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  • SQL SERVER – SSMS: Memory Usage By Memory Optimized Objects Report

    - by Pinal Dave
    At conferences and at speaking engagements at the local UG, there is one question that keeps on coming which I wish were never asked. The question around, “Why is SQL Server using up all the memory and not releasing even when idle?” Well, the answer can be long and with the release of SQL Server 2014, this got even more complicated. This release of SQL Server 2014 has the option of introducing In-Memory OLTP which is completely new concept and our dependency on memory has increased multifold. In reality, nothing much changes but we have memory optimized objects (Tables and Stored Procedures) additional which are residing completely in memory and improving performance. As a DBA, it is humanly impossible to get a hang of all the innovations and the new features introduced in the next version. So today’s blog is around the report added to SSMS which gives a high level view of this new feature addition. This reports is available only from SQL Server 2014 onwards because the feature was introduced in SQL Server 2014. Earlier versions of SQL Server Management Studio would not show the report in the list. If we try to launch the report on the database which is not having In-Memory File group defined, then we would see the message in report. To demonstrate, I have created new fresh database called MemoryOptimizedDB with no special file group. Here is the query used to identify whether a database has memory-optimized file group or not. SELECT TOP(1) 1 FROM sys.filegroups FG WHERE FG.[type] = 'FX' Once we add filegroup using below command, we would see different version of report. USE [master] GO ALTER DATABASE [MemoryOptimizedDB] ADD FILEGROUP [IMO_FG] CONTAINS MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA GO The report is still empty because we have not defined any Memory Optimized table in the database.  Total allocated size is shown as 0 MB. Now, let’s add the folder location into the filegroup and also created few in-memory tables. We have used the nomenclature of IMO to denote “InMemory Optimized” objects. USE [master] GO ALTER DATABASE [MemoryOptimizedDB] ADD FILE ( NAME = N'MemoryOptimizedDB_IMO', FILENAME = N'E:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL12.SQL2014\MSSQL\DATA\MemoryOptimizedDB_IMO') TO FILEGROUP [IMO_FG] GO You may have to change the path based on your SQL Server configuration. Below is the script to create the table. USE MemoryOptimizedDB GO --Drop table if it already exists. IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.SQLAuthority','U') IS NOT NULL DROP TABLE dbo.SQLAuthority GO CREATE TABLE dbo.SQLAuthority ( ID INT IDENTITY NOT NULL, Name CHAR(500)  COLLATE Latin1_General_100_BIN2 NOT NULL DEFAULT 'Pinal', CONSTRAINT PK_SQLAuthority_ID PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED (ID), INDEX hash_index_sample_memoryoptimizedtable_c2 HASH (Name) WITH (BUCKET_COUNT = 131072) ) WITH (MEMORY_OPTIMIZED = ON, DURABILITY = SCHEMA_AND_DATA) GO As soon as above script is executed, table and index both are created. If we run the report again, we would see something like below. Notice that table memory is zero but index is using memory. This is due to the fact that hash index needs memory to manage the buckets created. So even if table is empty, index would consume memory. More about the internals of how In-Memory indexes and tables work will be reserved for future posts. Now, use below script to populate the table with 10000 rows INSERT INTO SQLAuthority VALUES (DEFAULT) GO 10000 Here is the same report after inserting 1000 rows into our InMemory table.    There are total three sections in the whole report. Total Memory consumed by In-Memory Objects Pie chart showing memory distribution based on type of consumer – table, index and system. Details of memory usage by each table. The information about all three is taken from one single DMV, sys.dm_db_xtp_table_memory_stats This DMV contains memory usage statistics for both user and system In-Memory tables. If we query the DMV and look at data, we can easily notice that the system tables have negative object IDs.  So, to look at user table memory usage, below is the over-simplified version of query. USE MemoryOptimizedDB GO SELECT OBJECT_NAME(OBJECT_ID), * FROM sys.dm_db_xtp_table_memory_stats WHERE OBJECT_ID > 0 GO This report would help DBA to identify which in-memory object taking lot of memory which can be used as a pointer for designing solution. I am sure in future we will discuss at lengths the whole concept of In-Memory tables in detail over this blog. To read more about In-Memory OLTP, have a look at In-Memory OLTP Series at Balmukund’s Blog. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com)Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Server Management Studio, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL Tagged: SQL Memory, SQL Reports

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  • SQL SERVER – Out of the Box – Activty and Performance Reports from SSSMS

    - by pinaldave
    SQL Server management Studio 2008 is wonderful tool and has many different features. Many times, an average user does not use them as they are not aware about these features. Today, we will learn one such feature. SSMS comes with many inbuilt performance and activity reports, but we do not use it to the full potential. Let us see how we can access these standard reports. Connect to SQL Server Node >> Right Click on it >> Go to Reports >> Click on Standard Reports >> Pick Any Report. Click to Enlarge You can see there are many reports, which an average users needs right away, are available there. Let me list all the reports available. Server Dashboard Configuration Changes History Schema Changes History Scheduler Health Memory Consumption Activity – All Blocking Transactions Activity – All Cursors Activity – All Sessions Activity – Top Sessions Activity – Dormant Sessions Activity -  Top Connections Top Transactions by Age Top Transactions by Blocked Transactions Count Top Transactions by Locks Count Performance – Batch Execution Statistics Performance – Object Execution Statistics Performance – Top Queries by Average CPU Time Performance – Top Queries by Average IO Performance – Top Queries by Total CPU Time Performance – Top Queries by Total IO Service Broker Statistics Transactions Log Shipping Status In fact, when you look at the above list, it is fairly clear that they are very thought out and commonly needed reports that are available in SQL Server 2008. Let us run a couple of reports and observe their result. Performance – Top Queries by Total CPU Time Click to Enlarge Memory Consumption Click to Enlarge There are options for custom reports as well, which we can configure. We will learn about them in some other post. Additionally, you can right click on the reports and export in Excel or PDF. I think this tool can really help those who are just looking for some quick details. Does any of you use this feature, or this feature has some limitations and You would like to see more features? Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Server Management Studio, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – A Successful Performance Tuning Seminar at Pune – Dec 4-5, 2010

    - by pinaldave
    This is report to my third of very successful seminar event on SQL Server Performance Tuning. SQL Server Performance Tuning Seminar in Colombo was oversubscribed with total of 35 attendees. You can read the details over here SQLAuthority News – SQL Server Performance Optimizations Seminar – Grand Success – Colombo, Sri Lanka – Oct 4 – 5, 2010. SQL Server Performance Tuning Seminar in Hyderabad was oversubscribed with total of 25 attendees. You can read the details over here SQL SERVER – A Successful Performance Tuning Seminar – Hyderabad – Nov 27-28, 2010. The same Seminar was offered in Pune on December 4,-5, 2010. We had another successful seminar with lots of performance talk. This seminar was attended by 30 attendees. The best part of the seminar was that along with the our agenda, we have talked about following very interesting concepts. Deadlocks Detection and Removal Dynamic SQL and Inline Code SQL Optimizations Multiple OR conditions and performance tuning Dynamic Search Condition Building and Improvement Memory Cache and Improvement Bottleneck Detections – Memory, CPU and IO Beginning Performance Tuning on Production Parametrization Improving already Super Fast Queries Convenience vs. Performance Proper way to create Indexes Hints and Disadvantages I had great time doing the seminar and sharing my performance tricks with all. The highlight of this seminar was I have explained the attendees, how I begin doing performance tuning when I go for Performance Tuning Consultations.   Pinal Dave at SQL Performance Tuning Seminar SQL Server Performance Tuning Seminar Pinal Dave at SQL Performance Tuning Seminar Pinal Dave at SQL Performance Tuning Seminar SQL Server Performance Tuning Seminar SQL Server Performance Tuning Seminar This seminar series are 100% demo oriented and no usual PowerPoint talk. They are created from my experiences of various organizations for performance tuning. I am not planning any more seminar this year as it was great but I am booked currently for next 60 days at various performance tuning engagements. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Training, SQLAuthority News, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – Microsoft SQL Server 2005/2008 Query Optimization & Performance Tuning Training

    - by pinaldave
    Last 3 days to register for the courses. This is one time offer with big discount. The deadline for the course registration is 5th May, 2010. There are two different courses are offered by Solid Quality Mentors 1) Microsoft SQL Server 2005/2008 Query Optimization & Performance Tuning – Pinal Dave Date: May 12-14, 2010 Price: Rs. 14,000/person for 3 days Discount Code: ‘SQLAuthority.com’ Effective Price: Rs. 11,000/person for 3 days 2) SharePoint 2010 – Joy Rathnayake Date: May 10-11, 2010 Price: Rs. 11,000/person for 3 days Discount Code: ‘SQLAuthority.com’ Effective Price: Rs. 8,000/person for 2 days Download the complete PDF brochure. To register, either send an email to [email protected] or call +91 95940 43399. Feel free to drop me an email at pinal “at” SQLAuthority.com for any additional information and clarification. Training Venue: Abridge Solutions, #90/B/C/3/1, Ganesh GHR & MSY Plaza, Vittalrao Nagar, Near Image Hospital, Madhapur, Hyderabad – 500 081. Additionally there is special program of SolidQ India Insider. This is only available to first few registrants of the courses only. Read more details about the course here. Read my TechEd India 2010 experience here. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Training, SQLAuthority News, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – Statistics and Best Practices – Virtual Tech Days – Nov 22, 2010

    - by pinaldave
    I am honored that I have been invited to speak at Virtual TechDays on Nov 22, 2010 by Microsoft. I will be speaking on my favorite subject of Statistics and Best Practices. This exclusive online event will have 80 deep technical sessions across 3 days – and, attendance is completely FREE. There are dedicated tracks for Architects, Software Developers/Project Managers, Infrastructure Managers/Professionals and Enterprise Developers. So, REGISTER for this exclusive online event TODAY. Statistics and Best Practices Timing: 11:45am-12:45pm Statistics are a key part of getting solid performance. In this session we will go over the basics of the statistics and various best practices related to Statistics. We will go over various frequently asked questions like a) when to update statistics, b) different between sync and async update of statistics c) best method to update statistics d) optimal interval of updating statistics. We will also discuss the pros and cons of the statistics update. This session is for all of you – whether you’re a DBA or developer! You can register for this event over here. If you have never attended my session on this subject I strongly suggest that you attend the event as this is going to be very interesting conversation between us. If you have attended this session earlier, this will contain few new information which will for sure interesting to share with all. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: MVP, Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Joins, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLAuthority News, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL Statistics, Statistics

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  • SQL Server – Learning SQL Server Performance: Indexing Basics – Video

    - by pinaldave
    Today I remember one of my older cartoon years ago created for Indexing and Performance. Every single time when Performance is discussed, Indexes are mentioned along with it. In recent times, data and application complexity is continuously growing.  The demand for faster query response, performance, and scalability by organizations is increasing and developers and DBAs need to now write efficient code to achieve this. DBA and Developers A DBA’s role is critical, because a production environment has to run 24×7, hence maintenance, trouble shooting, and quick resolutions are the need of the hour.  The first baby step into any performance tuning exercise in SQL Server involves creating, analysing, and maintaining indexes. Though we have learnt indexing concepts from our college days, indexing implementation inside SQL Server can vary.  Understanding this behaviour and designing our applications appropriately will make sure the application is performed to its highest potential. Video Learning Vinod Kumar and myself we often thought about this and realized that practical understanding of the indexes is very important. One can not master every single aspects of the index. However there are some minimum expertise one should gain if performance is one of the concern. We decided to build a course which just addresses the practical aspects of the performance. In this course, we explored some of these indexing fundamentals and we elaborated on how SQL Server goes about using indexes.  At the end of this course of you will know the basic structure of indexes, practical insights into implementation, and maintenance tips and tricks revolving around indexes.  Finally, we will introduce SQL Server 2012 column store indexes.  We have refrained from discussing internal storage structure of the indexes but have taken a more practical, demo-oriented approach to explain these core concepts. Course Outline Here are salient topics of the course. We have explained every single concept along with a practical demonstration. Additionally shared our personal scripts along with the same. Introduction Fundamentals of Indexing Index Fundamentals Index Fundamentals – Visual Representation Practical Indexing Implementation Techniques Primary Key Over Indexing Duplicate Index Clustered Index Unique Index Included Columns Filtered Index Disabled Index Index Maintenance and Defragmentation Introduction to Columnstore Index Indexing Practical Performance Tips and Tricks Index and Page Types Index and Non Deterministic Columns Index and SET Values Importance of Clustered Index Effect of Compression and Fillfactor Index and Functions Dynamic Management Views (DMV) – Fillfactor Table Scan, Index Scan and Index Seek Index and Order of Columns Final Checklist: Index and Performance Well, we believe we have done our part, now waiting for your comments and feedback. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Index, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology, Video

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  • SQL SERVER – Introduction to PERCENTILE_CONT() – Analytic Functions Introduced in SQL Server 2012

    - by pinaldave
    SQL Server 2012 introduces new analytical function PERCENTILE_CONT(). The book online gives following definition of this function: Computes a specific percentile for sorted values in an entire rowset or within distinct partitions of a rowset in Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Release Candidate 0 (RC 0). For a given percentile value P, PERCENTILE_DISC sorts the values of the expression in the ORDER BY clause and returns the value with the smallest CUME_DIST value (with respect to the same sort specification) that is greater than or equal to P. If you are clear with understanding of the function – no need to read further. If you got lost here is the same in simple words – it is lot like finding median with percentile value. Now let’s have fun following query: USE AdventureWorks GO SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderQty, ProductID, PERCENTILE_CONT(0.5) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY ProductID) OVER (PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS MedianCont FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail WHERE SalesOrderID IN (43670, 43669, 43667, 43663) ORDER BY SalesOrderID DESC GO The above query will give us the following result: You can see that I have used PERCENTILE_COUNT(0.5) in query, which is similar to finding median. Let me explain above diagram with little more explanation. The defination of median is as following: In case of Even Number of elements = In ordered list add the two digits from the middle and devide by 2 In case of Odd Numbers of elements = In ordered list select the digits from the middle I hope this example gives clear idea how PERCENTILE_CONT() works. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Function, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Three Puzzling Questions – Need Your Answer

    - by pinaldave
    Last week I had asked three questions on my blog. I got very good response to the questions. I am planning to write summary post for each of three questions next week. Before I write summary post and give credit to all the valid answers. I was wondering if I can bring to notice of all of you this week. Why SELECT * throws an error but SELECT COUNT(*) does not This is indeed very interesting question as not quite many realize that this kind of behavior SQL Server demonstrates out of the box. Once you run both the code and read the explanation it totally makes sense why SQL Server is behaving how it is behaving. Also there is connect item is associated with it. Also read the very first comment by Rob Farley it also shares very interesting detail. Statistics are not Updated but are Created Once This puzzle has multiple right answer. I am glad to see many of the correct answer as a comment to this blog post. Statistics are very important and it really helps SQL Server Engine to come up with optimal execution plan. DBA quite often ignore statistics thinking it does not need to be updated, as they are automatically maintained if proper database setting is configured (auto update and auto create). Well, in this question, we have scenario even though auto create and auto update statistics are ON, statistics is not updated. There are multiple solutions but what will be your solution in this case? When to use Function and When to use Stored Procedure This question is rather open ended question – there is no right or wrong answer. Everybody developer has always used functions and stored procedures. Here is the chance to justify when to use Stored Procedure and when to use Functions. I want to acknowledge that they can be used interchangeably but there are few reasons when one should not do that. There are few reasons when one is better than other. Let us discuss this here. Your opinion matters. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, Readers Contribution, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Performance, SQL Puzzle, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLAuthority News, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Public Training and Private Training – Differences and Similarities

    - by pinaldave
    Earlier this year, I was on Road SQL Server Seminars. I did many SQL Server Performance Trainings and SQL Server Performance Consultations throughout the year but I feel the most rewarding exercise is always the one when instructor learns something from students, too. I was just talking to my wife, Nupur – she manages my logistics and administration related activities – and she pointed out that this year I have done 62% consultations and 38% trainings. I was bit surprised as I thought the numbers would be reversed. Every time I review the year, I think of training done at organizations. Well, I cannot argue with reality, I have done more consultations (some would call them projects) than training. I told my wife that I enjoy consultations more than training. She promptly asked me a question which was not directly related but made me think for long time, and in the end resulted in this blog post. Nupur asked me: what do I enjoy the most, public training or private training? I had a long conversation with her on this subject. I am not going to write long blog post which can change your life here. This is rather a small post condensing my one hour discussion into 200 words. Public Training is fun because… There are lots of different kinds of attendees There are always vivid questions Lots of questions on questions Less interest in theory and more interest in demos Good opportunity of future business Private Training is fun because… There is a focused interest One question is discussed deeply because of existing company issues More interest in “how it happened” concepts – under the hood operations Good connection with attendees This is also a good opportunity of future business Here I will stop my monologue and I want to open up this question to all of you: Question to Attendees - Which one do you enjoy the most – Public Training or Private Training? Question to Trainers - What do you enjoy the most – Public Training or Private Training? Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Training, SQLAuthority News, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Video – Beginning Performance Tuning with SQL Server Execution Plan

    - by pinaldave
    Traveling can be most interesting or most exhausting experience. However, traveling is always the most enlightening experience one can have. While going to long journey one has to prepare a lot of things. Pack necessary travel gears, clothes and medicines. However, the most essential part of travel is the journey to the destination. There are many variations one prefer but the ultimate goal is to have a delightful experience during the journey. Here is the video available which explains how to begin with SQL Server Execution plans. Performance Tuning is a Journey Performance tuning is just like a long journey. The goal of performance tuning is efficient and least resources consuming query execution with accurate results. Just as maps are the most essential aspect of performance tuning the same way, execution plans are essentially maps for SQL Server to reach to the resultset. The goal of the execution plan is to find the most efficient path which translates the least usage of the resources (CPU, memory, IO etc). Execution Plans are like Maps When online maps were invented (e.g. Bing, Google, Mapquests etc) initially it was not possible to customize them. They were given a single route to reach to the destination. As time evolved now it is possible to give various hints to the maps, for example ‘via public transport’, ‘walking’, ‘fastest route’, ‘shortest route’, ‘avoid highway’. There are places where we manually drag the route and make it appropriate to our needs. The same situation is with SQL Server Execution Plans, if we want to tune the queries, we need to understand the execution plans and execution plans internals. We need to understand the smallest details which relate to execution plan when we our destination is optimal queries. Understanding Execution Plans The biggest challenge with maps are figuring out the optimal path. The same way the  most common challenge with execution plans is where to start from and which precise route to take. Here is a quick list of the frequently asked questions related to execution plans: Should I read the execution plans from bottoms up or top down? Is execution plans are left to right or right to left? What is the relational between actual execution plan and estimated execution plan? When I mouse over operator I see CPU and IO but not memory, why? Sometime I ran the query multiple times and I get different execution plan, why? How to cache the query execution plan and data? I created an optimal index but the query is not using it. What should I change – query, index or provide hints? What are the tools available which helps quickly to debug performance problems? Etc… Honestly the list is quite a big and humanly impossible to write everything in the words. SQL Server Performance:  Introduction to Query Tuning My friend Vinod Kumar and I have created for the same a video learning course for beginning performance tuning. We have covered plethora of the subject in the course. Here is the quick list of the same: Execution Plan Basics Essential Indexing Techniques Query Design for Performance Performance Tuning Tools Tips and Tricks Checklist: Performance Tuning We believe we have covered a lot in this four hour course and we encourage you to go over the video course if you are interested in Beginning SQL Server Performance Tuning and Query Tuning. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology, Video Tagged: Execution Plan

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  • SQL SERVER – Weekend Project – Experimenting with ACID Transactions, SQL Compliant, Elastically Scalable Database

    - by pinaldave
    Database technology is huge and big world. I like to explore always beyond what I know and share the learning. Weekend is the best time when I sit around download random software on my machine which I like to call as a lab machine (it is a pretty old laptop, hardly a quality as lab machine) and experiment it. There are so many free betas available for download that it’s hard to keep track and even harder to find the time to play with very many of them.  This blog is about one you shouldn’t miss if you are interested in the learning various relational databases. NuoDB just released their Beta 7.  I had already downloaded their Beta 6 and yesterday did the same for 7.   My impression is that they are onto something very very interesting.  In fact, it might be something really promising in terms of database elasticity, scale and operational cost reduction. The folks at NuoDB say they are working on the world’s first “emergent” database which they tout as a brand new transitional database that is intended to dramatically change what’s possible with OLTP.  It is SQL compliant, guarantees ACID transactions, yet scales elastically on heterogeneous and decentralized cloud-based resources. Interesting note for sure, making me explore more. Based on what I’ve seen so far, they are solving the architectural challenge that exists between elastic, cloud-based compute infrastructures designed to scale out in response to workload requirements versus the traditional relational database management system’s architecture of central control. Here’s my experience with the NuoDB Beta 6 so far: First they pretty much threw away all the features you’d associate with existing RDBMS architectures except the SQL and ACID transactions which they were smart to keep.  It looks like they have incorporated a number of the big ideas from various algorithms, systems and techniques to achieve maximum DB scalability. From a user’s perspective, the NuoDB Beta software behaves like any other traditional SQL database and seems to offer all the benefits users have come to expect from standards-based SQL solutions. One of the interesting feature is that one can run a transactional node and a storage node on my Windows laptop as well on other platforms – indeed interesting for sure. It’s quite amazing to see a database elastically scale across machine boundaries. So, one of the basic NuoDB concepts is that as you need to scale out, you can easily use more inexpensive hardware when/where you need it.  This is unlike what we have traditionally done to scale a database for an application – we replace the hardware with something more powerful (faster CPU and Disks). This is where I started to feel like NuoDB is on to something that has the potential to elastically scale on commodity hardware while reducing operational expense for a big OLTP database to a degree we’ve never seen before. NuoDB is able to fully leverage the cloud in an asynchronous and highly decentralized manner – while providing both SQL compliance and ACID transactions. Basically what NuoDB is doing is so new that it is all hard to believe until you’ve experienced it in action.  I will keep you up to date as I test the NuoDB Beta 7 but if you are developing a web-scale application or have an on-premise app you are thinking of moving to the cloud, testing this beta is worth your time. If you do try it, let me know what you think.  Before I say anything more, I am going to do more experiments and more test on this product and compare it with other existing similar products. For me it was a weekend worth spent on learning something new. I encourage you to download Beta 7 version and share your opinions here. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Documentation, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – How to Ignore Columnstore Index Usage in Query

    - by pinaldave
    Earlier I wrote about SQL SERVER – Fundamentals of Columnstore Index and very first question I received in email was as following. “We are using SQL Server 2012 CTP3 and so far so good. In our data warehouse solution we have created 1 non-clustered columnstore index on our large fact table. We have very unique situation but your article did not cover it. We are running few queries on our fact table which is working very efficiently but there is one query which earlier was running very fine but after creating this non-clustered columnstore index this query is running very slow. We dropped the columnstore index and suddenly this one query is running fast but other queries which were benefited by this columnstore index it is running slow. Any workaround in this situation?” In summary the question in simple words “How can we ignore using columnstore index in selective queries?” Very interesting question – you can use I can understand there may be the cases when columnstore index is not ideal and needs to be ignored the same. You can use the query hint IGNORE_NONCLUSTERED_COLUMNSTORE_INDEX to ignore the columnstore index. SQL Server Engine will use any other index which is best after ignoring the columnstore index. Here is the quick script to prove the same. We will first create sample database and then create columnstore index on the same. Once columnstore index is created we will write simple query. This query will use columnstore index. We will then show the usage of the query hint. USE AdventureWorks GO -- Create New Table CREATE TABLE [dbo].[MySalesOrderDetail]( [SalesOrderID] [int] NOT NULL, [SalesOrderDetailID] [int] NOT NULL, [CarrierTrackingNumber] [nvarchar](25) NULL, [OrderQty] [smallint] NOT NULL, [ProductID] [int] NOT NULL, [SpecialOfferID] [int] NOT NULL, [UnitPrice] [money] NOT NULL, [UnitPriceDiscount] [money] NOT NULL, [LineTotal] [numeric](38, 6) NOT NULL, [rowguid] [uniqueidentifier] NOT NULL, [ModifiedDate] [datetime] NOT NULL ) ON [PRIMARY] GO -- Create clustered index CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX [CL_MySalesOrderDetail] ON [dbo].[MySalesOrderDetail] ( [SalesOrderDetailID]) GO -- Create Sample Data Table -- WARNING: This Query may run upto 2-10 minutes based on your systems resources INSERT INTO [dbo].[MySalesOrderDetail] SELECT S1.* FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail S1 GO 100 -- Create ColumnStore Index CREATE NONCLUSTERED COLUMNSTORE INDEX [IX_MySalesOrderDetail_ColumnStore] ON [MySalesOrderDetail] (UnitPrice, OrderQty, ProductID) GO Now we have created columnstore index so if we run following query it will use for sure the same index. -- Select Table with regular Index SELECT ProductID, SUM(UnitPrice) SumUnitPrice, AVG(UnitPrice) AvgUnitPrice, SUM(OrderQty) SumOrderQty, AVG(OrderQty) AvgOrderQty FROM [dbo].[MySalesOrderDetail] GROUP BY ProductID ORDER BY ProductID GO We can specify Query Hint IGNORE_NONCLUSTERED_COLUMNSTORE_INDEX as described in following query and it will not use columnstore index. -- Select Table with regular Index SELECT ProductID, SUM(UnitPrice) SumUnitPrice, AVG(UnitPrice) AvgUnitPrice, SUM(OrderQty) SumOrderQty, AVG(OrderQty) AvgOrderQty FROM [dbo].[MySalesOrderDetail] GROUP BY ProductID ORDER BY ProductID OPTION (IGNORE_NONCLUSTERED_COLUMNSTORE_INDEX) GO Let us clean up the database. -- Cleanup DROP INDEX [IX_MySalesOrderDetail_ColumnStore] ON [dbo].[MySalesOrderDetail] GO TRUNCATE TABLE dbo.MySalesOrderDetail GO DROP TABLE dbo.MySalesOrderDetail GO Again, make sure that you use hint sparingly and understanding the proper implication of the same. Make sure that you test it with and without hint and select the best option after review of your administrator. Here is the question for you – have you started to use SQL Server 2012 for your validation and development (not on production)? It will be interesting to know the answer. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Index, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – ASYNC_IO_COMPLETION – Wait Type – Day 11 of 28

    - by pinaldave
    For any good system three things are vital: CPU, Memory and IO (disk). Among these three, IO is the most crucial factor of SQL Server. Looking at real-world cases, I do not see IT people upgrading CPU and Memory frequently. However, the disk is often upgraded for either improving the space, speed or throughput. Today we will look at another IO-related wait type. From Book On-Line: Occurs when a task is waiting for I/Os to finish. ASYNC_IO_COMPLETION Explanation: Any tasks are waiting for I/O to finish. If by any means your application that’s connected to SQL Server is processing the data very slowly, this type of wait can occur. Several long-running database operations like BACKUP, CREATE DATABASE, ALTER DATABASE or other operations can also create this wait type. Reducing ASYNC_IO_COMPLETION wait: When it is an issue related to IO, one should check for the following things associated to IO subsystem: Look at the programming and see if there is any application code which processes the data slowly (like inefficient loop, etc.). Note that it should be re-written to avoid this  wait type. Proper placing of the files is very important. We should check the file system for proper placement of the files – LDF and MDF on separate drive, TempDB on another separate drive, hot spot tables on separate filegroup (and on separate disk), etc. Check the File Statistics and see if there is a higher IO Read and IO Write Stall SQL SERVER – Get File Statistics Using fn_virtualfilestats. Check event log and error log for any errors or warnings related to IO. If you are using SAN (Storage Area Network), check the throughput of the SAN system as well as configuration of the HBA Queue Depth. In one of my recent projects, the SAN was performing really badly and so the SAN administrator did not accept it. After some investigations, he agreed to change the HBA Queue Depth on the development setup (test environment). As soon as we changed the HBA Queue Depth to quite a higher value, there was a sudden big improvement in the performance. It is very likely to happen that there are no proper indexes on the system and yet there are lots of table scans and heap scans. Creating proper index can reduce the IO bandwidth considerably. If SQL Server can use appropriate cover index instead of clustered index, it can effectively reduce lots of CPU, Memory and IO (considering cover index has lesser columns than cluster table and all other; it depends upon the situation). You can refer to the following two articles I wrote that talk about how to optimize indexes: Create Missing Indexes Drop Unused Indexes Checking Memory Related Perfmon Counters SQLServer: Memory Manager\Memory Grants Pending (Consistent higher value than 0-2) SQLServer: Memory Manager\Memory Grants Outstanding (Consistent higher value, Benchmark) SQLServer: Buffer Manager\Buffer Hit Cache Ratio (Higher is better, greater than 90% for usually smooth running system) SQLServer: Buffer Manager\Page Life Expectancy (Consistent lower value than 300 seconds) Memory: Available Mbytes (Information only) Memory: Page Faults/sec (Benchmark only) Memory: Pages/sec (Benchmark only) Checking Disk Related Perfmon Counters Average Disk sec/Read (Consistent higher value than 4-8 millisecond is not good) Average Disk sec/Write (Consistent higher value than 4-8 millisecond is not good) Average Disk Read/Write Queue Length (Consistent higher value than benchmark is not good) Read all the post in the Wait Types and Queue series. Note: The information presented here is from my experience and there is no way that I claim it to be accurate. I suggest reading Book OnLine for further clarification. All the discussions of Wait Stats in this blog are generic and vary from system to system. It is recommended that you test this on a development server before implementing it to a production server. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Wait Stats, SQL Wait Types, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – When are Statistics Updated – What triggers Statistics to Update

    - by pinaldave
    If you are an SQL Server Consultant/Trainer involved with Performance Tuning and Query Optimization, I am sure you have faced the following questions many times. When is statistics updated? What is the interval of Statistics update? What is the algorithm behind update statistics? These are the puzzling questions and more. I searched the Internet as well many official MS documents in order to find answers. All of them have provided almost similar algorithm. However, at many places, I have seen a bit of variation in algorithm as well. I have finally compiled the list of various algorithms and decided to share what was the most common “factor” in all of them. I would like to ask for your suggestions as whether following the details, when Statistics is updated, are accurate or not. I will update this blog post with accurate information after receiving your ideas. The answer I have found here is when statistics are expired and not when they are automatically updated. I need your help here to answer when they are updated. Permanent table If the table has no rows, statistics is updated when there is a single change in table. If the number of rows in a table is less than 500, statistics is updated for every 500 changes in table. If the number of rows in table is more than 500, statistics is updated for every 500+20% of rows changes in table. Temporary table If the table has no rows, statistics is updated when there is a single change in table. If the number of rows in table is less than 6, statistics is updated for every 6 changes in table. If the number of rows in table is less than 500, statistics is updated for every 500 changes in table. If the number of rows in table is more than 500, statistics is updated for every 500+20% of rows changes in table. Table variable There is no statistics for Table Variables. If you want to read further about statistics, I suggest that you read the white paper Statistics Used by the Query Optimizer in Microsoft SQL Server 2008. Let me know your opinions about statistics, as well as if there is any update in the above algorithm. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL Statistics

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  • SQL SERVER – FT_IFTS_SCHEDULER_IDLE_WAIT – Full Text – Wait Type – Day 13 of 28

    - by pinaldave
    In the last few days during this series, I got many question about this Wait type. It would be great if you read my original related wait stats query in the first post because I have filtered it out in WHERE clause. However, I still get questions about this being one of the most wait types they encounter. The truth is, this is a background task processing and it really does not matter and it should be filtered out. There are many new Wait types related to Full Text Search that are introduced in SQL Server 2008. If you run the following query, you will be able to find them in the list. Currently there is not enough information for all of them available on BOL or any other place. But don’t worry; I will write an in-depth article when I learn more about them. SELECT * FROM sys.dm_os_wait_stats WHERE wait_type LIKE 'FT_%' The result set will contain following rows. FT_RESTART_CRAWL FT_METADATA_MUTEX FT_IFTSHC_MUTEX FT_IFTSISM_MUTEX FT_IFTS_RWLOCK FT_COMPROWSET_RWLOCK FT_MASTER_MERGE FT_IFTS_SCHEDULER_IDLE_WAIT We have understood so far that there is not much information available. But the problem is when you have this Wait type, what should you do?  The answer is to filter them out for the moment (i.e, do not pay attention on them) and focus on other pressing issues in wait stats or performance tuning. Here are two of my informal suggestions, which are totally independent from wait stats: Turn off the Full Text Search service in your system if you are  not necessarily using it on your server. Learn proper Full Text Search methodology. You can get Michael Coles’ book: Pro Full-Text Search in SQL Server 2008. Now I invite you to speak out your suggestions or any input regarding Full Text-related best practices and wait stats issue. Please leave a comment. Note: The information presented here is from my experience and there is no way that I claim it to be accurate. I suggest reading Book OnLine for further clarification. All the discussions of Wait Stats in this blog are generic and vary from system to system. It is recommended that you test this on a development server before implementing it to a production server. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Wait Stats, SQL Wait Types, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Introduction to PERCENTILE_DISC() – Analytic Functions Introduced in SQL Server 2012

    - by pinaldave
    SQL Server 2012 introduces new analytical function PERCENTILE_DISC(). The book online gives following definition of this function: Computes a specific percentile for sorted values in an entire rowset or within distinct partitions of a rowset in Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Release Candidate 0 (RC 0). For a given percentile value P, PERCENTILE_DISC sorts the values of the expression in the ORDER BY clause and returns the value with the smallest CUME_DIST value (with respect to the same sort specification) that is greater than or equal to P. If you are clear with understanding of the function – no need to read further. If you got lost here is the same in simple words – find value of the column which is equal or more than CUME_DIST. Before you continue reading this blog I strongly suggest you read about CUME_DIST function over here Introduction to CUME_DIST – Analytic Functions Introduced in SQL Server 2012. Now let’s have fun following query: USE AdventureWorks GO SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderQty, ProductID, CUME_DIST() OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID ORDER BY ProductID ) AS CDist, PERCENTILE_DISC(0.5) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY ProductID) OVER (PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS PercentileDisc FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail WHERE SalesOrderID IN (43670, 43669, 43667, 43663) ORDER BY SalesOrderID DESC GO The above query will give us the following result: You can see that I have used PERCENTILE_DISC(0.5) in query, which is similar to finding median but not exactly. PERCENTILE_DISC() function takes a percentile as a passing parameters. It returns the value as answer which value is equal or great to the percentile value which is passed into the example. For example in above example we are passing 0.5 into the PERCENTILE_DISC() function. It will go through the resultset and identify which rows has values which are equal to or great than 0.5. In first example it found two rows which are equal to 0.5 and the value of ProductID of that row is the answer of PERCENTILE_DISC(). In some third windowed resultset there is only single row with the CUME_DIST() value as 1 and that is for sure higher than 0.5 making it as a answer. To make sure that we are clear with this example properly. Here is one more example where I am passing 0.6 as a percentile. Now let’s have fun following query: USE AdventureWorks GO SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderQty, ProductID, CUME_DIST() OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID ORDER BY ProductID ) AS CDist, PERCENTILE_DISC(0.6) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY ProductID) OVER (PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS PercentileDisc FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail WHERE SalesOrderID IN (43670, 43669, 43667, 43663) ORDER BY SalesOrderID DESC GO The above query will give us the following result: The result of the PERCENTILE_DISC(0.6) is ProductID of which CUME_DIST() is more than 0.6. This means for SalesOrderID 43670 has row with CUME_DIST() 0.75 is the qualified row, resulting answer 773 for ProductID. I hope this explanation makes it further clear. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Function, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Find Max Worker Count using DMV – 32 Bit and 64 Bit

    - by pinaldave
    During several recent training courses, I found it very interesting that Worker Thread is not quite known to everyone despite the fact that it is a very important feature. At some point in the discussion, one of the attendees mentioned that we can double the Worker Thread if we double the CPU (add the same number of CPU that we have on current system). The same discussion has triggered this quick article. Here is the DMV which can be used to find out Max Worker Count SELECT max_workers_count FROM sys.dm_os_sys_info Let us run the above query on my system and find the results. As my system is 32 bit and I have two CPU, the Max Worker Count is displayed as 512. To address the previous discussion, adding more CPU does not necessarily double the Worker Count. In fact, the logic behind this simple principle is as follows: For x86 (32-bit) upto 4 logical processors  max worker threads = 256 For x86 (32-bit) more than 4 logical processors  max worker threads = 256 + ((# Procs – 4) * 8) For x64 (64-bit) upto 4 logical processors  max worker threads = 512 For x64 (64-bit) more than 4 logical processors  max worker threads = 512+ ((# Procs – 4) * 8) In addition to this, you can configure the Max Worker Thread by using SSMS. Go to Server Node >> Right Click and Select Property >> Select Process and modify setting under Worker Threads. According to Book On Line, the default Worker Thread settings are appropriate for most of the systems. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL System Table, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL DMV

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  • SQL SERVER – Difference Between GRANT and WITH GRANT

    - by pinaldave
    This was very interesting question recently asked me to during my session at TechMela Nepal. The question is what is the difference between GRANT and WITH GRANT when giving permissions to user. Let us first see syntax for the same. GRANT: USE master; GRANT VIEW ANY DATABASE TO username; GO WITH GRANT: USE master; GRANT VIEW ANY DATABASE TO username WITH GRANT OPTION; GO The difference between both of this option is very simple. In case of only GRANT – username can not grant the same permission to other users. In case, of the option of WITH GRANT – username will be able to give the permission it has received to other users. This is very basic definition of the subject. I would like to request my readers to come up with working script to prove this scenario. If can submit your script to me by email (pinal ‘at’ sqlauthority.com) or in comment field. Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Security, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL Permissions

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  • SQL SERVER – What is Page Life Expectancy (PLE) Counter

    - by pinaldave
    During performance tuning consultation there are plenty of counters and values, I often come across. Today we will quickly talk about Page Life Expectancy counter, which is commonly known as PLE as well. You can find the value of the PLE by running following query. SELECT [object_name], [counter_name], [cntr_value] FROM sys.dm_os_performance_counters WHERE [object_name] LIKE '%Manager%' AND [counter_name] = 'Page life expectancy' The recommended value of the PLE counter is 300 seconds. I have seen on busy system this value to be as low as even 45 seconds and on unused system as high as 1250 seconds. Page Life Expectancy is number of seconds a page will stay in the buffer pool without references. In simple words, if your page stays longer in the buffer pool (area of the memory cache) your PLE is higher, leading to higher performance as every time request comes there are chances it may find its data in the cache itself instead of going to hard drive to read the data. Now check your system and post back what is this counter value for you during various time of the day. Is this counter any way relates to performance issues for your system? Note: There are various other counters which are important to discuss during the performance tuning and this counter is not everything. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – GUID vs INT – Your Opinion

    - by pinaldave
    I think the title is clear what I am going to write in your post. This is age old problem and I want to compile the list stating advantages and disadvantages of using GUID and INT as a Primary Key or Clustered Index or Both (the usual case). Let me start a list by suggesting one advantage and one disadvantage in each case. INT Advantage: Numeric values (and specifically integers) are better for performance when used in joins, indexes and conditions. Numeric values are easier to understand for application users if they are displayed. Disadvantage: If your table is large, it is quite possible it will run out of it and after some numeric value there will be no additional identity to use. GUID Advantage: Unique across the server. Disadvantage: String values are not as optimal as integer values for performance when used in joins, indexes and conditions. More storage space is required than INT. Please note that I am looking to create list of all the generic comparisons. There can be special cases where the stated information is incorrect, feel free to comment on the same. Please leave your opinion and advice in comment section. I will combine a final list and update this blog after a week. By listing your name in post, I will also give due credit. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Constraint and Keys, SQL Data Storage, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – 2008 – Missing Index Script – Download

    - by pinaldave
    Download Missing Index Script with Unused Index Script Performance Tuning is quite interesting and Index plays a vital role in it. A proper index can improve the performance and a bad index can hamper the performance. Here is the script from my script bank which I use to identify missing indexes on any database. Please note, if you should not create all the missing indexes this script suggest. This is just for guidance. You should not create more than 5-10 indexes per table. Additionally, this script sometime does not give accurate information so use your common sense. Any way, the scripts is good starting point. You should pay attention to Avg_Estimated_Impact when you are going to create index. The index creation script is also provided in the last column. Download Missing Index Script with Unused Index Script -- Missing Index Script -- Original Author: Pinal Dave (C) 2011 SELECT TOP 25 dm_mid.database_id AS DatabaseID, dm_migs.avg_user_impact*(dm_migs.user_seeks+dm_migs.user_scans) Avg_Estimated_Impact, dm_migs.last_user_seek AS Last_User_Seek, OBJECT_NAME(dm_mid.OBJECT_ID,dm_mid.database_id) AS [TableName], 'CREATE INDEX [IX_' + OBJECT_NAME(dm_mid.OBJECT_ID,dm_mid.database_id) + '_' + REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(ISNULL(dm_mid.equality_columns,''),', ','_'),'[',''),']','') + CASE WHEN dm_mid.equality_columns IS NOT NULL AND dm_mid.inequality_columns IS NOT NULL THEN '_' ELSE '' END + REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(ISNULL(dm_mid.inequality_columns,''),', ','_'),'[',''),']','') + ']' + ' ON ' + dm_mid.statement + ' (' + ISNULL (dm_mid.equality_columns,'') + CASE WHEN dm_mid.equality_columns IS NOT NULL AND dm_mid.inequality_columns IS NOT NULL THEN ',' ELSE '' END + ISNULL (dm_mid.inequality_columns, '') + ')' + ISNULL (' INCLUDE (' + dm_mid.included_columns + ')', '') AS Create_Statement FROM sys.dm_db_missing_index_groups dm_mig INNER JOIN sys.dm_db_missing_index_group_stats dm_migs ON dm_migs.group_handle = dm_mig.index_group_handle INNER JOIN sys.dm_db_missing_index_details dm_mid ON dm_mig.index_handle = dm_mid.index_handle WHERE dm_mid.database_ID = DB_ID() ORDER BY Avg_Estimated_Impact DESC GO Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Download, SQL Index, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL Server – Learning SQL Server Performance: Indexing Basics – Interview of Vinod Kumar by Pinal Dave

    - by pinaldave
    Recently I just wrote a blog post on about Learning SQL Server Performance: Indexing Basics and I received lots of request that if we can share some insight into the course. Every single time when Performance is discussed, Indexes are mentioned along with it. In recent times, data and application complexity is continuously growing.  The demand for faster query response, performance, and scalability by organizations is increasing and developers and DBAs need to now write efficient code to achieve this. When we developed the course – we made sure that this course remains practical and demo heavy instead of just theories on this subject. Vinod Kumar and myself we often thought about this and realized that practical understanding of the indexes is very important. One can not master every single aspects of the index. However there are some minimum expertise one should gain if performance is one of the concern. Here is 200 seconds interview of Vinod Kumar I took right after completing the course. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Index, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology, Video

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  • SQL SERVER – Introduction to PERCENT_RANK() – Analytic Functions Introduced in SQL Server 2012

    - by pinaldave
    SQL Server 2012 introduces new analytical functions PERCENT_RANK(). This function returns relative standing of a value within a query result set or partition. It will be very difficult to explain this in words so I’d like to attempt to explain its function through a brief example. Instead of creating a new table, I will be using the AdventureWorks sample database as most developers use that for experiment purposes. Now let’s have fun following query: USE AdventureWorks GO SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderQty, RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SalesOrderID) Rnk, PERCENT_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SalesOrderID) AS PctDist FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail WHERE SalesOrderID IN (43670, 43669, 43667, 43663) ORDER BY PctDist DESC GO The above query will give us the following result: Now let us understand the resultset. You will notice that I have also included the RANK() function along with this query. The reason to include RANK() function was as this query is infect uses RANK function and find the relative standing of the query. The formula to find PERCENT_RANK() is as following: PERCENT_RANK() = (RANK() – 1) / (Total Rows – 1) If you want to read more about this function read here. Now let us attempt the same example with PARTITION BY clause USE AdventureWorks GO SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderQty, ProductID, RANK() OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID ORDER BY ProductID ) Rnk, PERCENT_RANK() OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID ORDER BY ProductID ) AS PctDist FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail s WHERE SalesOrderID IN (43670, 43669, 43667, 43663) ORDER BY PctDist DESC GO Now you will notice that the same logic is followed in follow result set. I have now quick question to you – how many of you know the logic/formula of PERCENT_RANK() before this blog post? Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Function, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Simple Example of Incremental Statistics – Performance improvements in SQL Server 2014 – Part 2

    - by Pinal Dave
    This is the second part of the series Incremental Statistics. Here is the index of the complete series. What is Incremental Statistics? – Performance improvements in SQL Server 2014 – Part 1 Simple Example of Incremental Statistics – Performance improvements in SQL Server 2014 – Part 2 DMV to Identify Incremental Statistics – Performance improvements in SQL Server 2014 – Part 3 In part 1 we have understood what is incremental statistics and now in this second part we will see a simple example of incremental statistics. This blog post is heavily inspired from my friend Balmukund’s must read blog post. If you have partitioned table and lots of data, this feature can be specifically very useful. Prerequisite Here are two things you must know before you start with the demonstrations. AdventureWorks – For the demonstration purpose I have installed AdventureWorks 2012 as an AdventureWorks 2014 in this demonstration. Partitions – You should know how partition works with databases. Setup Script Here is the setup script for creating Partition Function, Scheme, and the Table. We will populate the table based on the SalesOrderDetails table from AdventureWorks. -- Use Database USE AdventureWorks2014 GO -- Create Partition Function CREATE PARTITION FUNCTION IncrStatFn (INT) AS RANGE LEFT FOR VALUES (44000, 54000, 64000, 74000) GO -- Create Partition Scheme CREATE PARTITION SCHEME IncrStatSch AS PARTITION [IncrStatFn] TO ([PRIMARY], [PRIMARY], [PRIMARY], [PRIMARY], [PRIMARY]) GO -- Create Table Incremental_Statistics CREATE TABLE [IncrStatTab]( [SalesOrderID] [int] NOT NULL, [SalesOrderDetailID] [int] NOT NULL, [CarrierTrackingNumber] [nvarchar](25) NULL, [OrderQty] [smallint] NOT NULL, [ProductID] [int] NOT NULL, [SpecialOfferID] [int] NOT NULL, [UnitPrice] [money] NOT NULL, [UnitPriceDiscount] [money] NOT NULL, [ModifiedDate] [datetime] NOT NULL) ON IncrStatSch(SalesOrderID) GO -- Populate Table INSERT INTO [IncrStatTab]([SalesOrderID], [SalesOrderDetailID], [CarrierTrackingNumber], [OrderQty], [ProductID], [SpecialOfferID], [UnitPrice],   [UnitPriceDiscount], [ModifiedDate]) SELECT     [SalesOrderID], [SalesOrderDetailID], [CarrierTrackingNumber], [OrderQty], [ProductID], [SpecialOfferID], [UnitPrice],   [UnitPriceDiscount], [ModifiedDate] FROM       [Sales].[SalesOrderDetail] WHERE      SalesOrderID < 54000 GO Check Details Now we will check details in the partition table IncrStatSch. -- Check the partition SELECT * FROM sys.partitions WHERE OBJECT_ID = OBJECT_ID('IncrStatTab') GO You will notice that only a few of the partition are filled up with data and remaining all the partitions are empty. Now we will create statistics on the Table on the column SalesOrderID. However, here we will keep adding one more keyword which is INCREMENTAL = ON. Please note this is the new keyword and feature added in SQL Server 2014. It did not exist in earlier versions. -- Create Statistics CREATE STATISTICS IncrStat ON [IncrStatTab] (SalesOrderID) WITH FULLSCAN, INCREMENTAL = ON GO Now we have successfully created statistics let us check the statistical histogram of the table. Now let us once again populate the table with more data. This time the data are entered into a different partition than earlier populated partition. -- Populate Table INSERT INTO [IncrStatTab]([SalesOrderID], [SalesOrderDetailID], [CarrierTrackingNumber], [OrderQty], [ProductID], [SpecialOfferID], [UnitPrice],   [UnitPriceDiscount], [ModifiedDate]) SELECT     [SalesOrderID], [SalesOrderDetailID], [CarrierTrackingNumber], [OrderQty], [ProductID], [SpecialOfferID], [UnitPrice],   [UnitPriceDiscount], [ModifiedDate] FROM       [Sales].[SalesOrderDetail] WHERE      SalesOrderID > 54000 GO Let us check the status of the partition once again with following script. -- Check the partition SELECT * FROM sys.partitions WHERE OBJECT_ID = OBJECT_ID('IncrStatTab') GO Statistics Update Now here has the new feature come into action. Previously, if we have to update the statistics, we will have to FULLSCAN the entire table irrespective of which partition got the data. However, in SQL Server 2014 we can just specify which partition we want to update in terms of Statistics. Here is the script for the same. -- Update Statistics Manually UPDATE STATISTICS IncrStatTab (IncrStat) WITH RESAMPLE ON PARTITIONS(3, 4) GO Now let us check the statistics once again. -- Show Statistics DBCC SHOW_STATISTICS('IncrStatTab', IncrStat) WITH HISTOGRAM GO Upon examining statistics histogram, you will notice that now the distribution has changed and there is way more rows in the histogram. Summary The new feature of Incremental Statistics is indeed a boon for the scenario where there are partitions and statistics needs to be updated frequently on the partitions. In earlier version to update statistics one has to do FULLSCAN on the entire table which was wasting too many resources. With the new feature in SQL Server 2014, now only those partitions which are significantly changed can be specified in the script to update statistics. Cleanup You can clean up the database by executing following scripts. -- Clean up DROP TABLE [IncrStatTab] DROP PARTITION SCHEME [IncrStatSch] DROP PARTITION FUNCTION [IncrStatFn] GO Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com)Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL Tagged: SQL Statistics, Statistics

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  • SQL SERVER – Attach mdf file without ldf file in Database

    - by pinaldave
    Background Story: One of my friends recently called up and asked me if I had spare time to look at his database and give him a performance tuning advice. Because I had some free time to help him out, I said yes. I asked him to send me the details of his database structure and sample data. He said that since his database is in a very early stage and is small as of the moment, so he told me that he would like me to have a complete database. My response to him was “Sure! In that case, take a backup of the database and send it to me. I will restore it into my computer and play with it.” He did send me his database; however, his method made me write this quick note here. Instead of taking a full backup of the database and sending it to me, he sent me only the .mdf (primary database file). In fact, I asked for a complete backup (I wanted to review file groups, files, as well as few other details).  Upon calling my friend,  I found that he was not available. Now,  he left me with only a .mdf file. As I had some extra time, I decided to checkout his database structure and get back to him regarding the full backup, whenever I can get in touch with him again. Technical Talk: If the database is shutdown gracefully and there was no abrupt shutdown (power outrages, pulling plugs to machines, machine crashes or any other reasons), it is possible (there’s no guarantee) to attach .mdf file only to the server. Please note that there can be many more reasons for a database that is not getting attached or restored. In my case, the database had a clean shutdown and there were no complex issues. I was able to recreate a transaction log file and attached the received .mdf file. There are multiple ways of doing this. I am listing all of them here. Before using any of them, please consult the Domain Expert in your company or industry. Also, never attempt this on live/production server without the presence of a Disaster Recovery expert. USE [master] GO -- Method 1: I use this method EXEC sp_attach_single_file_db @dbname='TestDb', @physname=N'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL10.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\TestDb.mdf' GO -- Method 2: CREATE DATABASE TestDb ON (FILENAME = N'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL10.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\TestDb.mdf') FOR ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG GO Method 2: If one or more log files are missing, they are recreated again. There is one more method which I am demonstrating here but I have not used myself before. According to Book Online, it will work only if there is one log file that is missing. If there are more than one log files involved, all of them are required to undergo the same procedure. -- Method 3: CREATE DATABASE TestDb ON ( FILENAME = N'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL10.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\TestDb.mdf') FOR ATTACH GO Please read the Book Online in depth and consult DR experts before working on the production server. In my case, the above syntax just worked fine as the database was clean when it was detached. Feel free to write your opinions and experiences for it will help the IT community to learn more from your suggestions and skills. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Backup and Restore, SQL Data Storage, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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