, I do value the data stored on the RAID array. If doing this is going to put data at significant risk, please let me know.

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  • Simple mdadm RAID 1 not activating spare

    - by Nick Liu
    I had created two 2TB HDD partitions (/dev/sdb1 and /dev/sdc1) in a RAID 1 array called /dev/md0 using mdadm on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin. The command sudo mdadm --detail /dev/md0 used to indicate both drives as active sync. Then, for testing, I failed /dev/sdb1, removed it, then added it again with the command sudo mdadm /dev/md0 --add /dev/sdb1 watch cat /proc/mdstat showed a progress bar of the array rebuilding, but I wouldn't spend hours watching it, so I assumed that the software knew what it was doing. After the progress bar was no longer showing, cat /proc/mdstat displays: md0 : active raid1 sdb1[2](S) sdc1[1] 1953511288 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [U_] And sudo mdadm --detail /dev/md0 shows: /dev/md0: Version : 1.2 Creation Time : Sun May 27 11:26:05 2012 Raid Level : raid1 Array Size : 1953511288 (1863.01 GiB 2000.40 GB) Used Dev Size : 1953511288 (1863.01 GiB 2000.40 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Mon May 28 11:16:49 2012 State : clean, degraded Active Devices : 1 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 1 Name : Deltique:0 (local to host Deltique) UUID : 49733c26:dd5f67b5:13741fb7:c568bd04 Events : 32365 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 1 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1 1 0 0 1 removed 2 8 17 - spare /dev/sdb1 I've been told that mdadm automatically replaces removed drives with spares, but /dev/sdb1 isn't being moved into the expected position, RaidDevice 1. UPDATE (30 May 2012): A badblocks destructive read-write test of the entire /dev/sdb yielded no errors as expected; both HDDs are new. As of the latest edit, I assembled the array with this command: sudo mdadm --assemble --force --no-degraded /dev/md0 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 The output was: mdadm: /dev/md0 has been started with 1 drive (out of 2) and 1 rebuilding. Rebuilding looks like it's progressing normally: md0 : active raid1 sdc1[1] sdb1[2] 1953511288 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [U_] [>....................] recovery = 0.6% (13261504/1953511288) finish=2299.7min speed=14060K/sec unused devices: <none> I'm now waiting on this rebuild, but I'm expecting /dev/sdb1 to become a spare just like the five or six times that I've tried rebuilding before. UPDATE (31 May 2012): Yeah, it's still a spare. Ugh! UPDATE (01 June 2012): I'm trying Adrian Kelly's suggested command: sudo mdadm --assemble --update=resync /dev/md0 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 Waiting on the rebuild now... My questions are: Why isn't the spare drive becoming active sync? How can I make the spare drive become active?

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  • Resize underlying partitions in mdadm RAID1

    - by kyork
    I have a home built NAS, and I need to slightly reconfigure some of my drive usage. I have an mdadm RAID1 composed of two 3TB drives. Each drive has one ext3 partition that uses the entire drive. I need to shrink the ext3 partition on both drives, and add a second 8GB or so ext3 partition to one, and swap partition of equal size to the other. I think I have the steps figured out, but wanted some confirmation. Resize the mdadm RAID resize2fs /dev/md0 [size] where size is a little larger than the currently used space on the drive Remove one of the drives from the RAID mdadm /dev/md0 --fail /dev/sda1 Resize the removed drive with parted Add the new partition to the drive with parted Restore the drive to the RAID mdadm -a /dev/md0 /dev/sda1 Repeat 2-5 for the other device Resize the RAID to use the full partition mdadm --grow /dev/md0 -z max Is there anything I've missed, or haven't considered?

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  • mdadm raid5 recover double disk failure - with a twist (drive order)

    - by Peter Bos
    Let me acknowledge first off that I have made mistakes, and that I have a backup for most but not all of the data on this RAID. I still have hope of recovering the rest of the data. I don't have the kind of money to take the drives to a recovery expert company. Mistake #0, not having a 100% backup. I know. I have a mdadm RAID5 system of 4x3TB. Drives /dev/sd[b-e], all with one partition /dev/sd[b-e]1. I'm aware that RAID5 on very large drives is risky, yet I did it anyway. Recent events The RAID become degraded after a two drive failure. One drive [/dev/sdc] is really gone, the other [/dev/sde] came back up after a power cycle, but was not automatically re-added to the RAID. So I was left with a 4 device RAID with only 2 active drives [/dev/sdb and /dev/sdd]. Mistake #1, not using dd copies of the drives for restoring the RAID. I did not have the drives or the time. Mistake #2, not making a backup of the superblock and mdadm -E of the remaining drives. Recovery attempt I reassembled the RAID in degraded mode with mdadm --assemble --force /dev/md0, using /dev/sd[bde]1. I could then access my data. I replaced /dev/sdc with a spare; empty; identical drive. I removed the old /dev/sdc1 from the RAID mdadm --fail /dev/md0 /dev/sdc1 Mistake #3, not doing this before replacing the drive I then partitioned the new /dev/sdc and added it to the RAID. mdadm --add /dev/md0 /dev/sdc1 It then began to restore the RAID. ETA 300 mins. I followed the process via /proc/mdstat to 2% and then went to do other stuff. Checking the result Several hours (but less then 300 mins) later, I checked the process. It had stopped due to a read error on /dev/sde1. Here is where the trouble really starts I then removed /dev/sde1 from the RAID and re-added it. I can't remember why I did this; it was late. mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --remove /dev/sde1 mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --add /dev/sde1 However, /dev/sde1 was now marked as spare. So I decided to recreate the whole array using --assume-clean using what I thought was the right order, and with /dev/sdc1 missing. mdadm --create /dev/md0 --assume-clean -l5 -n4 /dev/sdb1 missing /dev/sdd1 /dev/sde1 That worked, but the filesystem was not recognized while trying to mount. (It should have been EXT4). Device order I then checked a recent backup I had of /proc/mdstat, and I found the drive order. md0 : active raid5 sdb1[0] sde1[4] sdd1[2] sdc1[1] 8790402048 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU] I then remembered this RAID had suffered a drive loss about a year ago, and recovered from it by replacing the faulty drive with a spare one. That may have scrambled the device order a bit...so there was no drive [3] but only [0],[1],[2], and [4]. I tried to find the drive order with the Permute_array script: https://raid.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Permute_array.pl but that did not find the right order. Questions I now have two main questions: I screwed up all the superblocks on the drives, but only gave: mdadm --create --assume-clean commands (so I should not have overwritten the data itself on /dev/sd[bde]1. Am I right that in theory the RAID can be restored [assuming for a moment that /dev/sde1 is ok] if I just find the right device order? Is it important that /dev/sde1 be given the device number [4] in the RAID? When I create it with mdadm --create /dev/md0 --assume-clean -l5 -n4 \ /dev/sdb1 missing /dev/sdd1 /dev/sde1 it is assigned the number [3]. I wonder if that is relevant to the calculation of the parity blocks. If it turns out to be important, how can I recreate the array with /dev/sdb1[0] missing[1] /dev/sdd1[2] /dev/sde1[4]? If I could get that to work I could start it in degraded mode and add the new drive /dev/sdc1 and let it resync again. It's OK if you would like to point out to me that this may not have been the best course of action, but you'll find that I realized this. It would be great if anyone has any suggestions.

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  • mdadm superblock hiding/shadowing partition

    - by Kjell Andreassen
    Short version: Is it safe to do mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sdd on a disk with a partition (dev/sdd1), filesystem and data? Will the partition be mountable and the data still there? Longer version: I used to have a raid6 array but decided to dismantle it. The disks from the array are now used as non-raid disks. The superblocks were cleared: sudo mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sdd The disks were repartitioned with fdisk and filesystems created with mfks.ext4. All disks where mounted and everything worked fine. Today, a couple of weeks later, one of the disks is failing to be recognized when trying to mount it, or rather the single partition on it. sudo mount /dev/sdd1 /mnt/tmp mount: special device /dev/sdd1 does not exist fdisk claims there to be a partition on it: sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdd Disk /dev/sdd: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0xb06f6341 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sdd1 1 243201 1953512001 83 Linux Of course mount is right, the device /dev/sdd1 is not there, I'm guessing udev did not create it because of the mdadm data still on it: sudo mdadm --examine /dev/sdd /dev/sdd: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 1.2 Feature Map : 0x0 Array UUID : b164e513:c0584be1:3cc53326:48691084 Name : pringle:0 (local to host pringle) Creation Time : Sat Jun 16 21:37:14 2012 Raid Level : raid6 Raid Devices : 6 Avail Dev Size : 3907027120 (1863.02 GiB 2000.40 GB) Array Size : 15628107776 (7452.06 GiB 8001.59 GB) Used Dev Size : 3907026944 (1863.02 GiB 2000.40 GB) Data Offset : 2048 sectors Super Offset : 8 sectors State : clean Device UUID : 3ccaeb5b:843531e4:87bf1224:382c16e2 Update Time : Sun Aug 12 22:20:39 2012 Checksum : 4c329db0 - correct Events : 1238535 Layout : left-symmetric Chunk Size : 512K Device Role : Active device 3 Array State : AA.AAA ('A' == active, '.' == missing) My mdadm --zero-superblock apparently didn't work. Can I safely try it again without losing data? If not, are there any suggestion on what do to? Not starting mdadm at all on boot might be a (somewhat unsatisfactory) solution.

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  • How to force mdadm to stop RAID5 array?

    - by lucek
    I have /dev/md127 RAID5 array that consisted of four drives. I managed to hot remove them from the array and currently /dev/md127 does not have any drives: cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10] md0 : active raid1 sdd1[0] sda1[1] 304052032 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md1 : active raid0 sda5[1] sdd5[0] 16770048 blocks super 1.2 512k chunks md127 : active raid5 super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/0] [____] unused devices: <none> and mdadm --detail /dev/md127 /dev/md127: Version : 1.2 Creation Time : Thu Sep 6 10:39:57 2012 Raid Level : raid5 Array Size : 8790402048 (8383.18 GiB 9001.37 GB) Used Dev Size : 2930134016 (2794.39 GiB 3000.46 GB) Raid Devices : 4 Total Devices : 0 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Fri Sep 7 17:19:47 2012 State : clean, FAILED Active Devices : 0 Working Devices : 0 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 0 Layout : left-symmetric Chunk Size : 512K Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 0 0 0 removed 1 0 0 1 removed 2 0 0 2 removed 3 0 0 3 removed I've tried to do mdadm --stop /dev/md127 but: mdadm --stop /dev/md127 mdadm: Cannot get exclusive access to /dev/md127:Perhaps a running process, mounted filesystem or active volume group? I made sure that it's unmounted, umount -l /dev/md127 and confirmed that it indeed is unmounted: umount /dev/md127 umount: /dev/md127: not mounted I've tried to zero superblock of each drive and I get (for each drive): mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sde1 mdadm: Unrecognised md component device - /dev/sde1 Here's output of lsof|grep md127: lsof|grep md127 md127_rai 276 root cwd DIR 9,0 4096 2 / md127_rai 276 root rtd DIR 9,0 4096 2 / md127_rai 276 root txt unknown /proc/276/exe What else can I do? LVM is not even installed so it can't be a factor.

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  • Ubutnu 12.04 mdadm inactive

    - by user32274
    For a while now, my RAID 5 has ceased to work. Everytime I tried "madm --detail /dev/md127", its states all the drive and drive info, but that two of the drives have been removed. After some restarts, doing the same thing, i am getting /dev/md127 does not appear to be active. When I go into DiskUtil, I can see all 6 Hard Drives healthy and present, and i can see the Raid 5 at the bottom under Multi-disk Devices. However, the Raid says 0.0kb, and is not active. Please help and let me know how to proceed from here. I would really like to avoid rebuilding the RAID, especially because all 6 drives seem to be healthy and present. Thanks so much.

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  • Ubuntu 12.04 mdadm inactive

    - by user32274
    For a while now, my RAID 5 has ceased to work. Everytime I tried "madm --detail /dev/md127", its states all the drive and drive info, but that two of the drives have been removed. After some restarts, doing the same thing, i am getting /dev/md127 does not appear to be active. When I go into DiskUtil, I can see all 6 Hard Drives healthy and present, and i can see the Raid 5 at the bottom under Multi-disk Devices. However, the Raid says 0.0kb, and is not active. Please help and let me know how to proceed from here. I would really like to avoid rebuilding the RAID, especially because all 6 drives seem to be healthy and present. Thanks so much.

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