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  • The Best Free Tools for Creating a Bootable Windows or Linux USB Drive

    - by Lori Kaufman
    If you need to install Windows or Linux and you don’t have access to a CD/DVD drive, a bootable USB drive is the solution. You can boot to the USB drive, using it to run the OS setup program, just like a CD or DVD. We have collected some links to free programs that allow you to easily setup a USB drive to install Windows or Linux on a computer. NOTE: If you have problems getting the BIOS on your computer to let you boot from a USB drive, see our article about booting from a USB drive even if your BIOS won’t let you. What Is the Purpose of the “Do Not Cover This Hole” Hole on Hard Drives? How To Log Into The Desktop, Add a Start Menu, and Disable Hot Corners in Windows 8 HTG Explains: Why You Shouldn’t Use a Task Killer On Android

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  • Problem calling linux C code from FIQ handler

    - by fastmonkeywheels
    I'm working on an armv6 core and have an FIQ hander that works great when I do all of my work in it. However I need to branch to some additional code that's too large for the FIQ memory area. The FIQ handler gets copied from fiq_start to fiq_end to 0xFFFF001C when registered static void test_fiq_handler(void) { asm volatile("\ .global fiq_start\n\ fiq_start:"); // clear gpio irq asm("ldr r10, GPIO_BASE_ISR"); asm("ldr r9, [r10]"); asm("orr r9, #0x04"); asm("str r9, [r10]"); // clear force register asm("ldr r10, AVIC_BASE_INTFRCH"); asm("ldr r9, [r10]"); asm("mov r9, #0"); asm("str r9, [r10]"); // prepare branch register asm(" ldr r11, fiq_handler"); // save all registers, build sp and branch to C asm(" adr r9, regpool"); asm(" stmia r9, {r0 - r8, r14}"); asm(" adr sp, fiq_sp"); asm(" ldr sp, [sp]"); asm(" add lr, pc,#4"); asm(" mov pc, r11"); #if 0 asm("ldr r10, IOMUX_ADDR12"); asm("ldr r9, [r10]"); asm("orr r9, #0x08 @ top/vertex LED"); asm("str r9,[r10] @turn on LED"); asm("bic r9, #0x08 @ top/vertex LED"); asm("str r9,[r10] @turn on LED"); #endif asm(" adr r9, regpool"); asm(" ldmia r9, {r0 - r8, r14}"); // return asm("subs pc, r14, #4"); asm("IOMUX_ADDR12: .word 0xFC2A4000"); asm("AVIC_BASE_INTCNTL: .word 0xFC400000"); asm("AVIC_BASE_INTENNUM: .word 0xFC400008"); asm("AVIC_BASE_INTDISNUM: .word 0xFC40000C"); asm("AVIC_BASE_FIVECSR: .word 0xFC400044"); asm("AVIC_BASE_INTFRCH: .word 0xFC400050"); asm("GPIO_BASE_ISR: .word 0xFC2CC018"); asm(".globl fiq_handler"); asm("fiq_sp: .long fiq_stack+120"); asm("fiq_handler: .long 0"); asm("regpool: .space 40"); asm(".pool"); asm(".align 5"); asm("fiq_stack: .space 124"); asm(".global fiq_end"); asm("fiq_end:"); } fiq_hander gets set to the following function: static void fiq_flip_pins(void) { asm("ldr r10, IOMUX_ADDR12_k"); asm("ldr r9, [r10]"); asm("orr r9, #0x08 @ top/vertex LED"); asm("str r9,[r10] @turn on LED"); asm("bic r9, #0x08 @ top/vertex LED"); asm("str r9,[r10] @turn on LED"); asm("IOMUX_ADDR12_k: .word 0xFC2A4000"); } EXPORT_SYMBOL(fiq_flip_pins); I know that since the FIQ handler operates outside of any normal kernel API's and that it is a rather high priority interrupt I must ensure that whatever I call is already swapped into memory. I do this by having the fiq_flip_pins function defined in the monolithic kernel and not as a module which gets vmalloc. If I don't branch to the fiq_flip_pins function, and instead do the work in the test_fiq_handler function everything works as expected. It's the branching that's causing me problems at the moment. Right after branching I get a kernel panic about a paging request. I don't understand why I'm getting the paging request. fiq_flip_pins is in the kernel at: c00307ec t fiq_flip_pins Unable to handle kernel paging request at virtual address 736e6f63 pgd = c3dd0000 [736e6f63] *pgd=00000000 Internal error: Oops: 5 [#1] PREEMPT Modules linked in: hello_1 CPU: 0 Not tainted (2.6.31-207-g7286c01-svn4 #122) PC is at strnlen+0x10/0x28 LR is at string+0x38/0xcc pc : [<c016b004>] lr : [<c016c754>] psr: a00001d3 sp : c3817ea0 ip : 736e6f63 fp : 00000400 r10: c03cab5c r9 : c0339ae0 r8 : 736e6f63 r7 : c03caf5c r6 : c03cab6b r5 : ffffffff r4 : 00000000 r3 : 00000004 r2 : 00000000 r1 : ffffffff r0 : 736e6f63 Flags: NzCv IRQs off FIQs off Mode SVC_32 ISA ARM Segment user Control: 00c5387d Table: 83dd0008 DAC: 00000015 Process sh (pid: 1663, stack limit = 0xc3816268) Stack: (0xc3817ea0 to 0xc3818000) Since there are no API calls in my code I have to assume that something is going wrong in the C call and back. Any help solving this is appreciated.

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  • How do I determine if my controller is in IDE or AHCI mode in Linux?

    - by philcolbourn
    I have an old MacBook Pro 4,1 (early 2008) - but I suspect an answer would apply to many MacBook Pros. It has an Intel IDE/SATA controller (ICH8M/ICH8M-E). I have installed a patched MBR that is supposed to put my controller into AHCI mode. It does this by setting some controller port value that I don't understand. This seems to work as I get this from lspci: 00:1f.1 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801HM/HEM (ICH8M/ICH8M-E) IDE Controller (rev 03) 00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801HM/HEM (ICH8M/ICH8M-E) SATA Controller [AHCI mode] (rev 03) Now most, perhaps all, sites that provide a solution (enabling AHCI) suggest that after a sleep/wake cycle that a controller will revert to IDE mode due to how Apple support Windows. They recommend disabling sleep. From author of patchedcode.bin I think Enabling AHCI for Windows on MacBooks NB: I do not have bootcamp installed and I do not have Windows installed. Is there a way to prove that my controller is in IDE or AHCI mode? Background Data Using patchedcode.bin MBR I get this in syslog: Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.860955] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: version 3.0 Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.861052] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: irq 45 for MSI/MSI-X Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.861117] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: AHCI 0001.0100 32 slots 3 ports 1.5 Gbps 0x1 impl SATA mode Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.861120] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: flags: 64bit ncq sntf pm led clo pio slum part ccc ems Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.861130] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: setting latency timer to 64 Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.880880] ACPI: Video Device [GFX0] (multi-head: yes rom: no post: no) Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.880983] scsi2 : ahci Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.884552] scsi3 : ahci Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.886932] scsi4 : ahci Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.886998] ata3: SATA max UDMA/133 abar [email protected] port 0xdb504100 irq 45 Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.887000] ata4: DUMMY Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 1.887002] ata5: DUMMY Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 2.204103] ata3: SATA link up 1.5 Gbps (SStatus 113 SControl 300) Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 2.204656] ata3.00: ATA-8: FUJITSU MHY2200BH, 0081000D, max UDMA/100 Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 2.204662] ata3.00: 390721968 sectors, multi 16: LBA48 NCQ (depth 31/32), AA Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 2.205324] ata3.00: configured for UDMA/100 Jun 12 22:33:22 max kernel: [ 2.205554] scsi 2:0:0:0: Direct-Access ATA FUJITSU MHY2200B 0081 PQ: 0 ANSI: 5 Using my original MBR I get this from syslog: Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.622861] ata_piix 0000:00:1f.1: version 2.13 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.622869] ata_piix 0000:00:1f.1: power state changed by ACPI to D0 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.622924] ata_piix 0000:00:1f.1: setting latency timer to 64 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.623339] scsi0 : ata_piix Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.623730] scsi1 : ata_piix Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.623765] ata1: PATA max UDMA/100 cmd 0x8108 ctl 0x811c bmdma 0x80e0 irq 21 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.623767] ata2: PATA max UDMA/100 cmd 0x8100 ctl 0x8118 bmdma 0x80e8 irq 21 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.623810] ata_piix 0000:00:1f.2: MAP [ Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.623811] P0 -- -- -- ] Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.623866] ata_piix 0000:00:1f.2: setting latency timer to 64 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.624241] scsi2 : ata_piix Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.624558] scsi3 : ata_piix Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.624862] ata3: SATA max UDMA/133 cmd 0x80f8 ctl 0x8114 bmdma 0x8020 irq 18 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 0.624865] ata4: SATA max UDMA/133 cmd 0x80f0 ctl 0x8110 bmdma 0x8028 irq 18 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 1.208879] ata3.00: ATA-8: FUJITSU MHY2200BH, 0081000D, max UDMA/100 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 1.208882] ata3.00: 390721968 sectors, multi 16: LBA48 NCQ (depth 0/32) Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 1.208961] ata1.01: ATAPI: MATSHITA DVD+/-RW UJ-867S, 1.00, max UDMA/33 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 1.216186] ata3.00: configured for UDMA/100 Jun 13 18:07:13 max kernel: [ 1.224396] ata1.01: configured for UDMA/33

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  • drivers/rtc/hctosys.c: unable to open rtc device (rtc0) after recompile on boot

    - by squareone
    After recompiling a new kernel on CentOS 6.3, using the same kernel I have been using on several other machines, I am getting a kernel panic on two machines. I get the following when trying to boot: drivers/rtc/hctosys.c: unable to open rtc device (rtc0) (flashes this before displaying the panic below) not syncing: Attempted to kill init! exitcode=0x00000100 Pid: 1, comm: init Not tainted etc... I have been trying to figure out what is going on, and am having trouble doing so, and feel I have exhausted all of my options here. Any help would be appreciated. My grub.conf: default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz hiddenmenu title CentOS (3.4.18-rt29) root (hd0,0) kernel /vmlinuz-3.4.18-rt29 ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root rd_NO_LUKS LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_swap SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 crashkernel=auto rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_root KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet panic=5 initrd /initramfs-3.4.18-rt29.img title CentOS (2.6.32-279.14.1.el6.x86_64) root (hd0,0) kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-279.14.1.el6.x86_64 ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root rd_NO_LUKS LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_swap SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 crashkernel=auto rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_root KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet panic=5 initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-279.14.1.el6.x86_64.img Any help or guidance would be greatly appreciated.

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  • In Cent os 6.2 can i update Kernel version to 3.4 ? if so how to upgrade kernel?

    - by shiva
    Hi, I have a server with Centos 6.2 with Kernel version 2.6 , but i need to increase my application Performance. The Kernel Version 3.4 has x32abi which can improve the performance so i want to upgrade to 3.4 ? Is it possible? I tried 1) downloading kernel compiling and installing but still i see the same Kernel version.. What went wrong? i followed the process in mentioned in the below link.. http://www.tecmint.com/kernel-3-5-released-install-compile-in-redhat-centos-and-fedora/

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  • Error while reomving the new kernel 2.6.37

    - by Tarek
    Hi! I tried to install the new kernel but something went wrong and I'm trying to remove it now. The error massege is: [email protected]:~$ sudo apt-get install -f Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages will be REMOVED: linux-image-2.6.37-020637-generic 0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 9 not upgraded. 1 not fully installed or removed. After this operation, 111MB disk space will be freed. Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y (Reading database ... 188780 files and directories currently installed.) Removing linux-image-2.6.37-020637-generic ... Examining /etc/kernel/postrm.d . run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/initramfs-tools 2.6.37-020637-generic /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.37-020637-generic run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub 2.6.37-020637-generic /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.37-020637-generic /etc/default/grub: 33: Syntax error: EOF in backquote substitution run-parts: /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub exited with return code 2 Failed to process /etc/kernel/postrm.d at /var/lib/dpkg/info/linux-image-2.6.37-020637-generic.postrm line 328. dpkg: error processing linux-image-2.6.37-020637-generic (--remove): subprocess installed post-removal script returned error exit status 1 Errors were encountered while processing: linux-image-2.6.37-020637-generic E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1) The previous unsloved error is on this bug.

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  • Racing MMO for Linux - 2D or 3D - Massively Multiplayer Online Racing Games for Linux

    - by Paulocoghi
    I really like multiplayer racing games, like Need for Speed World or similar. I wonder if there is any MMO racing game for Linux (2D or 3D). Browser-based games are also accepted. Note: I tried this question in the Gaming Q&A of StackExchange (see link below), but one user said that my question was off-topic. http://gaming.stackexchange.com/questions/16329/racing-mmo-for-linux-2d-or-3d-massively-multiplayer-online-racing-games

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  • VMware Kernel Module Updater hangs on Ubuntu 13.04

    VMware Player has a nice auto-detection of kernel changes, and requests the user to compile the required modules in order to load them. This happens from time to time after a regular update of your system. Usually, the dialog of VMware Kernel Module Updater pops up, asks for root access authentication, and completes the compilation. VMware Player or Workstation checks if modules for the active kernel are available. In theory this is supposed to work flawlessly but in reality there are pitfalls occassionally. With the recent upgrade to Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail and the latest kernel 3.8.0-21 the actual VMware Kernel Module Updater simply disappeared and the application wouldn't start as expected. When you launch VMware Player as super user (root) the dialog would stall like so: VMware Kernel Module Updater stalls while stopping the services Prior to version 5.x of VMware Player or version 7.x of VMware Workstation you would run a command like: $ sudo vmware-config.pl to resolve the module version conflict but this doesn't work anyway. Solution Instead, you have to execute the following line in a terminal or console window: $ sudo vmware-modconfig --console --install-all Those switches are (as of writing this article) not documented in the output of the --help switch. But VMware already documented this procedure in their knowledge base: VMware Workstation stops functioning after updating the kernel on a Linux host (1002411). Update As of today I had the first kernel upgrade to version 3.8.0-22 in Ubuntu 13.04. Don't even try it without vmware-modconfig...

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  • kernel panic after LVM setup

    - by Manuel Sopena Ballesteros
    I broke my webserver... My setup is: VMWare ESXi environemt CPanel installed CentOS release 6.5 (Final) 4 CPUs 2G RAM 2x VM disks 100G each LVM system This was my previous storage settings (the server was working fine at this time): # df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/vg_test01-lv_root 95G 1.4G 88G 2% / tmpfs 939M 0 939M 0% /dev/shm /dev/sdb1 99G 188M 94G 1% /tmp /dev/sda1 485M 54M 407M 12% /boot My web developer asked me to merge /tmp and / disks so this is what I did: Delete /dev/sdb1 partition using fdisk Create a new partition as LVM on /dev/sdb1 using fdisk Create a new physical volume -- pvcreate /dev/sdb1 Extend volume group -- vgextend /dev/sdb1 vg_test01 Extend logical volume -- lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/vg_test01/lv_root Resize filesystem -- resize2fs /dev/vg_test01/lv_root This is the new configuration: # df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/vg_test01-lv_root 213G 105G 97G 52% / tmpfs 939M 0 939M 0% /dev/shm /dev/sda1 485M 54M 407M 12% /boot /usr/tmpDSK 4.0G 145M 3.6G 4% /tmp Since I have the new settings my web server is throwing kernel panics quite often (around every 2 days). The message says: INFO: task <taskName>:<pid> blocked for more than 120 seconds. The list of process affected that I can see from the console are: mysqld queueprocd httpd suphp vmtoolsd loop0 auditd The only way I can fix this is reseting (cold reboot) the VM. I don't think it is a hardware issue as sar is not showing any bottleneck: Linux 2.6.32-431.3.1.el6.x86_64 (test01) 08/22/2014 _x86_64_ (4 CPU) 12:00:01 AM CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle 12:10:01 AM all 26.86 0.01 0.98 0.57 0.00 71.57 12:20:01 AM all 1.78 0.02 1.03 0.08 0.00 97.09 12:30:01 AM all 26.34 0.02 0.85 0.05 0.00 72.74 12:40:01 AM all 27.12 0.01 1.11 1.22 0.00 70.54 12:50:01 AM all 1.59 0.02 0.94 0.13 0.00 97.32 01:00:01 AM all 26.10 0.01 0.77 0.04 0.00 73.07 01:10:01 AM all 27.51 0.01 1.16 0.14 0.00 71.18 01:20:01 AM all 1.80 0.07 1.06 0.08 0.00 96.99 01:30:01 AM all 26.19 0.01 0.78 0.05 0.00 72.96 01:40:01 AM all 26.62 0.02 0.87 0.05 0.00 72.45 01:50:02 AM all 1.35 0.01 0.87 0.02 0.00 97.75 02:00:01 AM all 26.11 0.02 0.69 0.02 0.00 73.17 02:10:01 AM all 26.73 0.02 0.89 0.14 0.00 72.21 02:20:01 AM all 1.45 0.01 0.92 0.04 0.00 97.58 02:30:01 AM all 26.59 0.01 1.06 0.03 0.00 72.31 02:40:01 AM all 26.27 0.01 0.72 0.05 0.00 72.95 02:50:01 AM all 0.86 0.01 0.50 0.09 0.00 98.53 03:00:01 AM all 25.61 0.02 0.39 0.03 0.00 73.96 03:10:01 AM all 26.30 0.08 0.66 0.14 0.00 72.82 03:20:01 AM all 0.81 0.01 0.51 0.04 0.00 98.63 03:30:02 AM all 26.15 0.02 0.53 0.07 0.00 73.24 03:40:01 AM all 26.06 0.01 0.47 0.04 0.00 73.42 03:50:01 AM all 0.96 0.02 0.51 0.03 0.00 98.48 Average: all 17.69 0.02 0.79 0.14 0.00 81.36 06:58:14 AM LINUX RESTART 07:00:01 AM CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle 07:10:01 AM all 1.04 0.02 0.57 0.95 0.00 97.42 07:20:02 AM all 0.66 0.01 0.39 0.06 0.00 98.87 07:30:01 AM all 25.71 0.01 0.45 0.16 0.00 73.67 07:40:01 AM all 25.88 0.01 0.35 0.08 0.00 73.68 07:50:01 AM all 1.13 0.02 0.55 0.11 0.00 98.19 As you can see the server became unresponsive at 03.50 AM and I had to reset the VM at 06.58 AM to bring the website up again. I would appreciate any help/assistance to fix this issue. thank you very much

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  • Wine and Kernel Access

    - by Kyle Rozendo
    My knowledge on the topic is rather limited, but does one have Kernel access/the general ability to change programs at run time whilst running Wine? For Clarification: Can the user of the computer access any information they want via the Kernel on the underlying system running Wine, or does normal Windows security still apply?

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  • Oracle Linux Forum

    - by rickramsey
    This forum includes live chat so you can tell Wim, Lenz, and the gang what you really think. Linux Forum - Tuesday March 27 Since Oracle recently made Release 2 of its Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel available (see Lenz's blog), we're following up with an online forum with Oracle's Linux executives and engineers. Topics will be: 9:30 - 9:45 am PT Oracle's Linux Strategy Edward Screven, Oracle's Chief Corporate Architect and Wim Coekaerts, Senior VP of Linux and Virtualization Engineering, will explain Oracle's Linux strategy, the benefits of Oracle Linux, Oracle's role in the Linux community, and the Oracle Linux roadmap. 9:45 - 10:00 am PT Why Progressive Insurance Chose Oracle Linux John Dome, Lead Systems Engineer at Progressive Insurance, outlines why they selected Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel to reduce cost and increase the performance of database applications. 10:00 - 11:00 am PT What's New in Oracle Linux Oracle engineers walk you through new features in Oracle Linux, including zero-downtime updates with Ksplice, Btrfs and OCFS2, DTrace for Linux, Linux Containers, vSwitch and T-Mem. 11:00 am - 12:00 pm PT Get More Value from your Linux Vendor Why Oracle Linux delivers more value than Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including better support at lower cost, best practices for deployments, extreme performance for cloud deployments and engineered systems, and more. Date: Tuesday, March 27, 2012 Time: 9:30 AM PT / 12:30 PM ET Duration: 2.5 hours Register here. - Rick

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  • Oracle Linux Delivers Top CPU Benchmark Results on Sun Blades

    - by sergio.leunissen
    From the Performance and Best Practices blog: Fresh SPEC CPU2006 results for Sun Blade X6275 M2 Server Modules running Oracle Linux 5.5. The highlights: The dual-node Sun Blade X6275 M2 server module, equipped with two Intel Xeon X5670 2.93 GHz processors per node and running the Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.5 operating system delivered the best SPECint_rate2006 and SPECfp_rate2006 benchmark results for all systems with Intel Xeon processor 5000 sequence. With a SPECint_rate2006 benchmark result of 679, the Sun Blade X6275 M2 server module, with two compute nodes per blade, delivers maximum performance for space constrained environments. Comparing Oracle's dual-node blade to HP's dual-node blade server, based on their single node performance, the Sun Blade X6275 M2 server module SPECfp_rate2006 score of 241 outperforms the best published HP ProLiant BL2X220c G5 server score by 3.2x. A single node of a Sun Blade X6275 M2 server module using 2.93 GHz Intel Xeon X5670 processors delivered 37% improvement in SPECint_rate2006 benchmark results and 22% improvement in SPECfp_rate2006 benchmark results compared to the previous generation Sun Blade X6275 server module. Both nodes of a Sun Blade X6275 M2 server module using 2.93 GHz Intel Xeon X5670 processors delivered 59% improvement on the SPECint_rate2006 benchmark and 40% improvement on the SPECfp_rate2006 benchmark compared to the previous generation Sun Blade X6275 server module.

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  • Build Your Own CE6 Kernel

    - by Kate Moss' Big Fan
    The Share Source Program in Windows CE provides many modules in %_WINCEROOT%\Private\ tree, and the kernel is one of them! Although it is not full source of kernel but it is good enough for tracing it, even tweak the kernel. Tracing the kernel and see how it works is lots of fun, but it is fascinated to modify and verify the change you made. So first comes first, where is the source of kernel? It's in your %_WINCEROOT%\private\winceos\COREOS\nk\ And next question will be "How do I build it?", Some of you may say just "build -c" there and it should be good. If you are the owner of kernel and got full source, that is definitely the right answer, but none of them are applied to our case though. So what should I do? Let's dig deeper into the coreos\nk folder, there are a couples of subfolder, CELOG, KDSTUB, KERNEL and etc. KERNEL\ is the main component of kernel.dll, in the other word, most of the modify to kernel is going to happen here. And the good thing is, you could "build -c" in %_WINCEROOT%\private\winceos\COREOS\nk\kernel\ with no error at all. But before doing that, remember to backup eveything you are going to modify, including the source and binaries; remember, this is not something belong to you, and if you didn't restore them back later, it could end up confuse the subsequence QFE updates! Here is the steps Backup the source code, I will suggest the whole %_WINCEROOT%\private\winceos\COREOS\nk\ Backup the binaries in common\oak\lib\, and again if you are not sure which files, backup the whole %_WINCEROOT%\common\oak\lib\ is the safest way. Do whatever modification you want in %_WINCEROOT%\private\winceos\COREOS\nk\kernel\ build -c in %_WINCEROOT%\private\winceos\COREOS\nk\kernel If everything went well so far, you should get a new nkmain.lib,nkmain.pdb, nkprmain.lib and nkprmain.pdb in %_WINCEROOT%\public\common\oak\lib\%_TGTCPU%\%WINCEDEBUG%\ Basically, you just rebuild your new kernel, the rest is to "blddemo clean -q" to have your new kernel SYSGEN'd and include in your OS Image. Or just "set WINCEREL=1" then "sysgen -p common nk nkprof" and "makeimg" if you can't wait another minutes for "blddemo clean -q" Tat sounds good, but some of you may not like the idea to alter any code in private folder, and not to mention how annoying to backup/restore files every time. Better idea? Yes, Microsoft provides a tool SYSGEN_CAPTURE (http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee504678.aspx for detail and usage) to creates Sources files for public drivers that you want to modify and build in your platform directory. In fact, not only public drivers, virtually anything in the %_WINCEROOT%\public\<project name>\cesysgen\makefile can be captured, and of course including kernel. So I am going to introduce a second way to build your own kernel by using SYSGEN_CAPTURE tool. Again the steps Create a folder in your BSP for building kernel, says %_TARGETPLATROOT%\SRC\Kernel. Use "SYSGEN_CAPTURE -p common nk" and then you will get a SOURCES.KERN, you could also "SYSGEN_CAPTURE -p common nkprof" to generate profiler enabled kernel. rename the SOURCE.KERN to SOURCES and copy one of the sample makefile into your kernel directory. For example the one in PRIVATE\WINCEOS\COREOS\NK\KERNEL\NKNORMAL. Copy the source files you want to modify from private\winceos\coreos\nk\kernel\ into your kernel directory. Modifying the SOURCES= macro to the source files you addes in step 4. For example, if you copied the vm.c, it is going to be SOURCES=vm.c Refer to the private\winceos\COREOS\nk\kernel\sources.inc and add macro defines and proper include path in your SOURCES file. "set WINCEREL=1", "build -c" in your kernel directory and "makeimg", voila! Here is an example for the MACROS you need to add in x86 Here are the macros for x86 CDEFINES=$(CDEFINES) -DIN_KERNEL -DWINCEMACRO -DKERN_CORE # Machine independent defines CDEFINES=$(CDEFINES) -DDBGSUPPORT _COREOSROOT=$(_WINCEROOT)\private\winceos\coreos INCLUDES=$(_COREOSROOT)\inc;$(_COREOSROOT)\nk\inc !IFDEF DP_SETTINGS CDEFINES=$(CDEFINES) -DDP_SETTINGS=$(DP_SETTINGS) !ENDIF ASM_SAFESEH=1 CDEFINES=$(CDEFINES) -Gs100000 -DENCODE_GS_COOKIE

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  • Can't install or update Ubuntu after using parameter acpi_osi = Linux

    - by Lucas Leitão
    I recently had an issue with my acer 4736z notebook because I was having a blank screen after booting the OS, then someone told me to use the parameter GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT = "quiet splash acpi_osi = Linux" after quiet splash inside the grub. It worked for me, but since then I can't install a thing or update anything on Linux because it says Removing linux-image-extra-3.5.0-17-generic ... Examining /etc/kernel/postrm.d . run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/initramfs-tools 3.5.0-17-generic /boot/vmlinuz-3.5.0-17-generic update-initramfs: Deleting /boot/initrd.img-3.5.0-17-generic run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub 3.5.0-17-generic /boot/vmlinuz-3.5.0-17-generic /usr/sbin/grub-mkconfig: 11: /etc/default/grub: GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT: not found run-parts: /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub exited with return code 127 Failed to process /etc/kernel/postrm.d at /var/lib/dpkg/info/linux-image-extra-3.5.0-17-generic.postrm line 328. dpkg: erro ao processar linux-image-extra-3.5.0-17-generic (--remove): sub-processo script post-removal instalado retornou estado de saída de erro 1 Removendo linux-image-3.5.0-17-generic ... Examining /etc/kernel/postrm.d . run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/initramfs-tools 3.5.0-17-generic /boot/vmlinuz-3.5.0-17-generic update-initramfs: Deleting /boot/initrd.img-3.5.0-17-generic run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub 3.5.0-17-generic /boot/vmlinuz-3.5.0-17-generic /usr/sbin/grub-mkconfig: 11: /etc/default/grub: GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT: not found run-parts: /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub exited with return code 127 Failed to process /etc/kernel/postrm.d at /var/lib/dpkg/info/linux-image-3.5.0-17-generic.postrm line 328. dpkg: erro ao processar linux-image-3.5.0-17-generic (--remove): sub-processo script post-removal instalado retornou estado de saída de erro 1 Erros foram encontrados durante o processamento de: linux-image-extra-3.5.0-17-generic linux-image-3.5.0-17-generic E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1) I already tried to remove older kernels but it gives me the same message. Do you have a clue about what should I do?

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  • Fedora 17 keeps using fedora 16 kernel

    - by MTilsted
    I did run preupgrade to upgrade my Fedora 16(x64) to Fedora 17. And it seemed to work fine. So I got the new gimp 2.8, gcc 4.7.0 and so on. But the system keeps using the old kernel from fc16. Uname -a gives me: Linux localhost.localdomain 3.3.6-3.fc16.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed May 16 21:43:01 UTC 2012 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux The system downloaded the new kernel, so I got /boot/vmlinuz-3.3.7-1.fc17.x86_64 /boot/System.map-3.3.7-1.fc17.x86_64 /boot/initramfs-3.3.7-1.fc17.x86_64.img /boot/config-3.3.7-1.fc17.x86_64 But the system keeps using the old kernel from fc16. If i look at my /boot/grub2/grub.cfg file, it looks like this: # # DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE # # It is automatically generated by grub2-mkconfig using templates # from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub # ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ### if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then load_env fi set default="0" if [ "${prev_saved_entry}" ]; then set saved_entry="${prev_saved_entry}" save_env saved_entry set prev_saved_entry= save_env prev_saved_entry set boot_once=true fi function savedefault { if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then saved_entry="${chosen}" save_env saved_entry fi } function load_video { insmod vbe insmod vga insmod video_bochs insmod video_cirrus } set timeout=5 ### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ### ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ### menuentry 'Fedora (3.3.6-3.fc16.x86_64)' --class fedora --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os { load_video set gfxpayload=keep insmod gzio insmod part_gpt insmod ext2 set root='(hd0,gpt2)' search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 3521a578-5829-4fb4-a485-8c097df77d07 echo 'Loading Fedora (3.3.6-3.fc16.x86_64)' linux /vmlinuz-3.3.6-3.fc16.x86_64 root=UUID=57459a16-97a0-46a4-8e71-cc3ec0ca4a3e ro KEYTABLE=dvorak rd.lvm=0 rd.dm=0 quiet SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 rhgb rd.md.uuid=60956781:734d95ba:424311e2:796702a7 rd.luks=0 LANG=en_US.UTF-8 echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...' initrd /initramfs-3.3.6-3.fc16.x86_64.img } menuentry 'Fedora (3.3.5-2.fc16.x86_64)' --class fedora --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os { load_video set gfxpayload=keep insmod gzio insmod part_gpt insmod ext2 set root='(hd0,gpt2)' search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 3521a578-5829-4fb4-a485-8c097df77d07 echo 'Loading Fedora (3.3.5-2.fc16.x86_64)' linux /vmlinuz-3.3.5-2.fc16.x86_64 root=UUID=57459a16-97a0-46a4-8e71-cc3ec0ca4a3e ro KEYTABLE=dvorak rd.lvm=0 rd.dm=0 quiet SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 rhgb rd.md.uuid=60956781:734d95ba:424311e2:796702a7 rd.luks=0 LANG=en_US.UTF-8 echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...' initrd /initramfs-3.3.5-2.fc16.x86_64.img } ### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ### ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ### ### END /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ### ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ### ### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ### ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ### # This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries. Simply type the # menu entries you want to add after this comment. Be careful not to change # the 'exec tail' line above. ### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ### ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/41_custom ### if [ -f $prefix/custom.cfg ]; then source $prefix/custom.cfg; fi ### END /etc/grub.d/41_custom ### ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/90_persistent ### ### END /etc/grub.d/90_persistent ### Anyone got a clue about why it still only references the fc16 kernel, and how I can upgrade it. My system is using raid1 on 2 disks, but /boot is not using raid. Mount for /boot is: /dev/sda2 on /boot type ext2 (rw,relatime,seclabel,user_xattr,acl,barrier=1) And / (The only other filesystem I have) is mounted as /dev/md0 on / type ext4 (rw,relatime,seclabel,user_xattr,acl,barrier=1,data=ordered)

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  • Get details / solve issue with a kernel panic?

    - by Joseph
    I have a Lenovo T430 running Linux Mint 13 (MATE): joseph:~$ uname -a Linux joseph-T430-LM 3.2.0-23-generic #36-Ubuntu SMP Tue Apr 10 20:39:51 UTC 2012 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux I installed Mint immediately after getting the laptop about two weeks ago, and have noticed that about once a day, the computer will completely freeze up- I can't use Ctrl+Alt+Backspace to restart X, I can't use Ctrl+Alt+F1 to get a text only terminal, can't move mouse, can't type, and if any music was playing it just gets stuck in about a 1-second loop. There is a Windows partition, but I haven't had any issues in Windows. I couldn't find a common thread between the freezes, they were seemingly random (sometimes right after I clicked the mouse, sometimes not; sometimes with Pandora/flash being used, sometimes not, etc). I assume they're kernel panics since it completely locks up, but the laptop doesn't have a capslock or scroll lock LED. It is on a dock and I do have a USB keyboard, but the scroll lock/capslock lights do not flash when it happens (not sure if this is indicating its not a kernel panic, or if the kernel panic just wouldn't illuminate the LEDs on a usb keyboard attached to a laptop dock). This was annoying but not terrible. However, I've found a way to reproduce it. I have a particular CSV file that when I open up in LibreOffice Calc and scroll around, the same thing happens- complete lock up. I really need to use this file, so I'd like to fix the issue, but at the least it's given me a test case to work with. So, having a case where I can cause this issue, what can I do to better find out what's going on? I've looked in /var/log/syslog but haven't found anything seemingly useful. Any thoughts?

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  • "Can't find root filesystem / error mounting /dev/root" when booting to new kernel

    - by salparadise
    I am trying to upgrade my kernel from 2.6.18-274 to 2.6.39 for some wireless card drivers. When I boot into the new kernel I get the "Can't find root filesystem / error mounting /dev/root" googling led me to this page http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Common_kernel_problems#Can.27t_find_root_filesystem_.2F_error_mounting_.2Fdev.2Froot From what I am reading seems to be an issue with a driver for my SATA controller or HD, but I can't find what option I need to add to the kernel. Doing a diff from the old initrd to the new one gives me the following: root-> diff /tmp/kafter /tmp/kbefore 6a7,8 > lib/dm-message.ko > lib/dm-region_hash.ko 8a11 > lib/dm-raid45.ko 13d15 < lib/dm-region-hash.ko 16a19 > lib/dm-mem-cache.ko Do I need any of those? not sure if I would need dm-raid45.ko as I am not running a raid. I have the same SATA and IDE options configured for both kernels so not sure what else to look for, any help is appreciated. Additionally here is the HW info: 00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801FB/FW (ICH6/ICH6W) SATA Controller (rev 03) (prog-if 8f [Master SecP SecO PriP PriO]) Subsystem: Hewlett-Packard Company Unknown device 3006 Flags: bus master, 66MHz, medium devsel, latency 0, IRQ 233 I/O ports at 1818 [size=8] I/O ports at 1830 [size=4] I/O ports at 1820 [size=8] I/O ports at 1834 [size=4] I/O ports at 14f0 [size=16] Capabilities: [70] Power Management version 2 root-> smartctl -a /dev/sda ... === START OF INFORMATION SECTION === Device Model: WDC WD5000AADS-00S9B0

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  • Where is vmlinux on my Ubuntu installation?

    - by Jason Baker
    I'm trying to work with starting up oprofile, and I'm running into a problem at this step: opcontrol --vmlinux=/path/to/vmlinux Ubuntu has no package called vmlinux, and when I do a locate vmlinux, I get a lot of files: /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/h8300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-std.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-sun3.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/mn10300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/sh/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_32.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/h8300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-std.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-sun3.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/mn10300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/sh/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_32.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/h8300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-std.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-sun3.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/mn10300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/sh/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_32.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h Which one of these is the one I'm looking for?

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  • Where is vmlinux on my Ubuntu installation?

    - by Jason Baker
    I'm trying to work with starting up oprofile, and I'm running into a problem at this step: opcontrol --vmlinux=/path/to/vmlinux Ubuntu has no package called vmlinux, and when I do a locate vmlinux, I get a lot of files: /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/h8300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-std.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-sun3.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/mn10300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/sh/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_32.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-14/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/h8300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-std.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-sun3.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/mn10300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/sh/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_32.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-15/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/h8300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-std.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/m68k/kernel/vmlinux-sun3.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/mn10300/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/sh/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_32.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux_64.lds /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.28-16/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h Which one of these is the one I'm looking for?

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  • How can a driver change the kernel page table?

    - by Naruto
    I am encountering an issue with kernel memory. When my driver finishes running, the other processes in kernel fail to run, for example, I run ls, the command crashes the kernel with error "Corrupted page table" at a specified address. I do not know whether the page table of my driver relates to the page table of other process. How can my driver changes the page table of the other processes? And how the driver of a process relates to the kernel page table? As I know when the driver runs, it will be switched to kernel context. Kernel has its own page table and the driver has it own one. What is the relation among the kernel page table, the page table of my driver and the page table of the other processes when it runs in kernel context?

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  • Kernel, dpkg, sudo and apt-get corrupted

    - by TECH4JESUS
    Here are some errors that I am getting: 1) A proper configuration for Firestarter was not found. If you are running Firestarter from the directory you built it in, run make install-data-local to install a configuration, or simply make install to install the whole program. Firestarter will now close. [email protected]:/# firestarter ** (firestarter:5890): WARNING **: The connection is closed (firestarter:5890): GnomeUI-WARNING **: While connecting to session manager: None of the authentication protocols specified are supported. (firestarter:5890): GConf-WARNING **: Client failed to connect to the D-BUS daemon: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. (firestarter:5890): GConf-WARNING **: Client failed to connect to the D-BUS daemon: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. (firestarter:5890): GConf-WARNING **: Client failed to connect to the D-BUS daemon: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. (firestarter:5890): GConf-WARNING **: Client failed to connect to the D-BUS daemon: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. (firestarter:5890): GConf-WARNING **: Client failed to connect to the D-BUS daemon: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. (firestarter:5890): GConf-WARNING **: Client failed to connect to the D-BUS daemon: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. (firestarter:5890): GConf-WARNING **: Client failed to connect to the D-BUS daemon: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. ^C 2) Also I cannot apt-get install sudo [email protected]:/# apt-get install sudo Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done sudo is already the newest version. The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: gir1.2-rb-3.0 gir1.2-gstreamer-0.10 libntfs10 python-mako libdmapsharing-3.0-2 rhythmbox-data libx264-116 rhythmbox libiso9660-7 librhythmbox-core5 libvpx0 libmatroska4 gir1.2-gst-plugins-base-0.10 rhythmbox-mozilla rhythmbox-plugin-zeitgeist libattica0 libgpac0.4.5 python-markupsafe libmusicbrainz4c2a rhythmbox-plugin-cdrecorder rhythmbox-plugins libaudiofile0 Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them. 0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 18 not upgraded. 9 not fully installed or removed. Need to get 0 B/76.3 MB of archives. After this operation, 0 B of additional disk space will be used. Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y /bin/sh: 1: /usr/sbin/dpkg-preconfigure: not found (Reading database ... 495741 files and directories currently installed.) Preparing to replace linux-image-3.2.0-24-generic 3.2.0-24.39 (using .../linux-image-3.2.0-24-generic_3.2.0-24.39_amd64.deb) ... dpkg (subprocess): unable to execute old pre-removal script (/var/lib/dpkg/info/linux-image-3.2.0-24-generic.prerm): No such file or directory dpkg: warning: subprocess old pre-removal script returned error exit status 2 dpkg - trying script from the new package instead ... dpkg (subprocess): unable to execute new pre-removal script (/var/lib/dpkg/tmp.ci/prerm): No such file or directory dpkg: error processing /var/cache/apt/archives/linux-image-3.2.0-24-generic_3.2.0-24.39_amd64.deb (--unpack): subprocess new pre-removal script returned error exit status 2 dpkg (subprocess): unable to execute installed post-installation script (/var/lib/dpkg/info/linux-image-3.2.0-24-generic.postinst): No such file or directory dpkg: error while cleaning up: subprocess installed post-installation script returned error exit status 2 Preparing to replace linux-image-3.2.0-25-generic 3.2.0-25.40 (using .../linux-image-3.2.0-25-generic_3.2.0-25.40_amd64.deb) ... dpkg (subprocess): unable to execute old pre-removal script (/var/lib/dpkg/info/linux-image-3.2.0-25-generic.prerm): No such file or directory dpkg: warning: subprocess old pre-removal script returned error exit status 2 dpkg - trying script from the new package instead ... dpkg (subprocess): unable to execute new pre-removal script (/var/lib/dpkg/tmp.ci/prerm): No such file or directory dpkg: error processing /var/cache/apt/archives/linux-image-3.2.0-25-generic_3.2.0-25.40_amd64.deb (--unpack): subprocess new pre-removal script returned error exit status 2 dpkg (subprocess): unable to execute installed post-installation script (/var/lib/dpkg/info/linux-image-3.2.0-25-generic.postinst): No such file or directory dpkg: error while cleaning up: subprocess installed post-installation script returned error exit status 2 Errors were encountered while processing: /var/cache/apt/archives/linux-image-3.2.0-24-generic_3.2.0-24.39_amd64.deb /var/cache/apt/archives/linux-image-3.2.0-25-generic_3.2.0-25.40_amd64.deb E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)

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