# Search Results

• ### Redundancy algorithm for reading noisy bitstream

##### - by Tedd Hansen
I'm reading a lossy bit stream and I need a way to recover as much usable data as possible. There can be 1's in place of 0's and 0's in palce of 1's, but accuracy is probably over 80%. A bonus would be if the algorithm could compensate for missing/too many bits as well. The source I'm reading from is analogue with noise (microphone via FFT), and the read timing could vary depending on computer speed. I remember reading about algorithms used in CD-ROM's doing this in 3? layers, so I'm guessing using several layers is a good option. I don't remember the details though, so if anyone can share some ideas that would be great! :) Edit: Added sample data Best case data: in: 0000010101000010110100101101100111000000100100101101100111000000100100001100000010000101110101001101100111000101110000001001111011001100110000001001100111011110110101011100111011000100110000001000010111 out: 0010101000010110100101101100111000000100100101101100111000000100100001100000010000101110101001101100111000101110000001001111011001100110000001001100111011110110101011100111011000100110000001000010111011 Bade case (timing is off, samples are missing): out: 00101010000101101001011011001110000001001001011011001110000001001000011000000100001011101010011011001 in: 00111101001011111110010010111111011110000010010000111000011101001101111110000110111011110111111111101 Edit2: I am able to controll the data being sent. Currently attempting to implement simple XOR checking (though it won't be enough).

• ### C++ boost or STL `y += f(x)` type algorithm

##### - by aaa
hello. I know I can do this y[i] += f(x[i]) using transform with two input iterators. however it seems somewhat counterintuitive and more complicated than for loop. Is there a more natural way to do so using existing algorithm in boost or Stl. I could not find clean equivalent. here is transform (y = y + a*x): using boost::lambda; transform(y.begin(), y.end(), x.begin(), y.begin(), (_1 + scale*_2); // I thought something may exist: transform2(x.begin(), x.end(), y.begin(), (_2 + scale*_1); // it does not, so no biggie. I will write wrapper Thanks

• ### Algorithm to classify a list of products?

##### - by Martin
I have a list representing products which are more or less the same. For instance, in the list below, they are all Seagate hard drives. Seagate Hard Drive 500Go Seagate Hard Drive 120Go for laptop Seagate Barracuda 7200.12 ST3500418AS 500GB 7200 RPM SATA 3.0Gb/s Hard Drive New and shinny 500Go hard drive from Seagate Seagate Barracuda 7200.12 Seagate FreeAgent Desk 500GB External Hard Drive Silver 7200RPM USB2.0 Retail For a human being, the hard drives 3 and 5 are the same. We could go a little bit further and suppose that the products 1, 3, 4 and 5 are the same and put in other categories the product 2 and 6. We have a huge list of products that I would like to classify. Does anybody have an idea of what would be the best algorithm to do such thing. Any suggestions? I though of a Bayesian classifier but I am not sure if it is the best choice. Any help would be appreciated! Thanks.

• ### Algorithm to match natural text in mail

##### - by snøreven
I need to separate natural, coherent text/sentences in emails from lists, signatures, greetings and so on before further processing. example: Hi tom, last monday we did bla bla, lore Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisici elit, sed eiusmod tempor incidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. list item 2 list item 3 list item 3 Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquid x ea commodi consequat. Quis aute iure reprehenderit in voluptate velit regards, K. ---line-of-funny-characters-####### example inc. 33 evil street, london mobile: 00 234534/234345 Ideally the algorithm would match only the bold parts. Is there any recommended approach - or are there even existing algorithms for that problem? Should I try approximate regular expressions or more statistical stuff based on number of punctation marks, length and so on?

• ### Correct formulation of the A* algorithm

##### - by Eli Bendersky
Hello, I'm looking at definitions of the A* path-finding algorithm, and it seems to be defined somewhat differently in different places. The difference is in the action performed when going through the successors of a node, and finding that a successor is on the closed list. One approach (suggested by Wikipedia, and this article) says: if the successor is on the closed list, just ignore it Another approach (suggested here and here, for example) says: if the successor is on the closed list, examine its cost. If it's higher than the currently computed score, remove the item from the closed list for future examination. I'm confused - which method is correct ? Intuitively, the first makes more sense to me, but I wonder about the difference in definition. Is one of the definitions wrong, or are they somehow isomorphic ?

• ### Optimal sorting algorithm with modified cost... [closed]

##### - by David
The numbers are in a list that is not sorted and supports only one type of operation. The operation is defined as follows: Given a position i and a position j the operation moves the number at position i to position j without altering the relative order of the other numbers. If i j, the positions of the numbers between positions j and i - 1 increment by 1, otherwise if i < j the positions of the numbers between positions i+1 and j decreases by 1. This operation requires i steps to find a number to move and j steps to locate the position to which you want to move it. Then the number of steps required to move a number of position i to position j is i+j. Design an algorithm that given a list of numbers, determine the optimal(in terms of cost) sequence of moves to rearrange the sequence.

• ### Explain this O(n log n) algorithm for the Cat/Egg Throwing Problem

##### - by ripper234
This problem (How many cats you need to throw out of a building in order to determine the maximal floor where such a cat will survive. Quite cruel, actually), has an accepted answer with O(n^3) complexity. The problem is equivalent to this Google Code Jam, which should be solvable for N=2000000000. It seems that the O(n^3) solution is not good enough to solve it. From looking in the solutions page, jdmetz's solution (#2) seems to be O(n log n). I don't quite understand the algorithm. Can someone explain it? Edit

• ### Algorithm for condensing/consolidating number combinations

##### - by user1404383
Using a horse race betting scenario, say I have a number of separate bets for predicting the first 4 finishers of the race (superfecta). The bets are as follows... 1/2/3/4 1/2/3/5 1/2/4/3 1/2/4/5 1/2/5/3 1/2/5/4 What I want to do is combine or condense these separate combinations as much as possible. For the bets above, they can be all condensed into 1 line... 1/2/3,4,5/3,4,5 What would algorithm look like for this?

• ### Algorithm for redirecting the traffic

##### - by TechGeeky
I was going through the interview questions and found out the below question which I am not able to answer it. Can anyone provide some sort of algorithm for this problem how can I solve it? There are a cluster of stateless servers all serving the same pages. The servers are hosting 5 web pages- p1.html, p2.html, p3.html, p4.html and p5.html p1.html just redirects users to the other 4 pages Requests to p1.html should result in 10% of users being redirected to p2.html, 5% of users redirected to p3.html, 20% of users redirected to p4.html, and 65% of users redirected to p5.html. Users do not need to stick to the page they are first redirected to. They could end up on a different page with every request to p1.html Write a function/pseudocode that would be invoked with every request to p1.html and redirect the correct percentage of users to the correct page. Any suggestions will be of great help.

• ### Neural Network Basics

##### - by Stat Onetwothree
I'm a computer science student and for this years project, I need to create and apply a Genetic Algorithm to something. I think Neural Networks would be a good thing to apply it to, but I'm having trouble understanding them. I fully understand the concepts but none of the websites out there really explain the following which is blocking my understanding: How the decision is made for how many nodes there are. What the nodes actually represent and do. What part the weights and bias actually play in classification. Could someone please shed some light on this for me? Also, I'd really appreciate it if you have any similar ideas for what I could apply a GA to. Thanks very much! :)

• ### elastic / snaking line algorithm

##### - by vhdirk
Hi everyone I am making a graphics application in which I can edit a polyline by dragging the control point of it. However, I'd like to make it a bit easier to use by making it elastic; When dragging a control point, instead of moving a single point, I'd like the points within a certain distance of that point to be moved as well, depending on how hard the control point is 'pulled'. Does anyone know a simple algorithm for this? It may be quite rudimentary, as the primary requirement is speed. Actually, knowing how to call such behaviour would also be nice, so I can look it up on google. I tried 'snaking' line, but that seems to refer to active contours, which isn't what I'm looking for. Thanks

• ### Parallelizing a serial algorithm

##### - by user643813
Hej folks, I am working on porting a Text mining/Natural language application from single-core to a Map-Reduce style system. One of the steps involves a while loop similar to this: Queue<Element>; while (!queue.empty()) { Element e = queue.next(); Set<Element> result = calculateResultSet(e); if (!result.empty()) { queue.addAll(result); } } Each iteration depends on the result of the one before (kind of). There is no way of determining the number of iterations this loop will have to perform. Is there a way of parallelizing a serial algorithm such as this one? I am trying to think of a feedback mechanism, that is able to provide its own input, but how would one go about parallelizing it? Thanks for any help/remarks

• ### algorithm to combine data for linear fit?

##### - by BoldlyBold
I'm not sure if this is the best place to ask this, but you guys have been helpful with plenty of my CS homework in the past so I figure I'll give it a shot. I'm looking for an algorithm to blindly combine several dependent variables into an index that produces the best linear fit with an external variable. Basically, it would combine the dependent variables using different mathematical operators, include or not include each one, etc. until an index is developed that best correlates with my external variable. Has anyone seen/heard of something like this before? Even if you could point me in the right direction or to the right place to ask, I would appreciate it. Thanks.

• ### Algorithm of JavaScript "sort()" Function

##### - by Knowledge Craving
Recently when I was working with JavaScript "sort()" function, I found in one of the tutorials that this function does not sort the numbers properly. Instead to sort numbers, a function must be added that compares numbers, like the following code:- <script type="text/javascript"> function sortNumber(a,b) { return a - b; } var n = ["10", "5", "40", "25", "100", "1"]; document.write(n.sort(sortNumber)); </script> The output then comes as:- 1,5,10,25,40,100 Now what I didn't understand is that why is this occurring & can anybody please tell in details as to what type of algorithm is being used in this "sort()" function? This is because for any other language, I didn't find this problem where the function didn't sort the numbers correctly. Any help is greatly appreciated.

• ### Render rivers in a grid.

##### - by Gabriel A. Zorrilla
I have created a random height map and now i want to create rivers. I've made an algorithm based on a* to make rivers flow from peaks to sea and now i'm in the quest of figuring out an elegant algorithm to render them. It's a 2D, square, mapgrid. The cells which the river pases has a simple integer value with this form :rivernumber && pointOrder. Ie: 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16...1+N for the first river, 20,21,22,23...2+N for the second, etc. This is created in the map grid generation time and it's executed just once, when the world is generated. I wanted to treat each river as a vector, but there is a problem, if the same river has branches (because i put some noise to generate branches), i can not just connect the points in order. The second alternative is to generate a complex algorithm where analizes each point, checks if the next is not a branch, if so trigger another algorithm that take care of the branch then returns to the main river, etc. Very complex and inelegant. Perhaps there is a solution in the world generation algorithm or in the river rendering algorithm that is commonly used in these cases and i'm not aware of. Any tips? Thanks!!

• ### Resultant Vector Algorithm for 2D Collisions

##### - by John
I am making a Pong based game where a puck hits a paddle and bounces off. Both the puck and the paddles are Circles. I came up with an algorithm to calculate the resultant vector of the puck once it meets a paddle. The game seems to function correctly but I'm not entirely sure my algorithm is correct. Here are my variables for the algorithm: Given: velocity = the magnitude of the initial velocity of the puck before the collision x = the x coordinate of the puck y = the y coordinate of the puck moveX = the horizontal speed of the puck moveY = the vertical speed of the puck otherX = the x coordinate of the paddle otherY = the y coordinate of the paddle piece.horizontalMomentum = the horizontal speed of the paddle before it hits the puck piece.verticalMomentum = the vertical speed of the paddle before it hits the puck slope = the direction, in radians, of the puck's velocity distX = the horizontal distance between the center of the puck and the center of the paddle distY = the vertical distance between the center of the puck and the center of the paddle Algorithm solves for: impactAngle = the angle, in radians, of the angle of impact. newSpeedX = the speed of the resultant vector in the X direction newSpeedY = the speed of the resultant vector in the Y direction Here is the code for my algorithm: int otherX = piece.x; int otherY = piece.y; double velocity = Math.sqrt((moveX * moveX) + (moveY * moveY)); double slope = Math.atan(moveX / moveY); int distX = x - otherX; int distY = y - otherY; double impactAngle = Math.atan(distX / distY); double newAngle = impactAngle + slope; int newSpeedX = (int)(velocity * Math.sin(newAngle)) + piece.horizontalMomentum; int newSpeedY = (int)(velocity * Math.cos(newAngle)) + piece.verticalMomentum; for those who are not program savvy here is it simplified: velocity = v(moveX² + moveY²) slope = arctan(moveX / moveY) distX = x - otherX distY = y - otherY impactAngle = arctan(distX / distY) newAngle = impactAngle + slope newSpeedX = velocity * sin(newAngle) + piece.horizontalMomentum newSpeedY = velocity * cos(newAngle) + piece.verticalMomentum My Question: Is this algorithm correct? Is there an easier/simpler way to do what I'm trying to do?

• ### Is there a perfect algorithm for chess?

##### - by Overflown
Dear Stack Overflow community, I was recently in a discussion with a non-coder person on the possibilities of chess computers. I'm not well versed in theory, but think I know enough. I argued that there could not exist a deterministic Turing machine that always won or stalemated at chess. I think that, even if you search the entire space of all combinations of player1/2 moves, the single move that the computer decides upon at each step is based on a heuristic. Being based on a heuristic, it does not necessarily beat ALL of the moves that the opponent could do. My friend thought, to the contrary, that a computer would always win or tie if it never made a "mistake" move (however do you define that?). However, being a programmer who has taken CS, I know that even your good choices - given a wise opponent - can force you to make "mistake" moves in the end. Even if you know everything, your next move is greedy in matching a heuristic. Most chess computers try to match a possible end game to the game in progress, which is essentially a dynamic programming traceback. Again, the endgame in question is avoidable though. -- thanks, Allan Edit: Hmm... looks like I ruffled some feathers here. That's good. Thinking about it again, it seems like there is no theoretical problem with solving a finite game like chess. I would argue that chess is a bit more complicated than checkers in that a win is not necessarily by numerical exhaustion of pieces, but by a mate. My original assertion is probably wrong, but then again I think I've pointed out something that is not yet satisfactorily proven (formally). I guess my thought experiment was that whenever a branch in the tree is taken, then the algorithm (or memorized paths) must find a path to a mate (without getting mated) for any possible branch on the opponent moves. After the discussion, I will buy that given more memory than we can possibly dream of, all these paths could be found.

• ### Algorithm to get through a maze

##### - by Sam
Hello, We are currently programming a game (its a pretty unknown language: modula 2), And the problem we encountered is the following: we have a maze (not a perfect maze) in a 17 x 12 grid. The computer has to generate a way from the starting point (9, 12) to the end point (9, 1). I found some algorithms but they dont work when the robot has to go back: xxxxx x => x x xxx or: xxxxx x xxxxxx x x x x x xxxxxx x => x xxxxxxxxx I found a solution for the first example type but then the second type couldn't be solved and the solution I made up for the second type would cause the robot to get stuck in the first type of situation. It's a lot of code so i'll give the idea: WHILE (end destination not reached) DO { try to go right, if nothing blocks you: go right if you encounter a block, try up until you can go right, if you cant go up anymore try going down until you can go right, (starting from the place you first were blocked), if you cant go down anymore, try one step left and fill the spaces you tested with blocks. } This works for the first type of problem ... not for the second one. Now it could be that i started wrong so i am open for better algorithms or solutions specificaly to how i could improve my algorithm. Thanks a lot!!

• ### Accurate least-squares fit algorithm needed

##### - by ggkmath
I've experimented with the two ways of implementing a least-squares fit (LSF) algorithm shown here. The first code is simply the textbook approach, as described by Wolfram's page on LSF. The second code re-arranges the equation to minimize machine errors. Both codes produce similar results for my data. I compared these results with Matlab's p=polyfit(x,y,1) function, using correlation coefficients to measure the "goodness" of fit and compare each of the 3 routines. I observed that while all 3 methods produced good results, at least for my data, Matlab's routine had the best fit (the other 2 routines had similar results to each other). Matlab's p=polyfit(x,y,1) function uses a Vandermonde matrix, V (n x 2 matrix) and QR factorization to solve the least-squares problem. In Matlab code, it looks like: V = [x1,1; x2,1; x3,1; ... xn,1] % this line is pseudo-code [Q,R] = qr(V,0); p = R\(Q'*y); % performs same as p = V\y I'm not a mathematician, so I don't understand why it would be more accurate. Although the difference is slight, in my case I need to obtain the slope from the LSF and multiply it by a large number, so any improvement in accuracy shows up in my results. For reasons I can't get into, I cannot use Matlab's routine in my work. So, I'm wondering if anyone has a more accurate equation-based approach recommendation I could use that is an improvement over the above two approaches, in terms of rounding errors/machine accuracy/etc. Any comments appreciated! thanks in advance.

• ### Unexpected result in C algebra for search algorithm.

##### - by Rhys
Hi, I've implemented this search algorithm for an ordered array of integers. It works fine for the first data set I feed it (500 integers), but fails on longer searches. However, all of the sets work perfectly with the other four search algorithms I've implemented for the assignment. This is the function that returns a seg fault on line 178 (due to an unexpected negative m value). Any help would be greatly appreciated. CODE: 155 /* perform Algortihm 'InterPolationSearch' on the set 156 * and if 'key' is found in the set return it's index 157 * otherwise return -1 */ 158 int 159 interpolation_search(int *set, int len, int key) 160 { 161 int l = 0; 162 int r = len - 1; 163 int m; 164 165 while (set[l] < key && set[r] >= key) 166 { 167 168 printf ("m = l + ((key - set[l]) * (r - l)) / (set[r] - set[l])\n"); 169 170 printf ("m = %d + ((%d - %d) * (%d - %d)) / (%d - %d);\n", l, key, set[l], r, l, set[r], set[l]); 171 m = l + ((key - set[l]) * (r - l)) / (set[r] - set[l]); 172 printf ("m = %d\n", m); 173 174 #ifdef COUNT_COMPARES 175 g_compares++; 176 #endif 177 178 if (set[m] < key) 179 l = m + 1; 180 else if (set[m] > key) 181 r = m - 1; 182 else 183 return m; 184 } 185 186 if (set[l] == key) 187 return l; 188 else 189 return -1; 190 } OUTPUT: m = l + ((key - set[l]) * (r - l)) / (set[r] - set[l]) m = 0 + ((68816 - 0) * (100000 - 0)) / (114836 - 0); m = -14876 Thankyou! Rhys

• ### Using Traveling Salesman Solver to Decide Hamiltonian Path

##### - by Firas Assaad
This is for a project where I'm asked to implement a heuristic for the traveling salesman optimization problem and also the Hamiltonian path or cycle decision problem. I don't need help with the implementation itself, but have a question on the direction I'm going in. I already have a TSP heuristic based on a genetic algorithm: it assumes a complete graph, starts with a set of random solutions as a population, and works to improve the population for a number of generations. Can I also use it to solve the Hamiltonian path or cycle problems? Instead of optimizing to get the shortest path, I just want to check if there is a path. Now any complete graph will have a Hamiltonian path in it, so the TSP heuristic would have to be extended to any graph. This could be done by setting the edges to some infinity value if there is no path between two cities, and returning the first path that is a valid Hamiltonian path. Is that the right way to approach it? Or should I use a different heuristic for Hamiltonian path? My main concern is whether it's a viable approach since I can be somewhat sure that TSP optimization works (because you start with solutions and improve them) but not if a Hamiltonian path decider would find any path in a fixed number of generations. I assume the best approach would be to test it myself, but I'm constrained by time and thought I'd ask before going down this route... (I could find a different heuristic for Hamiltonian path instead)

• ### Bitap algorithm in Java [closed]

##### - by davit-datuashvili
The following is the bitap algorithm according to Wikipedia. Can someone translate this to Java? #include <string.h> #include <limits.h> const char *bitap_bitwise_search(const char *text, const char *pattern) { int m = strlen(pattern); unsigned long R; unsigned long pattern_mask[CHAR_MAX+1]; int i; if (pattern == '\0') return text; if (m > 31) return "The pattern is too long!"; /* Initialize the bit array R */ R = ~1; /* Initialize the pattern bitmasks */ for (i=0; i <= CHAR_MAX; ++i) pattern_mask[i] = ~0; for (i=0; i < m; ++i) pattern_mask[pattern[i]] &= ~(1UL << i); for (i=0; text[i] != '\0'; ++i) { /* Update the bit array */ R |= pattern_mask[text[i]]; R <<= 1; if (0 == (R & (1UL << m))) return (text + i - m) + 1; } return NULL; }

• ### Video-codec rater by image comparison algorithm?

##### - by Andreas Hornig
Hi, perhaps anyone knows if this is possible. comparing image quality is almost imposible to describe without subjective influences. When someone rates an image quality as good there is at least one person, that doesn't think so. human preferences are always different. So, I would like to know if there is away to "rate" the image quality by an algorithm that compares the original image to the produced one in following issues colour change(difference pixel by pixel blur rate artifacts and macroblocking the first one would be the easiest one because you could check just the diffeence in colours and can give 3 values in +- of each hex-value both last once I don't know if this is possible, but the blocking could be detected by edge-finding. and the king's quest would be to do that for more then just one image, because video is done with several frames. perhaps you expert programmers could tell me, if such an automated algo can be done to bring some objective measurement divice into rating image quality. this could perhaps calm down some h.264 is better than x264 and better than vp8 and blaaah people :) Andreas 1st posted here http://www.hdtvtotal.com/index.php?name=PNphpBB2&file=viewtopic&p=9705

• ### Resizing image algorithm in python

##### - by hippocampus
So, I'm learning my self python by this tutorial and I'm stuck with exercise number 13 which says: Write a function to uniformly shrink or enlarge an image. Your function should take an image along with a scaling factor. To shrink the image the scale factor should be between 0 and 1 to enlarge the image the scaling factor should be greater than 1. This is not meant as a question about PIL, but to ask which algorithm to use so I can code it myself. I've found some similar questions like this, but I dunno how to translate this into python. Any help would be appreciated. I've come to this: import image win = image.ImageWin() img = image.Image("cy.png") factor = 2 W = img.getWidth() H = img.getHeight() newW = int(W*factor) newH = int(H*factor) newImage = image.EmptyImage(newW, newH) for col in range(newW): for row in range(newH): p = img.getPixel(col,row) newImage.setPixel(col*factor,row*factor,p) newImage.draw(win) win.exitonclick() I should do this in a function, but this doesn't matter right now. Arguments for function would be (image, factor). You can try it on OP tutorial in ActiveCode. It makes a stretched image with empty columns :.

• ### Number Algorithm

##### - by James
I've been struggling to wrap my head around this for some reason. I have 15 bits that represent a number. The bits must match a pattern. The pattern is defined in the way the bits start out: they are in the most flush-right representation of that pattern. So say the pattern is 1 4 1. The bits will be: 000000010111101 So the general rule is, take each number in the pattern, create that many bits (1, 4 or 1 in this case) and then have at least one space separating them. So if it's 1 2 6 1 (it will be random): 001011011111101 Starting with the flush-right version, I want to generate every single possible number that meets that pattern. The # of bits will be stored in a variable. So for a simple case, assume it's 5 bits and the initial bit pattern is: 00101. I want to generate: 00101 01001 01010 10001 10010 10100 I'm trying to do this in Objective-C, but anything resembling C would be fine. I just can't seem to come up with a good recursive algorithm for this. It makes sense in the above example, but when I start getting into 12431 and having to keep track of everything it breaks down.