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  • Question regarding filesystems true or false?

    - by Avon
    Hello all, though I'm familiar with stackoverflow , and loving it , i've actually got a couple of questions myself about something other then programming. Here are my question Is it true that in FAT filesystems the maximum number of files per filesystem equals the number of entries in the FAT table. And is it also true that in indexed filesystems the maximum number of files per filesystem equals the number of indexblocks – 1. I'm reading some stuff and am trying to get a good understanding of it.

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  • Journaled filesystems and power failure

    - by Yoga
    I heard that even a journaled filesystems such as EXT3/EXT4 might corrupted during power failure, e.g. from wikipedia [1]: In the event of a system crash or power failure, such file systems are quicker to bring back online and less likely to become corrupted. Can anyone provide more detail by giving examples such that when corruption can occur corruption is avoided by journaled filesystems [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journaling_file_system

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  • Filesystems for webserver with SATA and Solid State disk,

    - by Jorisslob
    We have just ordered a new webserver with 120 Gb solid state disk and a SATA disk. I am trying to plan ahead what sort of filesystem to use. This system will be running Linux, Apache/Tomcat to host java services. The main service is a system where people can upload reasonably large files (in the order of 100 Mb, images, image stacks and video), which people will be able to annotate and which will be sent to a database server when annotation is complete. Thus far, I plan to put most of the utility programs of the operating system om the SSD and put the large media files there. The SATA disks will hold the less volitile data like apache, tomcat and the servlets. For filesystems I have considered going for the stable EXT3 because I hear that it is best supported. The downside seems to be that it not the ideal choice for large files. That is why I am leaning towards using XFS for the SSD and EXT3 for the SATA. My questions are: 1) Does this sound like a reasonable setup? 2) What filesystems would you recommend for the SSD and for the SATA? Thanks

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  • tag structured Filesystems

    - by A.Rashad
    I hope this is the correct site, I lose my way between the 4 sister sites :) Let me ask the question this way. all file systems I have seen before are hierarchical, that means a root directory, with some branched directories, and so on until we have files residing in these directories. except for AS/400 file structure, where it has a concept of a Library that serve somehow as a directory but one level only. Why not have directory-less filesystems where files are placed in a single location, but the file identifiers would be referenced by a database of tag/ file relation ships. This way there will be no need for symbolic links, one file may have multiple relations to multiple subjects, not only a single parent directory to contain. I hope the idea is clear.

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  • Does exportfs disrupt users already utilizing those filesystems?

    - by CptSupermrkt
    I need to modify a servers /etc/exports file to export to an additional host. After modifying this file, for it to take effect (i.e. for the additional host to have access to the designated filesystem), I believe I have to run "exportfs" on the server exporting the filesystem. Does this disrupt users who are currently using filesystems that are exported from that serving host? I'm hoping to add this new host "silently", without disruption. Any additional advice related to this, common traps, things to be careful of, etc. would be appreciated if you have any. Edit: just in case...uname -a returns 2.6.32-358.18.1.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Fri Aug 2 17:04:38 EDT 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

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  • alternative filesystems for SSD

    - by freedrull
    I am tired of watching fsck check my filesystem when my eeepc 901 shuts down abruptly due to a crash. I know that with a journaling filesystem, I won't have to wait for a check. However, I am well aware of the poor I/O performance of the SSD, so I can imagine using a journaling filesystem being even more frustrating, since there will be constant writes to the journal? I will buy a new laptop without such a crummy ssd someday but, is there anything I can do now, on the software side of things?

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  • Join multiple filesystems (on multiple computers) into one big volume

    - by jm666
    Scenario: Have 10 computers, each have 12x2TB HDDs (currently) in raidZ2 (10+2) configuration, so, in the each computer i have one approx. 20TB volume. Now, need those 10 separate computers (separate raid groups) join into one big volume. What is the recommended solution? I'm thinking about the FCoE (10GB ethernet). So, buying into each computer FCoE (10GB ethernet card) and - what need more on the hardware side? (probably another computer, FCoE switch? like Cisco Nexus?) The main question is: what need to install and configure on each computer? Currently they have freebsd/raidz2, but it is possible change it into Linux/Solaris if needed. Any helpful resource what talking about how to build a big volumes from smaller raid-groups (on the software side) is very welcomed. So, what OS, what filesystem, what software - etc. In short: want get one approx. 200TB storage (in one filesystem) from already existing computers/storage. Don't need fast writes, but need good performance on reading data. (as a big fileserver), what will works transparently, so when storing data don't want care about onto what computer the data goes. (e.g. not 10 mountpoints - but one big logical filesystem). Thanks.

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  • the effect of large number of files on disk space in unix filesystems

    - by user46976
    If I have a text file in Unix that contains N-many independent entries (e.g. records about employees, where each employee has a separate record), is it expected that this file will take up less space than if I split the file into N files, each containing the entry for one employee? in other words, can one save significant space on unix file systems by concatenating many files together, or is the difference negligible? thanks.

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  • GlusterFS vs Ceph, which is better for production use for the moment?

    - by Mickey Shine
    I am evaluating GlusterFS and Ceph, seems Gluster is FUSE based which means it may be not as fast as Ceph. But looks like Gluster got a very friendly control panel and is ease to use. Ceph was merged into linux kernel a few days ago and this indicates that it has much more potential energy and may be a good choice in the future. I am wondering which(even out of the two?) is a better choice for production use? It would be nice if you could share your practical experiences

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  • Fast distributed filesystem for a large amounts of data with metadata in database

    - by undefined hero
    My project uses several processing machines and one storage machine. Currently storage organized with a MSSQL filetable shared folder. Every file in storage have some metadata in database. Processing machines executes tasks for which they needed files from storage and their metadata. After completing task, processing machine puts resulting data back in storage. From there its taken by another processing machine, which also generates some file and put it back in storage. And etc. Everything was fine, but as number of processing machines increases, I found myself bottlenecked myself with storage machines hard drive performance. So I want processing machines to put files in distributed FS. to lift load from storage machines, from which they can take data from each other, not only storage machine. Can You suggest a particular distributed FS which meets my needs? Or there is another way to solve this problem, without it? Amounts of data in FS in one time are like several terabytes. (storage can handle this, but processors cannot). Data consistence is critical. Read write policy is: once file is written - its constant and may be only removed, but not modified. My current platform is Windows, but I'm ready to switch it, if there is a substantially more convenient solution on another one.

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  • Do any filesystems support multiple forks / streams on directories?

    - by hippietrail
    Apple's HFS+ supports multiple forks such as the old data and resource forks. NTFS supports alternate data streams. I believe some *nix filesystems also have some support for multiple file forks or streams. Given that directories (folders) are just a kind of file at the filesystem level, I'm wondering if any of the filesystems which support this feature support it for dirs as well as files? (Or indeed directories in the alternate forks / streams?) I'm mostly asking out of curiosity rather than wanting to use such a feature. But one use it would have would be additional metadata for directories, which seems to be the most common use for these streams for files currently.

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  • Do your filesystems have un-owned files ?

    - by darrenm
    As part of our work for integrated compliance reporting in Solaris we plan to provide a check for determining if the system has "un-owned files", ie those which are owned by a uid that does not exist in our configured nameservice.  Tests such as this already exist in the Solaris CIS Benchmark (9.24 Find Un-owned Files and Directories) and other security benchmarks. The obvious method of doing this would be using find(1) with the -nouser flag.  However that requires we bring into memory the metadata for every single file and directory in every local file system we have mounted.  That is probaby not an acceptable thing to do on a production system that has a large amount of storage and it is potentially going to take a long time. Just as I went to bed last night an idea for a much faster way of listing file systems that have un-owned files came to me. I've now implemented it and I'm happy to report it works very well and peforms many orders of magnatude better than using find(1) ever will.   ZFS (since pool version 15) has per user space accounting and quotas.  We can report very quickly and without actually reading any files at all how much space any given user id is using on a ZFS filesystem.  Using that information we can implement a check to very quickly list which filesystems contain un-owned files. First a few caveats because the output data won't be exactly the same as what you get with find but it answers the same basic question.  This only works for ZFS and it will only tell you which filesystems have files owned by unknown users not the actual files.  If you really want to know what the files are (ie to give them an owner) you still have to run find(1).  However it has the huge advantage that it doesn't use find(1) so it won't be dragging the metadata for every single file and directory on the system into memory. It also has the advantage that it can check filesystems that are not mounted currently (which find(1) can't do). It ran in about 4 seconds on a system with 300 ZFS datasets from 2 pools totalling about 3.2T of allocated space, and that includes the uid lookups and output. #!/bin/sh for fs in $(zfs list -H -o name -t filesystem -r rpool) ; do unknowns="" for uid in $(zfs userspace -Hipn -o name,used $fs | cut -f1); do if [ -z "$(getent passwd $uid)" ]; then unknowns="$unknowns$uid " fi done if [ ! -z "$unknowns" ]; then mountpoint=$(zfs list -H -o mountpoint $fs) mounted=$(zfs list -H -o mounted $fs) echo "ZFS File system $fs mounted ($mounted) on $mountpoint \c" echo "has files owned by unknown user ids: $unknowns"; fi done Sample output: ZFS File system rpool/ROOT/solaris-30/var mounted (no) on /var has files owned by unknown user ids: 6435 33667 101 ZFS File system rpool/ROOT/solaris-32/var mounted (yes) on /var has files owned by unknown user ids: 6435 33667ZFS File system builds/bob mounted (yes) on /builds/bob has files owned by unknown user ids: 101 Note that the above might not actually appear exactly like that in any future Solaris product or feature, it is provided just as an example of what you can do with ZFS user space accounting to answer questions like the above.

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  • Hibernating and booting into another OS: will my filesystems be corrupted?

    - by Ryan Thompson
    Suppose I have Windows and Linux installed on the same computer. If I hibernate Windows, can I boot into Linux without corrupting the Windows filesystem when I resume Windows? What about the other way around? What if I hibernate one, boot into the other, and mount the hibernated filesystem read/write? Read-only? If this is unsafe, is there any way to detect the hibernated state of the other OS and prevent mounting its filesystem? Basically, how far can I push this before it breaks, and how dangerous is it near the edge? I think I know the answers to some of the above questions, but for other ones, I have no idea, and for obvious reasons I have not tested this on my own computer. If someone has tested these, please enlighten the rest of us. I'm not necessarily looking for a specific answer to every question; I'll accept any response that answers a reasonable portion. EDIT: Let me clarify that when I say "hibernate," I mean the process of writing the contents of RAM to the hard disk and completely powering down the computer. In this state, powering the computer back on brings you through the BIOS and bootloader again, and you could theoretically select another operating system on a multi-boot system. Anyway, on with the original question: RESULTS Ok, after everyone's assurances that this would work, I tested it for myself. I set up Ubuntu to remount all ntfs filesystems and external drives read-only before hibernating. There was no need for a similar Windows setup because Windows does not read Linux filesystems. Then, I tried alternately hibernating one operating system and resuming the other, back and forth a few times. I even tried mounting the Windows filesystem from Ubuntu read-write, and creating a few files. Windows didn't complain when I resumed. So, in conclusion, you can more or less freely hibernate in a dual-boot Windows/Linux scenario. Note that I did not test a dual Linux/Linux co-hibernation situation. If you have two or more Linux installs and you hibernate one of them, you might be able to corrupt the filesystem by mounting it from another.

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  • Auto-mount filesystems on boot fails (12.10)

    - by Joshua Pruitt
    I have a Compaq HP 8200 slim desktop running 12.10 with encrypted partitions (set up with the text-based installer). Everything's working fine, except... When I boot the computer, my /boot and /boot/efi directories refuse to mount automatically. I'm dropped to the root console, where I must enter 'mountall -v', and everything then continues on just fine. This was happening under 12.04. I've recently upgraded to 12.10, and the problem persists. Except now, in addition to /boot and /boot/efi not mounting, roughly 50% of the time /var will not be auto-mounted as well (and again, 'mountall -v' fixes allows me to boot and move on). I'm puzzled about this one. Running 'fsck' doesn't seem to do anything (the filesystems aren't damaged anyway). What can I try to solve this issue? Here's my /etc/fstab: http://paste.ubuntu.com/1338508/ Thanks in advance!!! Addendum: I have tried changing the entries in fstab from UUIDs to the actual devices, to no avail.

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  • What's up with stat on MacOSX/Darwin? Or filesystems without names...

    - by Charles Stewart
    In response to a question I asked on SO, Give the mount point of a path, one respondant suggested using stat to get the device name associated with the volume of a given path. This works nicely on Linux, but gives crazy results on MacOSX 10.4. For my system, df and mount give: cas cas$ df Filesystem 512-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/disk0s3 58342896 49924456 7906440 86% / devfs 194 194 0 100% /dev fdesc 2 2 0 100% /dev <volfs> 1024 1024 0 100% /.vol automount -nsl [166] 0 0 0 100% /Network automount -fstab [170] 0 0 0 100% /automount/Servers automount -static [170] 0 0 0 100% /automount/static /dev/disk2s1 163577856 23225520 140352336 14% /Volumes/Snapshot /dev/disk2s2 409404102 5745938 383187960 1% /Volumes/Sparse cas cas$ mount /dev/disk0s3 on / (local, journaled) devfs on /dev (local) fdesc on /dev (union) <volfs> on /.vol automount -nsl [166] on /Network (automounted) automount -fstab [170] on /automount/Servers (automounted) automount -static [170] on /automount/static (automounted) /dev/disk2s1 on /Volumes/Snapshot (local, nodev, nosuid, journaled) /dev/disk2s2 on /Volumes/Sparse (asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid) Trying to get the devices from the mount points, though: cas cas$ df | grep -e/ | awk '{print $NF}' | while read line; do echo $line $(stat -f"%Sdr" $line); done / disk0s3r /dev ???r /dev ???r /.vol ???r /Network ???r /automount/Servers ???r /automount/static ???r /Volumes/Snapshot disk2s1r /Volumes/Sparse disk2s2r Here, I'm feeding each of the mount points scraped from df to stat, outputting the results of the "%Sdr" format string, which is supposed to be the device name: Cf. stat(1) man page: The special output specifier S may be used to indicate that the output, if applicable, should be in string format. May be used in combination with: ... dr Display actual device name. What's going on? Is it a bug in stat, or some Darwin VFS weirdness? Postscript Per Andrew McGregor, try passing "%Sd" to stat for more weirdness. It lists some apparently arbitrary subset of files from CWD...

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  • What's up with stat on Macos/Darwin? Or filesystems without names...

    - by Charles Stewart
    In response to a question I asked on SO, Give the mount point of a path, one respondant suggested using stat to get the device name associated with the volume of a given path. This works nicely on Linux, but gives crazy results on Macos 10.4. For my system, df and mount give: cas cas$ df Filesystem 512-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/disk0s3 58342896 49924456 7906440 86% / devfs 194 194 0 100% /dev fdesc 2 2 0 100% /dev 1024 1024 0 100% /.vol automount -nsl [166] 0 0 0 100% /Network automount -fstab [170] 0 0 0 100% /automount/Servers automount -static [170] 0 0 0 100% /automount/static /dev/disk2s1 163577856 23225520 140352336 14% /Volumes/Snapshot /dev/disk2s2 409404102 5745938 383187960 1% /Volumes/Sparse cas cas$ mount /dev/disk0s3 on / (local, journaled) devfs on /dev (local) fdesc on /dev (union) on /.vol automount -nsl [166] on /Network (automounted) automount -fstab [170] on /automount/Servers (automounted) automount -static [170] on /automount/static (automounted) /dev/disk2s1 on /Volumes/Snapshot (local, nodev, nosuid, journaled) /dev/disk2s2 on /Volumes/Sparse (asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid) Trying to get the devices from the mount points, though: cas cas$ df | grep -e/ | awk '{print $NF}' | while read line; do echo $line $(stat -f"%Sdr" $line); done / disk0s3r /dev ???r /dev ???r /.vol ???r /Network ???r /automount/Servers ???r /automount/static ???r /Volumes/Snapshot disk2s1r /Volumes/Sparse disk2s2r Here, I'm feeding each of the mount points scraped from df to stat, outputing the results of the "%Sdr" format string, which is supposed to be the device name: Cf. stat(1) man page: The special output specifier S may be used to indicate that the output, if applicable, should be in string format. May be used in combination with: ... dr Display actual device name. What's going on? Is it a bug in stat, or some Darwin VFS weirdness? Postscript Per Andrew McGregor, try passing "%Sd" to stat for more weirdness. It lists some apparently arbitrary subset of files from CWD...

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  • How do you create large, growable, shared filesystems on Linux at AWS?

    - by Reece
    What are acceptable/reasonable/best ways to provide large, growable, shared storage at AWS, exposed as a single filesystem? We're currently making 1TB EBS volumes ~biweekly and NFS exporting with no_subtree_check and nohide. In this setup, distinct exports appear under a single mount on the client. This arrangement does not scale well. The options we've considered: LVM2 with ext4. resize2fs is too slow. Btrfs on Linux. not obviously ready for prime time yet. ZFS on Linux. not obviously ready for prime time yet (although LLNL uses it) ZFS on Solaris. future of this combo is uncertain (to me), and new OS in the mix glusterfs. heard mostly good but two scary (and maybe old?) stories. The ideal solution would provide sharing, a single fs view, easy expandability, snapshots, and replication. Thanks for sharing ideas and experience.

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  • What's up with stat on Mac OS X/Darwin? Or filesystems without names...

    - by Charles Stewart
    In response to a question I asked on SO, Give the mount point of a path, one respondant suggested using stat to get the device name associated with the volume of a given path. This works nicely on Linux, but gives crazy results on Mac OS X 10.4. For my system, df and mount give: cas cas$ df Filesystem 512-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/disk0s3 58342896 49924456 7906440 86% / devfs 194 194 0 100% /dev fdesc 2 2 0 100% /dev <volfs> 1024 1024 0 100% /.vol automount -nsl [166] 0 0 0 100% /Network automount -fstab [170] 0 0 0 100% /automount/Servers automount -static [170] 0 0 0 100% /automount/static /dev/disk2s1 163577856 23225520 140352336 14% /Volumes/Snapshot /dev/disk2s2 409404102 5745938 383187960 1% /Volumes/Sparse cas cas$ mount /dev/disk0s3 on / (local, journaled) devfs on /dev (local) fdesc on /dev (union) <volfs> on /.vol automount -nsl [166] on /Network (automounted) automount -fstab [170] on /automount/Servers (automounted) automount -static [170] on /automount/static (automounted) /dev/disk2s1 on /Volumes/Snapshot (local, nodev, nosuid, journaled) /dev/disk2s2 on /Volumes/Sparse (asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid) Trying to get the devices from the mount points, though: cas cas$ df | grep -e/ | awk '{print $NF}' | while read line; do echo $line $(stat -f"%Sdr" $line); done / disk0s3r /dev ???r /dev ???r /.vol ???r /Network ???r /automount/Servers ???r /automount/static ???r /Volumes/Snapshot disk2s1r /Volumes/Sparse disk2s2r Here, I'm feeding each of the mount points scraped from df to stat, outputting the results of the "%Sdr" format string, which is supposed to be the device name: Cf. stat(1) man page: The special output specifier S may be used to indicate that the output, if applicable, should be in string format. May be used in combination with: ... dr Display actual device name. What's going on? Is it a bug in stat, or some Darwin VFS weirdness? Postscript Per Andrew McGregor, try passing "%Sd" to stat for more weirdness. It lists some apparently arbitrary subset of files from CWD...

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  • Should I be worry about max number of files in a folder in *NIX filesystems?

    - by ??????
    In a social networking project we want to store user's avatars in a folder. I think in one year or two it'll reach to 140K (I've seen this issue before and it will be around this number). I want to spread files in folders. If a folder contains 1000 files then create another folder and do store files from 1001 to 2000. Is this a good approach or I'm just very cautious about the issue? (File system : EXT3)

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  • Strange ZFS hidden filesystem problem

    - by RandomInsano
    Half of my ZFS filesystems are hidden in ZFS-fuse. Here's my story: So, I love ZFS. I used it for about six months on FreeBSD, but due to it crashing the kernel during heavy inter-filesystem IO load, I tried switching to Solaris 5.10. That was good, but when I attempted to do an import of my Version 13 pool into its Version 4 version of ZFS, there were some heafty problems. It may have tried to correct the filesystem definitions, I don't know. Since that version wasn't compatible with my pool, I've now switched to Ubuntu Server 10.4. That version more than supports that of my pool, but I can only see half of my filesystems. The filesystems I can see are the same as those Solaris could see. Now, despite those filesystems not being preset in a 'zfs list' command, I can still set properties on them and I can even still mount them and read and write files, but they just plain don't show up in 'zfs list'. I've mounted the major ones, but I'm not sure what other filesystems there are anymore (I have about eight that I can't see). Anyone have any idea what the heck is going on? I think I might try booting back into FreeBSD 8 (I still have the main boot drive laying around for that) and see if at least it is able to view the filesystems. I've also done a scrub while in Linux, and it found no errors with any of the data. Oddly, DMA read errors which caused problems on FreeBSD ZFS are reported by Linux, but ZFS-fuse doesn't find an error. That's a topic for another post however.

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