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  • md5sum repeatedly gives different checksum for same file on same machine

    - by Joel
    I have a very small and quite old hard drive disk, about 32G. On to this disk I have copied a largish tar file, about 5G. When I run md5sum to generate a checksum on this file I repeatedly get different results (on the same machine and the same file). This obviously should not happen. If I repeat the experiment with a much smaller file, as expected the checksum is the same each time. I can only assume that because the large file is spanning most of the disk, and it is an old drive, I am experiencing a lot of read errors on the hard drive - and it needs replacing? Could there be any other good reason for this? Something I can do to fix the problem other than buying a new disk? Update: sha1sum also produces inconsistent results.

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  • Will these instructions work when turning of journaling on a n ext4 SSD?

    - by snowlord
    I have an Acer Aspire One with an SSD for storage. I recently installed Ubuntu on it and chose ext4 for my filesystem. Then I read that journaling on an SSD isn't the best idea, so I will try to disable journaling and I have found these intstructions (from http://fenidik.blogspot.com/2010/03/ext4-disable-journal.html): # Create ext4 fs on /dev/sda10 disk mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda10 # Enable writeback mode. This mode will typically provide the best ext4 performance. tune2fs -o journal_data_writeback /dev/sda10 # Delete has_journal option tune2fs -O ^has_journal /dev/sda10 # Required fsck e2fsck -f /dev/sda10 # Check fs options dumpe2fs /dev/sda10 |more For more performance add fstab opions: data=writeback,noatime,nodiratime i.e: /dev/sda10 /opt ext4 defaults,data=writeback,noatime,nodiratime 0 0 I will use them on my boot partition. Are there any particularly bad parts here, or are there any missing steps? Will my boot partition be fit for being on an SSD after this? Or should I consider switching to ext2, or even reinstall it all and choose ext2 at partitioning time (I'd rather not though, since I've configured quite some stuff already)?

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  • Re-sizing disk partition linux/vm

    - by Tiffany Walker
    I VM Player running a linux guest and I was wanting to know how do I expand the disk? In the VM player I gave more disk space but I am not sure how to mount/expand/connect the new disk space to the system. My old disk space was 14GB [[email protected] ~]# df -h / Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 14G 4.5G 8.2G 36% / Then I expanded it and now I see sda2 which is the new space? [[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l Disk /dev/sda: 128.8 GB, 128849018880 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 15665 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x000cd44d Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 * 1 64 512000 83 Linux Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary. /dev/sda2 64 2611 20458496 8e Linux LVM Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root: 14.5 GB, 14537457664 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1767 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00000000 Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap: 6408 MB, 6408896512 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 779 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00000000 Do I need to mount the new space first? resize2fs -p /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 108849018880 resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010) The containing partition (or device) is only 3549184 (4k) blocks. You requested a new size of 1474836480 blocks. resize2fs -p /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 128849018880 resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010) resize2fs: Invalid new size: 128849018880 [[email protected] ~]# lvextend -L+90GB /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root Extending logical volume lv_root to 103.54 GiB Insufficient free space: 23040 extents needed, but only 0 available [[email protected] ~]# lvextend -L90GB /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root Extending logical volume lv_root to 90.00 GiB Insufficient free space: 19574 extents needed, but only 0 available EDIT: So after trying pvcreate/vgextend nothing has so far worked. I'm guessing the new disk space added from VM Player is not showing up? pvscan PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup lvm2 [19.51 GiB / 0 free] Total: 1 [19.51 GiB] / in use: 1 [19.51 GiB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]

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  • How do I set up a shared directory on Linux?

    - by JR Lawhorne
    I have a linux server I want to use to share files between users in my company. Users will access the machine with sftp or secure shell. Here is what I have: cd /home ls -l drwxrwsr-x 5 userA staff 4096 Jul 22 15:00 shared (other listings omitted) I want all users in the staff group to be able to create, modify, delete any file and/or directory in the shared folder. I don't want anyone else to have access to the folder at all. I have: Added the users to the staff group by modifying /etc/group and running grpconv to update /etc/gshadow Run chown -R userA.staff /home/shared Run chmod -R 2775 /home/shared Now, users in the staff group can create new files but they aren't allowed to open the existing files in the directory for edit. I suspect this is due to the primary group id associated with each user which is still set to be the group created when the user was created. So, the PGID of user 'userA' is 'userA'. I'd rather not change the primary group of the users to 'staff' if I can help it but if it is the easiest option, I would consider it. And, a variation on a theme, I'd like to do this same thing with another directory but also allow the apache user to read files in the directory and serve them. What's the best way to set this up?

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  • fsck: FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED after each check with -c, why?

    - by Chris
    Hi I use a script to partition and format CF cards (connected with a USB card writer) in an automated way. After the main process I check the card again with fsck. To check bad blocks I also tried the '-c' switch, but I always get a return value != 0 and the message "FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED" (see below). I get the same result when checking the very same drive several times... Does anyone know why a) the file system is modified at all and b) why this seems to happen every time I check and not only in case of an error (like bad blocks)? Here's the output: linux-box# fsck.ext3 -c /dev/sdx1 e2fsck 1.40.2 (12-Jul-2007) Checking for bad blocks (read-only test): done Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes Pass 2: Checking directory structure Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity Pass 4: Checking reference counts Pass 5: Checking group summary information Volume (/dev/sdx1): ***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED ***** Volume (/dev/sdx1): 5132/245760 files (1.2% non-contiguous), 178910/1959896 blocks Thanks, Chris

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  • linux/unix filesystem permissions hack/feature

    - by selden
    Can linux or other unix create a file that no user, including root, can modify unless they have the secret key? By "have the secret key" I mean they are using some crypto scheme. Here's a scenario if you aren't already downvoting: Bob encrypts something about file /foo (maybe inode?) using secret key K Alice tries "sudo rm /foo" and gets permission denied, so she decrypts something about file /foo using secret key K and then "sudo rm /foo" succeeds.

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  • Make a file non-deletable in USB

    - by MegaNairda
    Somebody used my USB drive and upon returning it to me, I found a autorun.inf that is undeletable. I tried changing it's file attribute which is only H (not even set as a system file) but it keeps on saying Access Denied. The USB is set on FAT32, upon asking my friend, he told me that he uses Panda USB Vaccine http://research.pandasecurity.com/Panda-USB-and-AutoRun-Vaccine/ How do they do this? Im trying to use some Disk Sector editor but have no idea which hex file they change to make this kind of file and make it deletable again. Formatting the drive removes it, but I'm curious as to how to be able to set those kind of file attribute.

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  • Deleting certain files sits at "preparing to recycle" on Windows 7?

    - by Rachel
    We recently setup one of our users with a brand new Windows 7 computer, however she is unable to delete certain files. With some testing, I found I cannot move, rename, or view properties of these files either. When trying to delete the file, it just sits at the "Preparing to recycle" popup, however the "from" section says "Discovering items..." Clicking "More Details" on the popup shows me that it can't find the file name or where it's recycling from: Other notes... All the affected files are .pdf files that get created via a scanner. Other pdf files are fine. Opening the files works fine. I can open the file, Save As a new file, and delete the new one just fine Trying to delete the file via command prompt just sits there Rebooting the computer will let me manipulate the files like normal, however this user is responsible for scanning hundreds of documents a day and I'd rather not have to tell her to reboot her computer to delete files. The user is part of the administrator group on the computer The Owner of the affected files is the user attrib of files is just A

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  • MicroSD card getting corrupted for no good reason

    - by ChaosR
    I recently bought an MicroSD card online. It's a Sandisk 16GB class 2. However, it has a nasty problem. Every time I fill it with my data, the fat tables get corrupted. I've tried reformatting it, blanking it, doesn't seem to solve the problem. I have tried windows and linux (ubuntu), both have the problem. I've used my usb microsd readers, and even tried putting it in my phone and putting data on it from there. All have this problem. Now the really odd thing is, besides the corrupted file tables, no programs can find anything wrong with the hardware. I've tried both chkdisk and "badblocks -w", neither give any type of error. Now I don't know if the actual data gets corrupted, or if its just filesystem tables. What happens is that one or more folders start showing a load of chinese-charred (random UTF8 symbols I suppose) folders and files, and it is impossible to do anything with those. All the other data (outside of the corrupted folders) seems fine. I've tried to test it, and the problem doesn't seem to show up until I fill the disk upto about 3~4GB. After that I can still access the data. But as soon as I eject/safely remove/unmount it, the bad things happen somehow. Next time I plug it in, the folders I most recently wrote to (but sometimes also the folders I wrote the time before last time to) are all gibberish. Does anybody have any clue what might be going on here? EDIT: It seems I can't even put ext3 or ext4 on it, they both complain about a corrupted journal. Gheh, guess something is really broken here.

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  • Unable to delete a directory from NTFS drive: "Access is deined"

    - by Evgeny
    I'm running Windows XP Pro x64 SP2. I have a directory on an NTFS drive that was created by a Maven build. A subsequent build attempted to delete this directory and failed. I now get the error "Access is denied" whenever I try to do anything with that directory: change to it, delete it, rename it. This happens both in Windows Explorer and from a command prompt. The properties dialog in Windows Explorer doesn't even contain the Security tab. I created the directory, so I don't think this is truly a permissions issue. I've occasionally had this error happen in the past is well. I believe the error is misleading, but the question is: what is the real problem and how do I fix it?

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  • I can access \\server via explorer but a program wont

    - by Michael Savage
    From ServerA I can access \\ServerB\Telephony\Files\abcdefgh.pdf using windows explorer. From the same ServerA when I try to access the same file on ServerB using a program (a program that imports files from csv file) I get "File Not Found" error. On \\ServerB\Telephony\ the Share is on and I added the service account that I used to log in to ServerA. I am clueless. Please suggest. (oh, it's a Windows 2008 R2 Server) (btw, I did try IP Address, FQDN but works with Explorer but CVS Importer wont read the path. At one time, I did get Access Denied but I dont get access denied anymore after adding the service account to the share. firewalls are off on the servers) Update: I go to My Computer Network I see many servers but ServerB is not in the list..

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  • (Open Source) Cloud-Filesystem to run a Database on Top?

    - by jens
    Hello, what are current "technologies and implementations" to get a filesystem with unlimited capacity by using single servers with their harddisk to form a "grid/cloud filesystem"? I need to have unlimited space (by adding further servers) but it must be a filesysem that is capable of running a database on top. I know of Apache Hadoop but that seems not be be Ideal for running a DB on top of it (or am I wrong??) And iSCSI seems to be "remote/networked" but I do not know how and if this is clusterable? thank you very much!! jens

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  • (Open Source) Cloud-Filesystem to run a Database on Top?

    - by jens
    Hello, what are current "technologies and implementations" to get a filesystem with unlimited capacity by using single servers with their harddisk to form a "grid/cloud filesystem"? I need to have unlimited space (by adding further servers) but it must be a filesysem that is capable of running a database on top. I know of Apache Hadoop but that seems not be be Ideal for running a DB on top of it (or am I wrong??) And iSCSI seems to be "remote/networked" but I do not know how and if this is clusterable? thank you very much!! jens

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  • What are the best options for a root filesystem hosted on SSD under Linux

    - by stsquad
    I'm working on an embedded system which is going to be booting and hosting it's rootfs on an SSD disk. We are currently looking at using Intel X-18M SSDs. The file system structure will have a fairly static /usr section (modulo software upgrades) and an active /var and /var/log for maintaining state and logging. Given the wear-levelling done by the underlying flash does having separate partitions help or hinder? As modern SSDs appear as straight block devices and hide their mapping magic behind their firmware is there any point trying to optimise the choice of file-system that sits on-top of the SSD? Finally does enable SMART monitoring make any sense in this context or are their SSD specific ways of determining the underlying health of the storage hardware?

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  • Dedicated server automatic backup solution

    - by Luigi
    I have a dedicated Ubuntu web server in a cloud environment, and I am looking for a nice way to do automated backups. I would like to backup some directories with web apps, and all my MySql databases. As for destination: make snapshots every two hours localy, and every six hours to a remote ftp server. Also delete backup archives older than seven days(localy + ftp), and notify on any problems by email. Now to achieve some of this functionality I use cron + shell script, and http://www.mysqldumper.net/, but really that doesn't answer my needs. Mysqldumper doesn't know automaticly about new databases, and shell script does not notify on problems. It's something I have to check out from time to time, and i don't have trust for. I googled a while, and seems like most people solve this stuff with shell scripts. Is this a method you can trust? Are there any web-gui tools, I'm missing? Maybe there is a smarter startegy for doing this? I'm a little bit confused.

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  • How to write to a Mac OSX read-only filesystem?

    - by marienbad
    I have DMG I need to mount and write a file to. When I mount it, finder shows the root and all as read-only. Then I discovered 'mount -w'. But when I run that, I get 'mount: unknown special file or file system.' How can I mount this disk image as writable, or force a file into it?

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  • What would cause an .exe to vanish without a trace?

    - by Peter pete
    I have a few computers. One computer, at home, one day suddenly had its pgbouncer.exe vanish. The antivirus didn't have it in its virus chest [avast]. I couldn't find the bgbouncer anywhere. All the other pgbouncer files remained where they used to be, except the exe had vanished. I hadn't uninstalled it, nor had anyone else used the machine. I hadn't installed any new software since the previous time I had used it either. Just now, however, my TV computer was running out of disk space, which was weird because I had python setup to do transcoding and archiving. I logged in and voila! python.exe had vanished !! Once again, Avast.exe didn't have it in its virus chest, and dunno! I do this time, with the TV computer, know exactly the date that python vanished. Sat the 18th my python scripts ran fine. Sat the 19th python was gone. I'm going to do some hunting in the event log to see what happened that day. But if anyone has experienced vanishings before and has a clue what happened, I would like to know. FYI: Both computers (bgbouncer vanish and python vanish) were running Win7 with the RDP hack and both on SSDs and both with Avast. Both computers had all windows updates set to manual(to prevent random stuff changing!) and neither had recently had any windows updates manually applied. FYI2: Tv computer had since the beginning of October dropbox running all the time trying to download two files. Sadly, a temporary download of each of these two files by dropbox resulted in Avast freaking out and virus-chesting them, and then dropbox downloading them partially again, before being dropboxed. Now, these two files were binaries from a program I had personally written and were clean on other machines. Since the python vanishing I have deleted these two binaries from dropbox (using the website) and dropbox exe on the tv computer is now at peace. I don't think this should cause python.exe to vanish though :/ New edit: On the 18/10/2013, at 0742 my python script ended with an error: "file still in use" which was unexpected but I shrugged it off since sometimes media portal doesn't release the recording. But on second thoughts is weird since the show in use would have been finished recording the day before. On the 18/10/2013 at 0807 the windows event log complains that several drivers required for CutePDF, send to onenote 2010, send to onenote 2013, microsoft xps document writer aren't installed. I just checked now and indeed those printers have vanished! New update! I found my python.exe that had been removed. It was still in the C:\Python33\ directory except it had been renamed to a random string charater.tmp (ie, it was made into a temp file) with a creation date of 19/10/2013 at 0600:02 am. Now, the computer normally wakes at 6am to do transcoding. What could have moved my python file into a tmp file?

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  • Driver for writing to UDF partitions from Windows XP?

    - by davr
    I'm considering using an UDF partition to share data between Windows XP, 7, and Linux. It's more efficient than FAT32, and avoids the 4GB max file size limit. I've found it will also work with Mac OS X, more details in this questions. However, in Windows XP, it is read-only. I'd like to write to it too. Are there any drivers that will allow this? I've found a few that support writing UDF...but they are designed for writing to CDs or DVDs, not specifically for HDDs or USB Flash drives: DLA, InCD, Drag-To-Disc. Will any of those 3 drivers work for HDDs/USB Flash drives? Or is there another driver that will do what I want? Thanks.

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  • Shared block device file system (cluster file system without networking)

    - by fungs
    Is there any file system that can be mounted multiple times and supports concurrent file access for Linux? Basically I want something like a cluster file system but without the need to have a running network for a distributed lock manager. That can be very handy in connection with virtual machines that can share data with the host or another VM without the need to create a network link. This I want to avoid to keep the network architecture secure (virtual machine in DMZ) but share large files. No need to scale it up, just two machines that mount the same block device. Shouldn't it be possible to have file locking information right on the disk?

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  • Tail the filename, not the file

    - by Craig Walker
    In UNIX (OS X BSD to be precise), I have a "tail -f" command on a log file. From time to time I want to delete this log file so I can more easily review it in my text editor. I delete the file, and then my program recreates it after new activity. However, my tail command (and anything else that was watching the old log file) doesn't update; it's still watching the old, deleted log file. I think I understand why this is (file names simply being pointers to blocks of file data). I'd like to know how I can work around this. Ideally, my tail command (and anything else I point to the file) would be able to read the data from the new file when the file name has been deleted and recreated. How would I do this?

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  • How is the filesystem of Wikipedia designed?

    - by Heo
    I read about FHS, and I started to consider the file system of wikipedia. On the one hand, I feel it is a security risk to let everyone know it. On the other hand, it is necessary for developers. For example, is there some rule to know where are all sitemaps and their indices located? So: How is the file system of Wikipedia designed?

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  • Does this exist: a standardized way of documenting a file-system structure

    - by eegg
    At work, I'm in charge of maintaining the organization of a whole lot of varied data on a standard file-system. Part of this is coming up with sensible classification (by similarity, need, read/write access, etc), but the bigger part is actually documenting it: what documents/files/media should go where, what should not be in this directory, "for something slightly different, see ../../other-dir", etc. At the moment, I've documented this using a plaintext file filing.txt in every directory I want to document. If someone is unsure what's meant to be in any directory, they read that file. This works alright, but it seems odd that I have this primitive custom solution to a problem that any maintainer of a non-trivial directory structure must experience. Every company I've known of, for example, has some kind of shared file-system where agreed terminology for categorization is important. In my experience, people just have to learn what's what by trial-and-error and experimentation. So allow me to propose a better solution, and hopefully you can tell me if it exists. Any directory on any filesystem can have a hidden plaintext file named .filing. Its contents are descriptive human language. It uses some markup like Markdown, with little more than bold, italic, and (relative) hyperlinks to other directories. Now a suitably-enabled file browser will check for a file named .filing whenever it displays a directory. If it exists, its contents are parsed and displayed in an unobtrusive pane near the directory-path widget. Any links therein can be clicked, and the user will be taken to the target directory of that link. I think that the effort of implementing such a standard would pay back many times over in usability gains. We would have, say, plugins for Nautilus, Konqueror, etc.. It could be used to display directory information in the standard file lists served by webservers. And so on. So, question: does such a thing exist? If not, why not? Do people think it's a worthwhile idea?

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  • kinit gives me a Kerberos ticket, but no AFS token

    - by Tomas Lycken
    I'm trying to setup access to my university's IT environment from my laptop running Ubuntu 12.04, by (mostly) following the IT-department's guides on AFS and Kerberos. I can get AFS working well enough so that I can navigate to my home folder (located in the nada.kth.se cell of AFS), and I can get Kerberos working well enough to forward tickets and authenticate me when I connect with ssh. However, I don't seem to get any AFS tokens locally, on my machine, so I can't just go to /afs/nada.kth.se/.../folder/file.txt on my machine and edit it. I can't even stand in /afs/nada.kth.se/.../folder and run ls without getting Permission denied errors. Why doesn't kinit -f [email protected] give me an AFS token? What do I need to do to get one?

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