5.6, we continued our development on InnoDB Memcached and completed a few
widely desirable features that make InnoDB Memcached a competitive feature in
more scenario. Notablely, they are
1) Support multiple table mapping
2) Added background thread to
auto-commit long running transactions
3) Enhancement in binlog performance
Let’s go over each of these
features one by one. And in the last section, we will go over a couple of
internally performed performance tests.
Support multiple table mapping
In our earlier release, all
InnoDB Memcached operations are mapped to a single InnoDB table. In the real
life, user might want to use this InnoDB Memcached features on different
tables. Thus being able to support access to different table at run time, and
having different mapping for different connections becomes a very desirable
feature. And in this GA release, we allow user just be able to do both. We will
discuss the key concepts and key steps in using this feature.
1) "mapping name" in
the "get" and "set" command
In order to allow InnoDB
Memcached map to a new table, the user (DBA) would still require to
"pre-register" table(s) in InnoDB Memcached “containers” table (there
is security consideration for this requirement). If you would like to know
about “containers” table, please refer to my earlier blogs in blogs.innodb.com.
Once registered, the InnoDB Memcached will then be able to look for such table
when they are referred.
Each of such registered table
will have a unique "registration name" (or mapping_name)
corresponding to the “name” field in the “containers” table.. To access these
tables, user will include such "registration name" in their get or
set commands, in the form of "get @@new_mapping_name.key",
prefix "@@" is required for signaling a mapped table change. The key
and the "mapping name" are separated by a configurable delimiter, by
default, it is ".". So the syntax is:
Here is an example:
Let's set up three tables in the
The first is a map to InnoDB
table "test/demo_test" table with mapping name "setup_1"
INTO containers VALUES ("setup_1", "test",
"c4", "c5", "PRIMARY");
Similarly, we set up table
mappings for table "test/new_demo" with name "setup_2" and
that to table "mydatabase/my_demo" with name "setup_3":
INTO containers VALUES ("setup_2", "test",
"new_demo", "c1", "c2",
INTO containers VALUES ("setup_3", "my_database",
"c1", "c2", "c3", "c4",
To switch to table
"my_database/my_demo", and get the value corresponding to “key_a”,
user will do:
will also output the value that corresponding to key "key_a"
Once this is done, this
connection will switch to "my_database/my_demo" table until another
table mapping switch is requested. so it can continue issue regular command
key_c 0 0 7
DMLs will all be directed to "my_database/my_demo" table.
And this also implies that
different connections can have different bindings (to different table).
For the delimiter "."
that separates the "mapping name" and key value, we also added a
configure option in the "config_options" system table with name of
INSERT INTO config_options
So if user wants to change to a
different delimiter, they can change it in the config_option table.
3) Default mapping:
Once we have multiple table
mapping, there should be always a "default" map setting. For this, we
decided if there exists a mapping name of "default", then this will
be chosen as default mapping. Otherwise, the first row of the containers table
will chosen as default setting.
Please note, user tables can be
repeated in the "containers" table (for example, user wants to access
different columns of the table in different settings), as long as they are
using different mapping/configure names in the first column, which is enforced
by a unique index.
4) bind command
In addition, we also extend the
protocol and added a bind command, its usage is fairly straightforward. To
switch to "setup_3" mapping above, you simply issue:
This will switch this connection's InnoDB table to
summary, with this feature, you now can direct access to difference tables with
difference session. And even a single connection, you can query into difference
Background thread to auto-commit long running transactions
a feature related to the “batch” concept we discussed in earlier blogs. This
“batch” feature allows us batch the read and write operations, and commit them
only after certain calls. The “batch” size is controlled by the configure
parameter “daemon_memcached_w_batch_size” and “daemon_memcached_r_batch_size”.
This could significantly boost performance.
it also comes with some disadvantages, for example, you will not be able to
view “uncommitted” operations from SQL end unless you set transaction isolation
level to read_uncommitted, and in addition, this will held certain row locks
for extend period of time that might reduce the concurrency.
with this, we introduce a background thread that “auto-commits” the transaction
if they are idle for certain amount of time (default is 5 seconds). The
background thread will wake up every second and loop through every
“connections” opened by Memcached, and check for idle transactions. And if such
transaction is idle longer than certain limit and not being used, it will
commit such transactions. This limit is configurable by change “innodb_api_bk_commit_interval”.
Its default value is 5 seconds, and minimum is 1 second, and maximum is
help of such background thread, you will not need to worry about long running
uncommitted transactions when set daemon_memcached_w_batch_size and
daemon_memcached_r_batch_size to a large number. This also reduces the number
of locks that could be held due to long running transactions, and thus further
increase the concurrency.
Enhancement in binlog performance
might all know, binlog operation is not done by InnoDB storage engine, rather
it is handled in the MySQL layer. In order to support binlog operation through
InnoDB Memcached, we would have to artificially create some MySQL constructs in
order to access binlog handler APIs. In previous lab release, for simplicity
consideration, we open and destroy these MySQL constructs (such as THD) for
each operations. This required us to set the “batch” size always to 1 when
binlog is on, no matter what “daemon_memcached_w_batch_size” and “daemon_memcached_r_batch_size”
are configured to. This put a big restriction on our capability to scale, and
also there are quite a bit overhead in creating destroying such constructs that
bogs the performance down.
this release, we made necessary change that would keep MySQL constructs as long
as they are valid for a particular connection. So there will not be repeated
and redundant open and close (table) calls. And now even with binlog option is
enabled (with innodb_api_enable_binlog,), we still can batch the transactions
with daemon_memcached_w_batch_size and
daemon_memcached_r_batch_size, thus scale the write/read performance.
there are still overheads that makes InnoDB Memcached cannot perform as fast as
when binlog is turned off. It is much better off comparing to previous release.
And we are continuing optimize the solution is this area to improve the
performance as much as possible.
of our System QA team have conducted some performance studies on queries
through our InnoDB Memcached connection and plain SQL end. And it shows some
is conducted on a “Linux 2.6.32-300.7.1.el6uek.x86_64 ix86 (64)” machine with
16 GB Memory, Intel Xeon 2.0 GHz CPU X86_64 2 CPUs- 4 Core Each, 2 RAID DISKS
(1027 GB,733.9GB). Results are described in following tables:
Table 1: Performance comparison
on Set operations
5.6.7-RC-Memcached-plugin ( TPS / Qps) with
“set” operation when implemented in InnoDB Memcached involves a couple of DMLs:
it first query the table to see whether the “key” exists, if it does not, the
new key/value pair will be inserted. If it does exist, the “value” field of
matching row (by key) will be updated. So when used in above query, it is a
precompiled store procedure, and query will just execute such procedures.
“–daemon_memcached_option=-t8” (default is 4 threads)
can see with this “set” query, InnoDB
Memcached can run 4.5 to 9 time faster than MySQL server.
Table 2: Performance comparison
on Get operations
5.6.7-RC-Memcached-plugin ( TPS / Qps) with
“get” query (or the select query), memcached performs 1.5 to 2 times faster than
summary, we added several much-desired features to InnoDB Memcached in this
release, allowing user to operate on different tables with this Memcached
interface. We also now provide a background commit thread to commit long running
idle transactions, thus allow user to configure large batch write/read without
worrying about large number of rows held or not being able to see (uncommit)
data. We also greatly enhanced the performance when Binlog is enabled. We will
continue making efforts in both performance enhancement and functionality areas
to make InnoDB Memcached a good demo case for our InnoDB APIs.
Jimmy Yang, September 29, 2012