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  • Type checking and recursive types (Writing the Y combinator in Haskell/Ocaml)

    - by beta
    When explaining the Y combinator in the context of Haskell, it's usually noted that the straight-forward implementation won't type-check in Haskell because of its recursive type. For example, from Rosettacode [1]: The obvious definition of the Y combinator in Haskell canot be used because it contains an infinite recursive type (a = a -> b). Defining a data type (Mu) allows this recursion to be broken. newtype Mu a = Roll { unroll :: Mu a -> a } fix :: (a -> a) -> a fix = \f -> (\x -> f (unroll x x)) $ Roll (\x -> f (unroll x x)) And indeed, the “obvious” definition does not type check: ?> let fix f g = (\x -> \a -> f (x x) a) (\x -> \a -> f (x x) a) g <interactive>:10:33: Occurs check: cannot construct the infinite type: t2 = t2 -> t0 -> t1 Expected type: t2 -> t0 -> t1 Actual type: (t2 -> t0 -> t1) -> t0 -> t1 In the first argument of `x', namely `x' In the first argument of `f', namely `(x x)' In the expression: f (x x) a <interactive>:10:57: Occurs check: cannot construct the infinite type: t2 = t2 -> t0 -> t1 In the first argument of `x', namely `x' In the first argument of `f', namely `(x x)' In the expression: f (x x) a (0.01 secs, 1033328 bytes) The same limitation exists in Ocaml: utop # let fix f g = (fun x a -> f (x x) a) (fun x a -> f (x x) a) g;; Error: This expression has type 'a -> 'b but an expression was expected of type 'a The type variable 'a occurs inside 'a -> 'b However, in Ocaml, one can allow recursive types by passing in the -rectypes switch: -rectypes Allow arbitrary recursive types during type-checking. By default, only recursive types where the recursion goes through an object type are supported. By using -rectypes, everything works: utop # let fix f g = (fun x a -> f (x x) a) (fun x a -> f (x x) a) g;; val fix : (('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b = <fun> utop # let fact_improver partial n = if n = 0 then 1 else n*partial (n-1);; val fact_improver : (int -> int) -> int -> int = <fun> utop # (fix fact_improver) 5;; - : int = 120 Being curious about type systems and type inference, this raises some questions I'm still not able to answer. First, how does the type checker come up with the type t2 = t2 -> t0 -> t1? Having come up with that type, I guess the problem is that the type (t2) refers to itself on the right side? Second, and perhaps most interesting, what is the reason for the Haskell/Ocaml type systems to disallow this? I guess there is a good reason since Ocaml also will not allow it by default even if it can deal with recursive types if given the -rectypes switch. If these are really big topics, I'd appreciate pointers to relevant literature. [1] http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Y_combinator#Haskell

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  • Machine learning in OCaml or Haskell?

    - by griffin
    I'm hoping to use either Haskell or OCaml on a new project because R is too slow. I need to be able to use support vectory machines, ideally separating out each execution to run in parallel. I want to use a functional language and I have the feeling that these two are the best so far as performance and elegance are concerned (I like Clojure, but it wasn't as fast in a short test). I am leaning towards OCaml because there appears to be more support for integration with other languages so it could be a better fit in the long run (e.g. OCaml-R). Does anyone know of a good tutorial for this kind of analysis, or a code example, in either Haskell or OCaml?

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  • Converting OCaml to F#: F# equivelent of Pervasives at_exit

    - by Guy Coder
    I am converting the OCaml Format module to F# and tracked a problem back to a use of the OCaml Pervasives at_exit. val at_exit : (unit -> unit) -> unit Register the given function to be called at program termination time. The functions registered with at_exit will be called when the program executes exit, or terminates, either normally or because of an uncaught exception. The functions are called in "last in, first out" order: the function most recently added with at_exit is called first. In the process of conversion I commented out the line as the compiler did not flag it as being needed and I was not expecting an event in the code. I checked the FSharp.PowerPack.Compatibility.PervasivesModule for at_exit using VS Object Browser and found none. I did find how to run code "at_exit"? and How do I write an exit handler for an F# application? The OCaml line is at_exit print_flush with print_flush signature: val print_flush : (unit -> unit) Also in looking at the use of it during a debug session of the OCaml code, it looks like at_exit is called both at the end of initialization and at the end of each use of a call to the module. Any suggestions, hints on how to do this. This will be my first event in F#. EDIT Here is some of what I have learned about the Format module that should shed some light on the problem. The Format module is a library of functions for basic pretty printer commands of simple OCaml values such as int, bool, string. The format module has commands like print_string, but also some commands to say put the next line in a bounded box, think new set of left and right margins. So one could write: print_string "Hello" or open_box 0; print_string "<<"; open_box 0; print_string "p \/ q ==> r"; close_box(); print_string ">>"; close_box() The commands such as open_box and print_string are handled by a loop that interprets the commands and then decides wither to print on the current line or advance to the next line. The commands are held in a queue and there is a state record to hold mutable values such as left and right margin. The queue and state needs to be primed, which from debugging the test cases against working OCaml code appears to be done at the end of initialization of the module but before the first call is made to any function in the Format module. The queue and state is cleaned up and primed again for the next set of commands by the use of mechanisms for at_exit that recognize that the last matching frame for the initial call to the format modules has been removed thus triggering the call to at_exit which pushes out any remaining command in the queue and re-initializes the queue and state. So the sequencing of the calls to print_flush is critical and appears to be at more than what the OCaml documentation states.

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  • Stack overflow in OCaml and F# but not in Haskell

    - by Fernand Pajot
    I've been comparing for fun different languages for speed in execution of the following program: for i from 1 to 1000000 sum the product i*(sqrt i) One of my implementations (not the only one) is constructing a list [1..1000000] and then folding with a specific funtion. The program works fine and fast in Haskell (even when using foldl and not foldl') but stack overflows in OCaml and F#. Here is the Haskell code: test = foldl (\ a b -> a + b * (sqrt b)) 0 create 0 = [] create n = n:(create (n-1)) main = print (test (create 1000000)) And here is the OCaml one: let test = List.fold_left (fun a b -> a +. (float_of_int b) *. (sqrt (float_of_int b))) 0. ;; let rec create = function | 0 -> [] | n -> n::(create (n-1)) ;; print_float (test (create 1000000));; Why does the OCaml/F# implementation stack overflows?

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  • F# and OCaml

    - by Erik Forbes
    I hear that F# is derived from OCaml. How true is this statement? That is to say, are the resources available for learning OCaml useful to someone who wants to learn F#? What are the major differences between the two languages (aside from the fact that F# is .NET)?

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  • What's the "revised syntax" in OCaml?

    - by aneccodeal
    When people refer to the "revised syntax" in OCaml, do they mean that this will become a new syntax for the language, or is it just an alternative syntax created in CamlP4? If it's the former, then when does the "revised syntax" become the "official syntax" of OCaml?

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  • OCaml delimiters and scopes

    - by Jack
    Hello! I'm learning OCaml and although I have years of experience with imperative programming languages (C, C++, Java) I'm getting some problems with delimiters between declarations or expressions in OCaml syntax. Basically I understood that I have to use ; to concatenate expressions and the value returned by the sequence will be the one of last expression used, so for example if I have exp1; exp2; exp3 it will be considered as an expression that returns the value of exp3. Starting from this I could use let t = something in exp1; exp2; exp3 and it should be ok, right? When am I supposed to use the double semicol ;;? What does it exactly mean? Are there other delimiters that I must use to avoid syntax errors? I'll give you an example: let rec satisfy dtmc state pformula = match (state, pformula) with (state, `Next sformula) -> let s = satisfy_each dtmc sformula and adder a state = let p = 0.; for i = 0 to dtmc.matrix.rows do p <- p +. get dtmc.matrix i state.index done; a +. p in List.fold_left adder 0. s | _ -> [] It gives me syntax error on | but I don't get why.. what am I missing? This is a problem that occurs often and I have to try many different solutions until it suddently works :/ A side question: declaring with let instead that let .. in will define a var binding that lasts whenever after it has been defined? What I basically ask is: what are the delimiters I have to use and when I have to use them. In addition are there differences I should consider while using the interpreter ocaml instead that the compiler ocamlc? Thanks in advance!

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  • Good projects to learn OCaml and F#

    - by Yin Zhu
    After learning the basic syntax, reading some non-trivial code is a fast way to learn a language. We can also learn how to design a library/software during reading others' code. I have following lists. A Chess program in OCaml by Tomek Czajka. Hal Daumé has written several machine learning libraries in Ocaml. Including decision trees, logistic regression and SVM. All of them are near-production-quality code. A Chess Game Analysis program in F# in Microsoft Research. The above three are my favorites. Will you suggest some other sources? General purpose open source software are good, specialized open source like the three I list here are even more welcome.

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  • OCaml Summation

    - by Supervisor
    I'm trying to make a function in OCaml which does the summation function in math. I tried this: sum n m f = if n = 0 then 0 else if n > m then f else f + sum (n + 1) m f;; However, I get an error - "Characters 41-44: else f * sum(n + 1) m f;; Error: Unbound value sum and sum is underlined (has carrot signs pointing to it) I looked at this: Simple OCaml exercise It's the same question, but I see a lot of other things that I do not have. For example, for my n = m case, I do not have f n and then in the else case, I do not have f m. Why do you need f n if you want the function to return an integer? D: What's the problem!? Thanks in advance.

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  • Max Value of a Multiway Tree in OCaml

    - by Trigork
    I'm an IT Student and kind of a newbie to OCaml Recently, studying for an exam I found this exercise. Given: type 'a tree = Tree of 'a * 'a tree list Define a function mtree : 'a tree -'a, that returns the greatest value of all the nodes in a multiway tree, following the usual order relation in OCaml (<=) I've come to do something like this below, which, of course, is not working. let rec mtree (Tree (r, sub)) = let max_node (Tree(a, l1)) (Tree(b, l2)) = if a >= b then (Tree(a, l1)) else (Tree(b, l2)) in List.fold_left max_node r sub;; After reading an answer to this I'm posting the fixed code. let rec mtree (Tree(r,sub)) = let max_node (Tree(a, l1)) (Tree(b, l2)) = if a >= b then a else b in List.fold_left (max_node) r (List.map mtree sub);; The idea is the same, fold the list comparing the nodes making use of my local function to do so and travel through the tree by calling the function itself over the nodes lists of the consecutive levels. Is still not working, though. Now complains about max_node in the fold_left part. Error: This expression has type 'a tree -> 'a tree -> 'a but an expression was expected of type 'a tree -> 'a tree -> 'a tree And here I'm definitely lost because I can't see why does it expects to return an 'a tree

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  • Compiling C lib and OCaml exe using it, all using ocamlfind

    - by Magnus
    I'm trying to work out how to use ocamlfind to compile a C library and an OCaml executable using that C library. I put together a set of rather silly example files. % cat sillystubs.c #include <stdio.h> #include <caml/mlvalues.h> #include <caml/memory.h> #include <caml/alloc.h> #include <caml/custom.h> value caml_silly_silly( value unit ) { CAMLparam1( unit ); printf( "%s\n", __FILE__ ); CAMLreturn( Val_unit ); } % cat silly.mli external silly : unit -> unit = "silly_silly" % cat foo.ml open Silly open String let _ = print_string "About to call into silly"; silly (); print_string "Called into silly" I believe the following is the way to compile up the library: % ocamlfind ocamlc -c sillystubs.c % ar rc libsillystubs.a sillystubs.o % ocamlfind ocamlc -c silly.mli % ocamlfind ocmalc -a -o silly.cma -ccopt -L${PWD} -cclib -lsillystubs Now I don't seem to be able to use the created library though: % ocamlfind ocamlc -custom -o foo foo.cmo silly.cma /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lsillystubs collect2: ld returned 1 exit status File "_none_", line 1, characters 0-1: Error: Error while building custom runtime system The OCaml tools are somewhat mysterious to me, so any pointers would be most welcome.

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  • Using "ocamlfind" to make the OCaml compiler and toplevel find (project specific) libraries

    - by CharlieP
    Hello, I'm trying to use ocamlfind with both the OCaml compiler and toplevel. From what I understood, I need to place the required libraries in the _tags file at the root of my project, so that the ocamlfind tool will take care of loading them - allowing me to open them in my modules like so : open Sdl open Sdlvideo open Str Currently, my _tags file looks like this : <*>: pkg_sdl,pkg_str I can apparently launch the ocamlfind command with the ocamlc or ocamlopt argument, provided I wan't to compile my project, but I did not see an option to launch the toplevel in the same manner. Is there any way to do this (something like "ocamlfind ocaml")? I also don't know how to place my project specific modules in the _tags file : imagine I have a module name Land. I am currently using the #use "land.ml" directive to open the file and load the module, but it has been suggested that this is not good practice. What syntax should I use in _tags to specify it should be loaded by ocamlfind (considering land.ml is not in the ocamlfind search path) ? Thank you, Charlie P. Edit : According to the first answer of this post, the _tags file is not to be used with ocamlfind. The questions above still stand, there is just a new one to the list : what is the correct way to specify the libraries to ocamlfind ?

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  • How to compile ocaml to native code

    - by Indra Ginanjar
    i'm really interested learning ocaml, it fast (they said it could be compiled to native code) and it's functional. So i tried to code something easy like enabling mysql event scheduler. #load "unix.cma";; #directory "+mysql";; #load "mysql.cma";; let db = Mysql.quick_connect ~user:"username" ~password:"userpassword" ~database:"databasename"();; let sql = Printf.sprintf "SET GLOBAL EVENT_SCHEDULER=1;" in (Mysql.exec db sql);; It work fine on ocaml interpreter, but when i was trying to compile it to native (i'm using ubuntu karmic), neither of these command worked ocamlopt -o mysqleventon mysqleventon.ml unix.cmxa mysql.cmxa ocamlopt -o mysqleventon mysqleventon.ml unix.cma mysql.cma i also tried ocamlc -c mysqleventon.ml unix.cma mysql.cma all of them resulting same message File "mysqleventon.ml", line 1, characters 0-1: Error: Syntax error Then i tried to remove the "# load", so the code goes like this let db = Mysql.quick_connect ~user:"username" ~password:"userpassword" ~database:"databasename"();; let sql = Printf.sprintf "SET GLOBAL EVENT_SCHEDULER=1;" in (Mysql.exec db sql);; The ocamlopt resulting message File "mysqleventon.ml", line 1, characters 9-28: Error: Unbound value Mysql.quick_connect I hope someone could tell me, where did i'm doing wrong.

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  • ocaml pattern match question

    - by REALFREE
    I'm trying to write a simple recursive function that look over list and return a pair of integer. This is easy to write in c/c++/java but i'm new to ocaml so somehow hard to find out the solution due to type conflict it goes like.. let rec test l = match l with [] - 0 | x::xs - if x 0 then (1+test, 0) else (0, 1+test);; I kno this is not correct one and kinda awkward.. but any help will be appreciated

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  • Lisp, OCaml or what for Runge Kutta?

    - by Eelvex
    Which language would you propose for solving a system with: first order differential equations complex variables N-dimensions using 4th order Runge Kutta or the like. Speed matters a lot but would sacrifice for: Elegant (clean and short) code Flexibility + scalability I'm mostly between a Lisp and OCaml but any other suggestion is welcomed. Thanks!

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  • How does string comparison work in OCAML?

    - by Steve Rowe
    From what I can tell, = and != is supposed to work on strings in OCAML. I'm seeing strange results though which I would like to understand better. When I compare two strings with = I get the results I expect: # "steve" = "steve";; - : bool = true # "steve" = "rowe";; - : bool = false but when I try != I do not: # "steve" != "rowe";; - : bool = true # "steve" != "steve";; (* unexpected - shouldn't this be false? *) - : bool = true Can anyone explain? Is there a better way to do this?

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  • accessing OCaml records

    - by hyperboreean
    How can I use some OCaml record that I've defined in some other file? Say for example that I have the file a.ml in which I define the r record: type r = { i: int; j: int; }; and a file b.ml in which I want to use the r record. Something like this: let s = {i = 12; j = 15;} clearly doesn't work - I know it has something to do with accessing the module in which the record is defined, but I've yet to get the syntax right.

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  • How to access a list in OCaml

    - by Erik
    I want to write a function that could check every item in a list is true or false. If at least one element is false, it will return true, so that: assert_eq "checkFalse [true; false; true]" (checkFalse [true; true; true]) false; assert_eq "checkFalse [false; false]" (checkFalse [false; true]) true; I am an absolute beginner in OCaml and I don't know how to approach this. I tried using a for loop, something like: let rec checkFalse (bools: bool list) : bool = for i = 0 to bools.length do if bools.length == false then false else... (I don't know how to continue) Then it said "Unbound record field...." I also tried using find like: if (find false bools != Not_found) then true else false But my ways did not work. I came from a Java background. Thank you very much!

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  • Using module include in OCaml

    - by Geoff
    In OCaml 3.11, I want to "extend" an existing module using the include directive, like so: module MyString = struct include String let trim s = ... end No problem. But now I want to expose this module's type explicitly (i.e. in a .mli file). I want something like this: module MyString : sig include String val trim : string -> string end But the include syntax is not correct because String refers to a module, not a module type (and the compiler does indeed barf). How can I refer to the module type for String here (without having write it out explicitly in a sig expression)? Thanks!

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  • Tail-recursive merge sort in OCaml

    - by CFP
    Hello world! I’m trying to implement a tail-recursive list-sorting function in OCaml, and I’ve come up with the following code: let tailrec_merge_sort l = let split l = let rec _split source left right = match source with | [] -> (left, right) | head :: tail -> _split tail right (head :: left) in _split l [] [] in let merge l1 l2 = let rec _merge l1 l2 result = match l1, l2 with | [], [] -> result | [], h :: t | h :: t, [] -> _merge [] t (h :: result) | h1 :: t1, h2 :: t2 -> if h1 < h2 then _merge t1 l2 (h1 :: result) else _merge l1 t2 (h2 :: result) in List.rev (_merge l1 l2 []) in let rec sort = function | [] -> [] | [a] -> [a] | list -> let left, right = split list in merge (sort left) (sort right) in sort l ;; Yet it seems that it is not actually tail-recursive, since I encounter a "Stack overflow during evaluation (looping recursion?)" error. Could you please help me spot the non tail-recursive call in this code? I've searched quite a lot, without finding it. Cout it be the let binding in the sort function? Thanks a lot, CFP.

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  • Ocaml Pattern Matching

    - by Atticus
    Hey guys, I'm pretty new to OCaml and pattern matching, so I was having a hard time trying to figure this out. Say that I have a list of tuples. What I want to do is match a parameter with one of the tuples based on the first element in the tuple, and upon doing so, I want to return the second element of the tuple. So for example, I want to do something like this: let list = [ "a", 1; "b", 2"; "c", 3; "d", 4 ] ;; let map_left_to_right e rules = match e with | first -> second | first -> second | first -> second If I use map_left_to_right "b" list, I want to get 2 in return. I therefore want to list out all first elements in the list of rules and match the parameter with one of these elements, but I am not sure how to do so. I was thinking that I need to use either List.iter or List.for_all to do something like this. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks!

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  • Combine Lists with Same Heads in a 2D List (OCaml)

    - by Atticus
    Hi guys, I'm working with a list of lists in OCaml, and I'm trying to write a function that combines all of the lists that share the same head. This is what I have so far, and I make use of the List.hd built-in function, but not surprisingly, I'm getting the failure "hd" error: let rec combineSameHead list nlist = match list with | [] -> []@nlist | h::t -> if List.hd h = List.hd (List.hd t) then combineSameHead t [email protected]([email protected](List.hd t)) else combineSameHead t [email protected];; So for example, if I have this list: [[Sentence; Quiet]; [Sentence; Grunt]; [Sentence; Shout]] I want to combine it into: [[Sentence; Quiet; Grunt; Shout]] The function uniq I wrote just removes all duplicates within a list. Please let me know how I would go about completing this. Thanks in advance!

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  • Higher-order type constructors and functors in Ocaml

    - by sdcvvc
    Can the following polymorphic functions let id x = x;; let compose f g x = f (g x);; let rec fix f = f (fix f);; (*laziness aside*) be written for types/type constructors or modules/functors? I tried type 'x id = Id of 'x;; type 'f 'g 'x compose = Compose of ('f ('g 'x));; type 'f fix = Fix of ('f (Fix 'f));; for types but it doesn't work. Here's a Haskell version for types: data Id x = Id x data Compose f g x = Compose (f (g x)) data Fix f = Fix (f (Fix f)) -- examples: l = Compose [Just 'a'] :: Compose [] Maybe Char type Natural = Fix Maybe -- natural numbers are fixpoint of Maybe n = Fix (Just (Fix (Just (Fix Nothing)))) :: Natural -- n is 2 -- up to isomorphism composition of identity and f is f: iso :: Compose Id f x -> f x iso (Compose (Id a)) = a

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