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  • SQL Authority News – Download SQL Server Data Type Conversion Chart

    - by pinaldave
    Datatypes are very important concepts of SQL Server and there are quite often need to convert them from one datatypes to another datatype. I have seen that deveoper often get confused when they have to convert the datatype. There are two important concept when it is about datatype conversion. Implicit Conversion: Implicit conversions are those conversions that occur without specifying either the CAST or CONVERT function. Explicit Conversions: Explicit conversions are those conversions that require the CAST or CONVERT function to be specified. What it means is that if you are trying to convert value from datetime2 to time or from tinyint to int, SQL Server will automatically convert (implicit conversation) for you. However, if you are attempting to convert timestamp to smalldatetime or datetime to int you will need to explicitely convert them using either CAST or CONVERT function as well appropriate parameters. Let us see a quick example of Implict Conversion and Explict Conversion. Implicit Conversion: Explicit Conversion: You can see from above example that how we need both of the types of conversion in different situation. There are so many different datatypes and it is humanly impossible to know which datatype require implicit and which require explicit conversion. Additionally there are cases when the conversion is not possible as well. Microsoft have published a chart where the grid displays various conversion possibilities as well a quick guide. Download SQL Server Data Type Conversion Chart Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – 2 Whitepapers Announced – AlwaysOn Architecture Guide: Building a High Availability and Disaster Recovery Solution

    - by pinaldave
    Understanding AlwaysOn Architecture is extremely important when building a solution with failover clusters and availability groups. Microsoft has just released two very important white papers related to this subject. Both the white papers are written by top experts in industry and have been reviewed by excellent panel of experts. Every time I talk with various organizations who are adopting the SQL Server 2012 they are always excited with the concept of the new feature AlwaysOn. One of the requests I often here is the related to detailed documentations which can help enterprises to build a robust high availability and disaster recovery solution. I believe following two white paper now satisfies the request. AlwaysOn Architecture Guide: Building a High Availability and Disaster Recovery Solution by Using AlwaysOn Availability Groups SQL Server 2012 AlwaysOn Availability Groups provides a unified high availability and disaster recovery (HADR) solution. This paper details the key topology requirements of this specific design pattern on important concepts like quorum configuration considerations, steps required to build the environment, and a workflow that shows how to handle a disaster recovery. AlwaysOn Architecture Guide: Building a High Availability and Disaster Recovery Solution by Using Failover Cluster Instances and Availability Groups SQL Server 2012 AlwaysOn Failover Cluster Instances (FCI) and AlwaysOn Availability Groups provide a comprehensive high availability and disaster recovery solution. This paper details the key topology requirements of this specific design pattern on important concepts like asymmetric storage considerations, quorum model selection, quorum votes, steps required to build the environment, and a workflow. If you are not going to implement AlwaysOn feature, this two Whitepapers are still a great reference material to review as it will give you complete idea regarding what it takes to implement AlwaysOn architecture and what kind of efforts needed. One should at least bookmark above two white papers for future reference. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Documentation, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL White Papers, T SQL, Technology Tagged: AlwaysOn

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  • SQL SERVER – 2011 – Multi-Monitor SSMS Windows

    - by pinaldave
    I have a dual screen arrangement at my home system. I love it because it’s very convenient. When I am working with SQL Server 2008 R2 or any earlier versions, I would want to use both of the Monitor so I open two separate SQL Server Management Studio and work along with it. I have no complaints with my system, at all. I am totally fine with it. However, sometimes I face small issues, like when I just want a small code open in a separate window but I do not want the windows to take over the whole of another window. But then again, I am already used to this current system. Recently when I was working with SQL Server 2011 ‘Denali’ CTP1, I dragged one of the windows by accident, and suddenly it magically appeared out of its ‘Shell’ of SSMS and was appearing on a separate monitor. I played around a bit and figured out that SSMS now supports multi-monitor (or multi screen) support with single SSMS instance. We can now drag out and drag in any window and resize them at any size. Fantastic! If you are multi-monitor user, I am sure you will like this feature. This leads me to ask you question? Do you use multi-monitor system while working with SQL Server? Leave a quick comment. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Server Management Studio, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – 2014 CTP1 Available for Download – SQL SERVER 2014 Community Technology Preview 1

    - by Pinal Dave
    Microsoft announced that SQL Server 2014 CTP 1 available to download at TechEd Europe. You can download SQL Server 2014 CTP1 from here. Additionally, there is in depth documentation of the product in the Product Guide over here. In this blog post I have in depth discussed what are the salient features which I was looking forward in the new version. Always On supports now 8 secondaries instead of 4 Online Indexing at partition level – this is a good thing as now index rebuilding can be done at a partition level Statistics at the partition level – this will be a huge improvement in performance In-Memory OLTP works by providing in-application memory storage for the most often used tables in SQL Server. Columnstore Index can be updated – I just can’t wait for this feature (Columnstore Index) Resource Governor can control IO along with CPU and Memory Increase performance by extending SQL Server in-memory buffer pool to SSDs Backup to Azure Storage You can read about the new features of the SQL Server 2014 in the following links: What’s New (Database Engine) What’s New in Analysis Services and Business Intelligence What’s New (Integration Services) What’s New (Replication) What’s New (Reporting Services) Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Service Pack, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: CTP

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  • SQL SERVER – How to See Active SQL Server Connections For Database

    - by Pinal Dave
    Another question received via email - “How do I I know which user is connected to my database with how many connection?” Here is the script which will give us answer to the question. SELECT DB_NAME(dbid) AS DBName, COUNT(dbid) AS NumberOfConnections, loginame FROM    sys.sysprocesses GROUP BY dbid, loginame ORDER BY DB_NAME(dbid) Here is the resultset: Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL DMV, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL

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  • SQL SERVER – SQL in Sixty Seconds – Last Three Episodes – Need Your Opinion

    - by Pinal Dave
    I have been blogging for almost 7 years and building video content for around 2 years. After spending so much time on blogging and creating video, I have got the quite a good idea what people would like to read and what people like to watch. However, there is one thing, which I am constantly struggling after almost a year and I would like to get your opinion about it. Though, this may look very simple to you but it is very crucial to me and I would like to know your opinion about it. I have been building video almost every week for my SQL in Sixty Seconds series and it has been quite popular. So far on my YouTube Channel there are over 2600 subscribers and over 250K views. Here is my problem – there are about 50+ videos on SQL in Sixty Seconds Series but the not every video is popular. There are a few videos which are extremely popular and there are videos which are absolutely struggling to get even single view. I have yet not figured out what people would love to watch on this channel. I noticed lots of people watching various videos but hardly anyone leaving comments or suggestions. At the end of the blog posts associated with the SQL in Sixty Seconds, I always ask which video people would love to watch, but I get a very low response over there too. What I wonder is that why such a low engagement of viewers/readers on the video blog posts where as the channel is success and lots of people are watching the video? What do you think I should change in my video to increase the engagement? Here are my last three videos from SQL in Sixty Seconds channel and I would like to know your feedback. Remove Cached Login from SSMS Connect Dialog – SQL in Sixty Seconds #049 RESEED Identity Column in Database Table – SQL in Sixty Seconds #051 Puzzle SET ANSI_NULLS and Resultset – SQL in Sixty Seconds #052  The feedback which I will like the most will for sure get a special surprise gift for me. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL in Sixty Seconds, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology, Video

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  • SQL SERVER – Introduction to SQL Server 2014 In-Memory OLTP

    - by Pinal Dave
    In SQL Server 2014 Microsoft has introduced a new database engine component called In-Memory OLTP aka project “Hekaton” which is fully integrated into the SQL Server Database Engine. It is optimized for OLTP workloads accessing memory resident data. In-memory OLTP helps us create memory optimized tables which in turn offer significant performance improvement for our typical OLTP workload. The main objective of memory optimized table is to ensure that highly transactional tables could live in memory and remain in memory forever without even losing out a single record. The most significant part is that it still supports majority of our Transact-SQL statement. Transact-SQL stored procedures can be compiled to machine code for further performance improvements on memory-optimized tables. This engine is designed to ensure higher concurrency and minimal blocking. In-Memory OLTP alleviates the issue of locking, using a new type of multi-version optimistic concurrency control. It also substantially reduces waiting for log writes by generating far less log data and needing fewer log writes. Points to remember Memory-optimized tables refer to tables using the new data structures and key words added as part of In-Memory OLTP. Disk-based tables refer to your normal tables which we used to create in SQL Server since its inception. These tables use a fixed size 8 KB pages that need to be read from and written to disk as a unit. Natively compiled stored procedures refer to an object Type which is new and is supported by in-memory OLTP engine which convert it into machine code, which can further improve the data access performance for memory –optimized tables. Natively compiled stored procedures can only reference memory-optimized tables, they can’t be used to reference any disk –based table. Interpreted Transact-SQL stored procedures, which is what SQL Server has always used. Cross-container transactions refer to transactions that reference both memory-optimized tables and disk-based tables. Interop refers to interpreted Transact-SQL that references memory-optimized tables. Using In-Memory OLTP In-Memory OLTP engine has been available as part of SQL Server 2014 since June 2013 CTPs. Installation of In-Memory OLTP is part of the SQL Server setup application. The In-Memory OLTP components can only be installed with a 64-bit edition of SQL Server 2014 hence they are not available with 32-bit editions. Creating Databases Any database that will store memory-optimized tables must have a MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA filegroup. This filegroup is specifically designed to store the checkpoint files needed by SQL Server to recover the memory-optimized tables, and although the syntax for creating the filegroup is almost the same as for creating a regular filestream filegroup, it must also specify the option CONTAINS MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA. Here is an example of a CREATE DATABASE statement for a database that can support memory-optimized tables: CREATE DATABASE InMemoryDB ON PRIMARY(NAME = [InMemoryDB_data], FILENAME = 'D:\data\InMemoryDB_data.mdf', size=500MB), FILEGROUP [SampleDB_mod_fg] CONTAINS MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA (NAME = [InMemoryDB_mod_dir], FILENAME = 'S:\data\InMemoryDB_mod_dir'), (NAME = [InMemoryDB_mod_dir], FILENAME = 'R:\data\InMemoryDB_mod_dir') LOG ON (name = [SampleDB_log], Filename='L:\log\InMemoryDB_log.ldf', size=500MB) COLLATE Latin1_General_100_BIN2; Above example code creates files on three different drives (D:  S: and R:) for the data files and in memory storage so if you would like to run this code kindly change the drive and folder locations as per your convenience. Also notice that binary collation was specified as Windows (non-SQL). BIN2 collation is the only collation support at this point for any indexes on memory optimized tables. It is also possible to add a MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA file group to an existing database, use the below command to achieve the same. ALTER DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 ADD FILEGROUP hekaton_mod CONTAINS MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA; GO ALTER DATABASE AdventureWorks2012 ADD FILE (NAME='hekaton_mod', FILENAME='S:\data\hekaton_mod') TO FILEGROUP hekaton_mod; GO Creating Tables There is no major syntactical difference between creating a disk based table or a memory –optimized table but yes there are a few restrictions and a few new essential extensions. Essentially any memory-optimized table should use the MEMORY_OPTIMIZED = ON clause as shown in the Create Table query example. DURABILITY clause (SCHEMA_AND_DATA or SCHEMA_ONLY) Memory-optimized table should always be defined with a DURABILITY value which can be either SCHEMA_AND_DATA or  SCHEMA_ONLY the former being the default. A memory-optimized table defined with DURABILITY=SCHEMA_ONLY will not persist the data to disk which means the data durability is compromised whereas DURABILITY= SCHEMA_AND_DATA ensures that data is also persisted along with the schema. Indexing Memory Optimized Table A memory-optimized table must always have an index for all tables created with DURABILITY= SCHEMA_AND_DATA and this can be achieved by declaring a PRIMARY KEY Constraint at the time of creating a table. The following example shows a PRIMARY KEY index created as a HASH index, for which a bucket count must also be specified. CREATE TABLE Mem_Table ( [Name] VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED HASH WITH (BUCKET_COUNT = 100000), [City] VARCHAR(32) NULL, [State_Province] VARCHAR(32) NULL, [LastModified] DATETIME NOT NULL, ) WITH (MEMORY_OPTIMIZED = ON, DURABILITY = SCHEMA_AND_DATA); Now as you can see in the above query example we have used the clause MEMORY_OPTIMIZED = ON to make sure that it is considered as a memory optimized table and not just a normal table and also used the DURABILITY Clause= SCHEMA_AND_DATA which means it will persist data along with metadata and also you can notice this table has a PRIMARY KEY mentioned upfront which is also a mandatory clause for memory-optimized tables. We will talk more about HASH Indexes and BUCKET_COUNT in later articles on this topic which will be focusing more on Row and Index storage on Memory-Optimized tables. So stay tuned for that as well. Now as we covered the basics of Memory Optimized tables and understood the key things to remember while using memory optimized tables, let’s explore more using examples to understand the Performance gains using memory-optimized tables. I will be using the database which i created earlier in this article i.e. InMemoryDB in the below Demo Exercise. USE InMemoryDB GO -- Creating a disk based table CREATE TABLE dbo.Disktable ( Id INT IDENTITY, Name CHAR(40) ) GO CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX IX_ID ON dbo.Disktable (Id) GO -- Creating a memory optimized table with similar structure and DURABILITY = SCHEMA_AND_DATA CREATE TABLE dbo.Memorytable_durable ( Id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED Hash WITH (bucket_count =1000000), Name CHAR(40) ) WITH (MEMORY_OPTIMIZED = ON, DURABILITY = SCHEMA_AND_DATA) GO -- Creating an another memory optimized table with similar structure but DURABILITY = SCHEMA_Only CREATE TABLE dbo.Memorytable_nondurable ( Id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED Hash WITH (bucket_count =1000000), Name CHAR(40) ) WITH (MEMORY_OPTIMIZED = ON, DURABILITY = SCHEMA_only) GO -- Now insert 100000 records in dbo.Disktable and observe the Time Taken DECLARE @i_t bigint SET @i_t =1 WHILE @i_t<= 100000 BEGIN INSERT INTO dbo.Disktable(Name) VALUES('sachin' + CONVERT(VARCHAR,@i_t)) SET @i_t+=1 END -- Do the same inserts for Memory table dbo.Memorytable_durable and observe the Time Taken DECLARE @i_t bigint SET @i_t =1 WHILE @i_t<= 100000 BEGIN INSERT INTO dbo.Memorytable_durable VALUES(@i_t, 'sachin' + CONVERT(VARCHAR,@i_t)) SET @i_t+=1 END -- Now finally do the same inserts for Memory table dbo.Memorytable_nondurable and observe the Time Taken DECLARE @i_t bigint SET @i_t =1 WHILE @i_t<= 100000 BEGIN INSERT INTO dbo.Memorytable_nondurable VALUES(@i_t, 'sachin' + CONVERT(VARCHAR,@i_t)) SET @i_t+=1 END The above 3 Inserts took 1.20 minutes, 54 secs, and 2 secs respectively to insert 100000 records on my machine with 8 Gb RAM. This proves the point that memory-optimized tables can definitely help businesses achieve better performance for their highly transactional business table and memory- optimized tables with Durability SCHEMA_ONLY is even faster as it does not bother persisting its data to disk which makes it supremely fast. Koenig Solutions is one of the few organizations which offer IT training on SQL Server 2014 and all its updates. Now, I leave the decision on using memory_Optimized tables on you, I hope you like this article and it helped you understand  the fundamentals of IN-Memory OLTP . Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com)Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL Tagged: Koenig

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  • SQL SERVER – A Puzzle – Swap Value of Column Without Case Statement

    - by pinaldave
    For the last few weeks, I have been doing Friday Puzzles and I am really loving it. Yesterday I received a very interesting question by Navneet Chaurasia on Facebook Page. He was asked this question in one of the interview questions for job. Please read the original thread for a complete idea of the conversation. I am presenting the same question here. Puzzle Let us assume there is a single column in the table called Gender. The challenge is to write a single update statement which will flip or swap the value in the column. For example if the value in the gender column is ‘male’ swap it with ‘female’ and if the value is ‘female’ swap it with ‘male’. Here is the quick setup script for the puzzle. USE tempdb GO CREATE TABLE SimpleTable (ID INT, Gender VARCHAR(10)) GO INSERT INTO SimpleTable (ID, Gender) SELECT 1, 'female' UNION ALL SELECT 2, 'male' UNION ALL SELECT 3, 'male' GO SELECT * FROM SimpleTable GO The above query will return following result set. The puzzle was to write a single update column which will generate following result set. There are multiple answers to this simple puzzle. Let me show you three different ways. I am assuming that the column will have either value ‘male’ or ‘female’ only. Method 1: Using CASE Statement I believe this is going to be the most popular solution as we are all familiar with CASE Statement. UPDATE SimpleTable SET Gender = CASE Gender WHEN 'male' THEN 'female' ELSE 'male' END GO SELECT * FROM SimpleTable GO Method 2: Using REPLACE  Function I totally understand it is the not cleanest solution but it will for sure work in giving situation. UPDATE SimpleTable SET Gender = REPLACE(('fe'+Gender),'fefe','') GO SELECT * FROM SimpleTable GO Method 3: Using IIF in SQL Server 2012 If you are using SQL Server 2012 you can use IIF and get the same effect as CASE statement. UPDATE SimpleTable SET Gender = IIF(Gender = 'male', 'female', 'male') GO SELECT * FROM SimpleTable GO You can read my article series on SQL Server 2012 various functions over here. SQL SERVER – Denali – Logical Function – IIF() – A Quick Introduction SQL SERVER – Detecting Leap Year in T-SQL using SQL Server 2012 – IIF, EOMONTH and CONCAT Function Let us clean up. DROP TABLE SimpleTable GO Question to you: I came up with three simple tricks where there is a single UPDATE statement which swaps the values in the column. Do you know any other simple trick? If yes, please post here in the comments. I will pick two random winners from all the valid answers. Winners will get 1) Print Copy of SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers 2) Free Learning Code for Online Video Courses I will announce the winners on coming Monday. Reference:  Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: CodeProject, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Interview Questions and Answers, SQL Puzzle, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQLAuthority News – Best Practices for Data Warehousing with SQL Server 2008 R2

    - by pinaldave
    An integral part of any BI system is the data warehouse—a central repository of data that is regularly refreshed from the source systems. The new data is transferred at regular intervals  by extract, transform, and load (ETL) processes. This whitepaper talks about what are best practices for Data Warehousing. This whitepaper discusses ETL, Analysis, Reporting as well relational database. The main focus of this whitepaper is on mainly ‘architecture’ and ‘performance’. Download Best Practices for Data Warehousing with SQL Server 2008 R2 Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Best Practices, Data Warehousing, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Documentation, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Spatial Database Queries – What About BLOB – T-SQL Tuesday #006

    - by pinaldave
    Michael Coles is one of the most interesting book authors I have ever met. He has a flair of writing complex stuff in a simple language. There are a very few people like that.  I really enjoyed reading his recent book, Expert SQL Server 2008 Encryption. I strongly suggest taking a look at it. This blog is written in response to T-SQL Tuesday #006: “What About BLOB? by Michael Coles. Spatial Database is my favorite subject. Since I did my TechEd India 2010 presentation, I have enjoyed this subject a lot. Before I continue this blog post, there are a few other blog posts, so I suggest you read them.  To help build the environment run the queries, I am going to present them in this single blog post. SQL SERVER – What is Spatial Database? – Developing with SQL Server Spatial and Deep Dive into Spatial Indexing This blog post explains the basics of Spatial Database and also provides a good introduction to Indexing concept. SQL SERVER – World Shapefile Download and Upload to Database – Spatial Database This blog post will enable you with how to load the shape file into database. SQL SERVER – Spatial Database Definition and Research Documents This blog post links to the white paper about Spatial Database written by Microsoft experts. SQL SERVER – Introduction to Spatial Coordinate Systems: Flat Maps for a Round Planet This blog post links to the white paper explaining coordinate system, as written by Microsoft experts. After reading the above listed blog posts, I am very confident that you are ready to run the following script. Once you create a database using the World Shapefile, as mentioned in the second link above,you can display the image of India just like the following. Please note that this is not an accurate political map. The boundary of this map has many errors and it is just a representation. You can run the following query to generate the map of India from the database spatial which you have created after following the instructions here. USE Spatial GO -- India Map SELECT [CountryName] ,[BorderAsGeometry] ,[Border] FROM [Spatial].[dbo].[Countries] WHERE Countryname = 'India' GO Now, let us find the longitude and latitude of the two major IT cities of India, Hyderabad and Bangalore. I find their values as the following: the values of longitude-latitude for Bangalore is 77.5833300000 13.0000000000; for Hyderabad, longitude-latitude is 78.4675900000 17.4531200000. Now, let us try to put these values on the India Map and see their location. -- Bangalore DECLARE @GeoLocation GEOGRAPHY SET @GeoLocation = GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(77.5833300000 13.0000000000)',4326).STBuffer(20000); -- Hyderabad DECLARE @GeoLocation1 GEOGRAPHY SET @GeoLocation1 = GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(78.4675900000 17.4531200000)',4326).STBuffer(20000); -- Bangalore and Hyderabad on Map of India SELECT name, [GeoLocation] FROM [IndiaGeoNames] I WHERE I.[GeoLocation].STDistance(@GeoLocation) <= 0 UNION ALL SELECT name, [GeoLocation] FROM [IndiaGeoNames] I WHERE I.[GeoLocation].STDistance(@GeoLocation1) <= 0 UNION ALL SELECT '',[Border] FROM [Spatial].[dbo].[Countries] WHERE Countryname = 'India' GO Now let us quickly draw a straight line between them. DECLARE @GeoLocation GEOGRAPHY SET @GeoLocation = GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(78.4675900000 17.4531200000)',4326).STBuffer(10000); DECLARE @GeoLocation1 GEOGRAPHY SET @GeoLocation1 = GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(77.5833300000 13.0000000000)',4326).STBuffer(10000); DECLARE @GeoLocation2 GEOGRAPHY SET @GeoLocation2 = GEOGRAPHY::STGeomFromText('LINESTRING(78.4675900000 17.4531200000, 77.5833300000 13.0000000000)',4326) SELECT name, [GeoLocation] FROM [IndiaGeoNames] I WHERE I.[GeoLocation].STDistance(@GeoLocation) <= 0 UNION ALL SELECT name, [GeoLocation] FROM [IndiaGeoNames] I1 WHERE I1.[GeoLocation].STDistance(@GeoLocation1) <= 0 UNION ALL SELECT '' name, @GeoLocation2 UNION ALL SELECT '',[Border] FROM [Spatial].[dbo].[Countries] WHERE Countryname = 'India' GO Let us use the distance function of the spatial database and find the straight line distance between this two cities. -- Distance Between Hyderabad and Bangalore DECLARE @GeoLocation GEOGRAPHY SET @GeoLocation = GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(78.4675900000 17.4531200000)',4326) DECLARE @GeoLocation1 GEOGRAPHY SET @GeoLocation1 = GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(77.5833300000 13.0000000000)',4326) SELECT @GeoLocation.STDistance(@GeoLocation1)/1000 'KM'; GO The result of above query is as displayed in following image. As per SQL Server, the distance between these two cities is 501 KM, but according to what I know, the distance between those two cities is around 562 KM by road. However, please note that roads are not straight and they have lots of turns, whereas this is a straight-line distance. What would be more accurate is the distance between these two cities by air travel. When we look at the air travel distance between Bangalore and Hyderabad, the total distance covered is 495 KM, which is very close to what SQL Server has estimated, which is 501 KM. Bravo! SQL Server has accurately provided the distance between two of the cities. SQL Server Spatial Database can be very useful simply because it is very easy to use, as demonstrated above. I appreciate your comments, so let me know what your thoughts and opinions about this are. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: Spatial Database

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  • SQL SERVER – Powershell – Get a List of Fixed Hard Drive and Free Space on Server

    - by pinaldave
    Earlier I have written this article SQL SERVER – Get a List of Fixed Hard Drive and Free Space on Server. I recently received excellent comment by MVP Ravikanth. He demonstrated that how the same can be done using Powershell. It is very sweet and quick solution. Here is the powershell script. Run the same in your powershell windows. Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_LogicalDisk | Select -Property DeviceID, @{Name=’FreeSpaceMB’;Expression={$_.FreeSpace/1MB} } | Format-Table -AutoSize Well, I ran this script in my powershell window, it gave me following result – very accurately and easily. Thanks Ravikanth one more time for excellent tip. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Stored Procedure, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: Powershell

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  • SQL SERVER – Integration Services Balanced Data Distributor – SSIS Balanced Data Distributor

    - by pinaldave
    Microsoft SSIS Balanced Data Distributor (BDD) is a new SSIS transform. This transform takes a single input and distributes the incoming rows to one or more outputs uniformly via multithreading. The transform takes one pipeline buffer worth of rows at a time and moves it to the next output in a round robin fashion. It’s balanced and synchronous so if one of the downstream transforms or destinations is slower than the others, the rest of the pipeline will stall so this transform works best if all of the outputs have identical transforms and destinations. Download SQL Server Integration Services Balanced Data Distributor Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Documentation, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – BI Quiz – Troubleshooting Cube Performance

    - by pinaldave
    My friend Jacob Sebastian runs SQL BI Quiz competition. Where there are 30 different questions on each day of the month. Winners get opportunity to participate in this Quiz, learn something new and win great awards. Working with huge data is very common when it is about Data Warehousing. It is necessary to create Cubes on the data to make it meaningful and consumable. There are cases when retrieving the data from cube takes lots of the time. Let us assume that your cube is returning you data very quickly. Suddenly on one day it is returning the data very slowly. What are the three things will you in order to diagnose this. After diagnose what you will do to resolve performance issue. Participate in my question over here Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Business Intelligence, Pinal Dave, PostADay, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Performance, SQL Puzzle, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Download Free eBook – Introducing Microsoft SQL Server 2012

    - by pinaldave
    Database Administration and Business Intelligence is indeed very key area of the SQL Server. My very good friend Ross Mistry and Stacia Misner has recently wrote book which is for SQL Server 2012. The best part of the book is it is totally FREE! Well, this book assumes that you have certain level of SQL Server Administration as well Business Intelligence understanding. So if you are absolutely beginner I suggest you read other books of Ross as well attend Pluralsight course of Stacia Misner. Personally I read this book in last 10 days and I find it very easy to read and very comprehensive as well. Part I Database Administration (by Ross Mistry) 1. SQL Server 2012 Editions and Engine Enhancements 2. High-Availability and Disaster-Recovery Enhancements 3. Performance and Scalability 4. Security Enhancements 5. Programmability and Beyond-Relational Enhancements Part II Business Intelligence Development (by Stacia Misner) 6. Integration Services 7. Data Quality Services 8. Master Data Services 9. Analysis Services and PowerPivot 10. Reporting Services Here are various versions of the eBook. PDF ePub Mobi Amazon Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: Database, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Download, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – DATEDIFF – Accuracy of Various Dateparts

    - by pinaldave
    I recently received the following question through email and I found it very interesting so I want to share it with you. “Hi Pinal, In SQL statement below the time difference between two given dates is 3 sec, but when checked in terms of Min it says 1 Min (whereas the actual min is 0.05Min) SELECT DATEDIFF(MI,'2011-10-14 02:18:58' , '2011-10-14 02:19:01') AS MIN_DIFF Is this is a BUG in SQL Server ?” Answer is NO. It is not a bug; it is a feature that works like that. Let us understand that in a bit more detail. When you instruct SQL Server to find the time difference in minutes, it just looks at the minute section only and completely ignores hour, second, millisecond, etc. So in terms of difference in minutes, it is indeed 1. The following will also clear how DATEDIFF works: SELECT DATEDIFF(YEAR,'2011-12-31 23:59:59' , '2012-01-01 00:00:00') AS YEAR_DIFF The difference between the above dates is just 1 second, but in terms of year difference it shows 1. If you want to have accuracy in seconds, you need to use a different approach. In the first example, the accurate method is to find the number of seconds first and then divide it by 60 to convert it to minutes. SELECT DATEDIFF(second,'2011-10-14 02:18:58' , '2011-10-14 02:19:01')/60.0 AS MIN_DIFF Even though the concept is very simple it is always a good idea to refresh it. Please share your related experience with me through your comments. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL DateTime, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Activity Monitor and Performance Issue

    - by pinaldave
    We had wonderful SQLAuthority News – Community Tech Days – December 11, 2010 event yesterday. After the event, we had meeting among Jacob Sebastian, Vinod Kumar, Rushabh Mehta and myself. We all were sharing our experience about performance tuning consultations. During the conversation, Jacob has shared wonderful story of his recent observation. The story is very small but the moral of the story is very important. The story is about a client, who had continuously performance issues. Client used Activity Monitor (Read More: SQL SERVER – 2008 – Location of Activity Monitor – Where is SQL Serve Activity Monitor Located) to check the performance issues. The pattern of the performance issues was very much common all the time. Every time, after a while the computer stopped responding. After doing in-depth performance analysis, Jacob realized that client once opened activity monitor never closed it. The same activity monitor itself is very expensive process. The tool, which helped to debug the performance issues, also helped (negatively) to bring down the server. After closing the activity monitor which was open for long time, the server did not have performance issues. Moral of the story: Activity Monitor is great tool but use it with care and close it when not needed. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Best Practices, Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – T-SQL Script to Take Database Offline – Take Database Online

    - by pinaldave
    Blog reader Joyesh Mitra recently left a comment to one of my very old posts about SQL SERVER – 2005 Take Off Line or Detach Database, which I have written focusing on taking the database offline. However, I did not include how to bring the offline database to online in that post. The reason I did not write it was that I was thinking it was a very simple script that almost everyone knows. However, it seems to me that there is something I found advanced in this procedure that is not simple for other people. We all have different expertise and we all try to learn new things, so I do not see any reason as to not write about the script to take the database online. -- Create Test DB CREATE DATABASE [myDB] GO -- Take the Database Offline ALTER DATABASE [myDB] SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE GO -- Take the Database Online ALTER DATABASE [myDB] SET ONLINE GO -- Clean up DROP DATABASE [myDB] GO Joyesh let me know if this answers your question. Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQLServer, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Solution – Challenge – Puzzle – Usage of FAST Hint

    - by pinaldave
    Earlier I had posted quick puzzle and I had received wonderful response to the same from Brad Schulz. Today we will go over the solution. The puzzle was posted here: SQL SERVER – Challenge – Puzzle – Usage of FAST Hint The question was in what condition the hint FAST will be useful. In the response to this puzzle blog post here is what SQL Server Expert Brad Schulz has pointed me to his blog post where he explain how FAST hint can be useful. I strongly recommend to read his blog post over here. With the permission of the Brad, I am reproducing following queries here. He has come up with example where FAST hint improves the performance. USE AdventureWorks GO DECLARE @DesiredDateAtMidnight DATETIME = '20010709' DECLARE @NextDateAtMidnight DATETIME = DATEADD(DAY,1,@DesiredDateAtMidnight) -- Query without FAST SELECT OrderID=h.SalesOrderID ,h.OrderDate ,h.TerritoryID ,TerritoryName=t.Name ,c.CardType ,c.CardNumber ,CardExpire=RIGHT(STR(100+ExpMonth),2)+'/'+STR(ExpYear,4) ,h.TotalDue FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader h LEFT JOIN Sales.SalesTerritory t ON h.TerritoryID=t.TerritoryID LEFT JOIN Sales.CreditCard c ON h.CreditCardID=c.CreditCardID WHERE OrderDate>[email protected] AND OrderDate<@NextDateAtMidnight ORDER BY h.SalesOrderID; -- Query with FAST(10) SELECT OrderID=h.SalesOrderID ,h.OrderDate ,h.TerritoryID ,TerritoryName=t.Name ,c.CardType ,c.CardNumber ,CardExpire=RIGHT(STR(100+ExpMonth),2)+'/'+STR(ExpYear,4) ,h.TotalDue FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader h LEFT JOIN Sales.SalesTerritory t ON h.TerritoryID=t.TerritoryID LEFT JOIN Sales.CreditCard c ON h.CreditCardID=c.CreditCardID WHERE OrderDate>[email protected] AND OrderDate<@NextDateAtMidnight ORDER BY h.SalesOrderID OPTION(FAST 10) Now when you check the execution plan for the same, you will find following visible difference. You will find query with FAST returns results with much lower cost. Thank you Brad for excellent post and teaching us something. I request all of you to read original blog post written by Brad for much more information. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, Readers Contribution, Readers Question, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Puzzle, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Difference Between GETDATE and SYSDATETIME

    - by pinaldave
    Sometime something so simple skips our mind. I never knew the difference between GETDATE and SYSDATETIME. I just ran simple query as following and realized the difference. SELECT GETDATE() fn_GetDate, SYSDATETIME() fn_SysDateTime In case of GETDATE the precision is till miliseconds and in case of SYSDATETIME the precision is till nanoseconds. Now the questions is to you – did you know this? Be honest and please share your views. I already accepted that I did not know this in very first line. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://www.SQLAuthority.com), Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL DateTime, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Convert IN to EXISTS – Performance Talk

    - by pinaldave
    In recent training one of the attendee asked if I can show simple method to convert IN clause to EXISTS clause. Here is the simple example. USE AdventureWorks GO -- use of = SELECT * FROM HumanResources.Employee E WHERE E.EmployeeID = ( SELECT EA.EmployeeID FROM HumanResources.EmployeeAddress EA WHERE EA.EmployeeID = E.EmployeeID) GO -- use of exists SELECT * FROM HumanResources.Employee E WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT EA.EmployeeID FROM HumanResources.EmployeeAddress EA WHERE EA.EmployeeID = E.EmployeeID) GO It is NOT necessary that every time when IN is replaced by EXISTS it gives better performance. However, in our case listed above it does for sure give better performance. Click on below image to see the execution plan. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Optimization, SQL Performance, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – CTRL+SHIFT+] Shortcut to Select Code Between Two Parenthesis

    - by pinaldave
    Every weekend brings creative ideas and accidents brings best unknown secrets in front of us. Just a day while working with complex SQL Server code in SSMS I came across very interesting shortcut which I have never used before and instantly fell in love with it. It is totally possible that you are familiar with this but for me it was the first time and I was surprised that I did know know this short cut so far. Shortcut key is CTRL+SHIFT+]. This key can be very useful when dealing with multiple subqueries, CTE or query with multiple parentheses. When exercised this shortcut key it selects T-SQL code between two parentheses. Let us see the examples to understand the same. In each of the examples I have put the cursor at the position displayed and pressed CTRL+SHIFT+] and it has selected the code between two corresponding parentheses. Cursor position 1 Cursor position 2 Cursor position 3 If you are a developer and have to code with complex queries, you will totally appreciate that this feature can save so much of the time for development. I often remember my experience as a developer when I have lost a lot of hours to just balance parentheses. As I said yesterday I found this shortcut accidently. How many of you were aware of this feature? Is there any other useful feature you would like to share with us? Please leave a comment and if I have not covered it earlier, I will share it due credit on this blog. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: PostADay, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Server Management Studio, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: SQL Shortcut

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  • SQL SERVER – Check the Isolation Level with DBCC useroptions

    - by pinaldave
    In recent consultancy project coordinator asked me – “can you tell me what is the isolation level for this database?” I have worked with different isolation levels but have not ever queried database for the same. I quickly looked up bookonline and found out the DBCC command which can give me the same details. You can run the DBCC UserOptions command on any database to get few details about dateformat, datefirst as well isolation level. DBCC useroptions Set Option                  Value --------------------------- -------------- textsize                    2147483647 language                    us_english dateformat                  mdy datefirst                   7 lock_timeout                -1 quoted_identifier           SET arithabort                  SET ansi_null_dflt_on           SET ansi_warnings               SET ansi_padding                SET ansi_nulls                  SET concat_null_yields_null     SET isolation level             read committed I thought this was very handy script, which I have not used earlier. Thanks Gary for asking right question. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL System Table, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology Tagged: Transaction Isolation

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  • SQL SERVER – SELECT TOP Shortcut in SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)

    - by pinaldave
    This is tool is pretty old, yet always comes as a handy tip. I had a great trip at TechEd in India. And, during one of my presentations, I was asked if there are any shortcuts to SELECT only TOP 100 records from SSMS. I immediately told him that if he explores the table in SSMS, he can just right click on it and SELECT TOP 1000 records. If he wanted only 100 records, then he could edit that 1000 to 100 by means of going to Options. Go to Options, then hover the mouse over the SQL Server Object Explorer, then proceed to Commands. Afterwards, change the Value for Select Top <n> Audit Records. After narrating the steps, he told me that he was not looking for the right click option; rather he was asking if there is any kind of keyboard shortcut for convenience’s sake. Actually, a keyboard shortcut is also possible. SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) lets you configure the settings you want using a shortcut. Here is how you can do it. Go to Options, then to Environment. Proceed to Keyboard, and from there, configure your T-SQL with the desired keyword. Now, open SSMS New Query Window, and then click and type in any table name.  After that, just hit the shortcut you just made earlier. Doing this should display TOP 100 records in the Result window. I am sure this trick is quite old, but it is still helpful to many. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Add-On, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Difference Between DATETIME and DATETIME2 – WITH GETDATE

    - by pinaldave
    Earlier I wrote blog post SQL SERVER – Difference Between GETDATE and SYSDATETIME which inspired me to write SQL SERVER – Difference Between DATETIME and DATETIME2. Now earlier two blog post inspired me to write this blog post (and 4 emails and 3 reads from readers). I previously populated DATETIME and DATETIME2 field with SYSDATETIME, which gave me very different behavior as SYSDATETIME was rounded up/down for the DATETIME datatype. I just ran the same experiment but instead of populating SYSDATETIME in this script I will be using GETDATE function. DECLARE @Intveral INT SET @Intveral = 10000 CREATE TABLE #TimeTable (FirstDate DATETIME, LastDate DATETIME2) WHILE (@Intveral > 0) BEGIN INSERT #TimeTable (FirstDate, LastDate) VALUES (GETDATE(), GETDATE()) SET @Intveral = @Intveral - 1 END GO SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT FirstDate) D_FirstDate, COUNT(DISTINCT LastDate) D_LastDate FROM #TimeTable GO SELECT DISTINCT a.FirstDate, b.LastDate FROM #TimeTable a INNER JOIN #TimeTable b ON a.FirstDate = b.LastDate GO SELECT * FROM #TimeTable GO DROP TABLE #TimeTable GO Let us run above script and observe the results. You will find that the values of GETDATE which is populated in both the columns FirstDate and LastDate are very much same. This is because GETDATE is of datatype DATETIME and the precision of the GETDATE is smaller than DATETIME2 there is no rounding happening. In other word, this experiment is pointless. I have included this as I got 4 emails and 3 twitter questions on this subject. If your datatype of variable is smaller than column datatype there is no manipulation of data, if data type of variable is larger than column datatype the data is rounded. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://www.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL DateTime, SQL Query, SQL Scripts, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, T SQL, Technology

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  • SQL SERVER – Guest Post – Jacob Sebastian – Filestream – Wait Types – Wait Queues – Day 22 of 28

    - by pinaldave
    Jacob Sebastian is a SQL Server MVP, Author, Speaker and Trainer. Jacob is one of the top rated expert community. Jacob wrote the book The Art of XSD – SQL Server XML Schema Collections and wrote the XML Chapter in SQL Server 2008 Bible. See his Blog | Profile. He is currently researching on the subject of Filestream and have submitted this interesting article on the very subject. What is FILESTREAM? FILESTREAM is a new feature introduced in SQL Server 2008 which provides an efficient storage and management option for BLOB data. Many applications that deal with BLOB data today stores them in the file system and stores the path to the file in the relational tables. Storing BLOB data in the file system is more efficient that storing them in the database. However, this brings up a few disadvantages as well. When the BLOB data is stored in the file system, it is hard to ensure transactional consistency between the file system data and relational data. Some applications store the BLOB data within the database to overcome the limitations mentioned earlier. This approach ensures transactional consistency between the relational data and BLOB data, but is very bad in terms of performance. FILESTREAM combines the benefits of both approaches mentioned above without the disadvantages we examined. FILESTREAM stores the BLOB data in the file system (thus takes advantage of the IO Streaming capabilities of NTFS) and ensures transactional consistency between the BLOB data in the file system and the relational data in the database. For more information on the FILESTREAM feature, visit: http://beyondrelational.com/filestream/default.aspx FILESTREAM Wait Types Since this series is on the different SQL Server wait types, let us take a look at the various wait types that are related to the FILESTREAM feature. FS_FC_RWLOCK This wait type is generated by FILESTREAM Garbage Collector. This occurs when Garbage collection is disabled prior to a backup/restore operation or when a garbage collection cycle is being executed. FS_GARBAGE_COLLECTOR_SHUTDOWN This wait type occurs when during the cleanup process of a garbage collection cycle. It indicates that that garbage collector is waiting for the cleanup tasks to be completed. FS_HEADER_RWLOCK This wait type indicates that the process is waiting for obtaining access to the FILESTREAM header file for read or write operation. The FILESTREAM header is a disk file located in the FILESTREAM data container and is named “filestream.hdr”. FS_LOGTRUNC_RWLOCK This wait type indicates that the process is trying to perform a FILESTREAM log truncation related operation. It can be either a log truncate operation or to disable log truncation prior to a backup or restore operation. FSA_FORCE_OWN_XACT This wait type occurs when a FILESTREAM file I/O operation needs to bind to the associated transaction, but the transaction is currently owned by another session. FSAGENT This wait type occurs when a FILESTREAM file I/O operation is waiting for a FILESTREAM agent resource that is being used by another file I/O operation. FSTR_CONFIG_MUTEX This wait type occurs when there is a wait for another FILESTREAM feature reconfiguration to be completed. FSTR_CONFIG_RWLOCK This wait type occurs when there is a wait to serialize access to the FILESTREAM configuration parameters. Waits and Performance System waits has got a direct relationship with the overall performance. In most cases, when waits increase the performance degrades. SQL Server documentation does not say much about how we can reduce these waits. However, following the FILESTREAM best practices will help you to improve the overall performance and reduce the wait types to a good extend. Read all the post in the Wait Types and Queue series. Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com) Filed under: Pinal Dave, PostADay, Readers Contribution, SQL, SQL Authority, SQL Query, SQL Server, SQL Tips and Tricks, SQL Wait Stats, SQL Wait Types, T SQL, Technology Tagged: Filestream

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