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  • How is return address specified in stack?

    - by Mask
    This is what I see by disassemble for the statement function(1,2,3);: movl $0x3,0x8(%esp) movl $0x2,0x4(%esp) movl $0x1,(%esp) call 0x4012d0 <_Z8functioniii> It seems the ret address is not pushed into stack at all,then how does ret work?

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  • stack.ToList() in .NET - order of elements?

    - by James M.
    When using the .ToList() extension method on a Stack<T>, is the result the same as popping each element and adding to a new list (reverse of what was pushed)? If so, is this because it really is iterating over each element, or does it store the elements in reverse internally and slip the array into a new List<T>?

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  • C stack/scope, variable's lifetime after functions ends

    - by Ranking Stackingblocks
    void someFunc() { int stackInt = 4; someOtherFunc(&stackInt); } Is it the case that stackInt's address space could be reallocated after someFunc ends, making it unsafe to assume that the value passed to someOtherFunc represents the stackInt variable with value 4 that was passed to it? In other words, should I avoid passing stack variables around by address and expecting them to still be alive after the function they were initialised in has ended?

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  • Hibernate - on the stack or on the heap?

    - by Stephano
    As a Java programmer, you usually keep two truths in your pocket: Instance variables and Objects lie on Heap. Local variables and methods lie on the Stack. Now that I use Hibernate in just about everything, I realize I'm not as sure of myself. Are there some good rules of thumb for using hibernate and knowing where your memory lives?

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  • Threads sharing Stack locations?

    - by Achilles
    Hi there, I did a search but couldn't find anything. I was reading a paper that mentions thread sharing stack locations.... I wonder how and why'd that be needed. Any examples would be highly appreciated. Many thanks.

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  • Java and C++ on Stack Unwinding issue

    - by sahs-i-muhterem
    As far as I know, in case of an uncaught exception, C++ destroys the local variables immediately, Java releases the references and leaves the rest for the garbage collector. Is this right? What exactly is the difference between Java and C++ on this issue? in other words, which of these two languages is considered better in terms of stack unwinding issue? :)

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  • Need help with buffer overrun.

    - by Morinar
    I've got a buffer overrun I absolutely can't see to figure out (in C). First of all, it only happens maybe 10% of the time or so. The data that it is pulling from the DB each time doesn't seem to be all that much different between executions... at least not different enough for me to find any discernible pattern as to when it happens. The exact message from Visual Studio is this: A buffer overrun has occurred in hub.exe which has corrupted the program's internal state. Press Break to debug the program or Continue to terminate the program. For more details please see Help topic 'How to debug Buffer Overrun Issues'. If I debug, I find that it is broken in __report_gsfailure() which I'm pretty sure is from the /GS flag on the compiler and also signifies that this is an overrun on the stack rather than the heap. I can also see the function it threw this on as it was leaving, but I can't see anything in there that would cause this behavior, the function has also existed for a long time (10+ years, albeit with some minor modifications) and as far as I know, this has never happened. I'd post the code of the function, but it's decently long and references a lot of proprietary functions/variables/etc. I'm basically just looking for either some idea of what I should be looking for that I haven't or perhaps some tools that may help. Unfortunately, nearly every tool I've found only helps with debugging overruns on the heap, and unless I'm mistaken, this is on the stack. Thanks in advance.

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  • Help debugging c fifos code - stack smashing detected - open call not functioning - removing pipes

    - by nunos
    I have three bugs/questions regarding the source code pasted below: stack smashing deteced: In order to compile and not have that error I have addedd the gcc compile flag -fno-stack-protector. However, this should be just a temporary solution, since I would like to find where the cause for this is and correct it. However, I haven't been able to do so. Any clues? For some reason, the last open function call doesn't work and the programs just stops there, without an error, even though the fifo already exists. I want to delete the pipes from the filesystem after before terminating the processes. I have added close and unlink statements at the end, but the fifos are not removed. What am I doing wrong? Thanks very much in advance. P.S.: I am pasting here the whole source file for additional clarity. Just ignore the comments, since they are in my own native language. server.c: #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <errno.h> #define MAX_INPUT_LENGTH 100 #define FIFO_NAME_MAX_LEN 20 #define FIFO_DIR "/tmp/" #define FIFO_NAME_CMD_CLI_TO_SRV "lrc_cmd_cli_to_srv" typedef enum { false, true } bool; bool background = false; char* logfile = NULL; void read_from_fifo(int fd, char** var) { int n_bytes; read(fd, &n_bytes, sizeof(int)); *var = (char *) malloc (n_bytes); read(fd, *var, n_bytes); printf("read %d bytes '%s'\n", n_bytes, *var); } void write_to_fifo(int fd, char* data) { int n_bytes = (strlen(data)+1) * sizeof(char); write(fd, &n_bytes, sizeof(int)); //primeiro envia o numero de bytes que a proxima instrucao write ira enviar write(fd, data, n_bytes); printf("writing %d bytes '%s'\n", n_bytes, data); } int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { //CRIA FIFO CMD_CLI_TO_SRV, se ainda nao existir char* fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv; fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv = (char*) malloc ( (strlen(FIFO_NAME_CMD_CLI_TO_SRV) + strlen(FIFO_DIR) + 1) * sizeof(char) ); strcpy(fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv, FIFO_DIR); strcat(fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv, FIFO_NAME_CMD_CLI_TO_SRV); int n = mkfifo(fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv, 0660); //TODO ver permissoes if (n < 0 && errno != EEXIST) //se houver erro, e nao for por causa de ja haver um com o mesmo nome, termina o programa { fprintf(stderr, "erro ao criar o fifo\n"); fprintf(stderr, "errno: %d\n", errno); exit(4); } //se por acaso já existir, nao cria o fifo e continua o programa normalmente //le informacao enviada pelo cliente, nesta ordem: //1. pid (em formato char*) do processo cliente //2. comando /CONNECT //3. nome de fifo INFO_SRV_TO_CLIXXX //4. nome de fifo MSG_SRV_TO_CLIXXX char* command; char* fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli; char* fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli; char* client_pid_string; int client_pid; int fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, fd_info_srv_to_cli; fd_cmd_cli_to_srv = open(fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv, O_RDONLY); read_from_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, &client_pid_string); client_pid = atoi(client_pid_string); read_from_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, &command); //recebe commando /CONNECT read_from_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, &fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); //recebe nome de fifo INFO_SRV_TO_CLIXXX read_from_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, &fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli); //recebe nome de fifo MSG_TO_SRV_TO_CLIXXX //CIRA FIFO MSG_CLIXXX_TO_SRV char fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv[FIFO_NAME_MAX_LEN]; strcpy(fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv, FIFO_DIR); strcat(fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv, "lrc_msg_cli"); strcat(fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv, client_pid_string); strcat(fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv, "_to_srv"); n = mkfifo(fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv, 0660); if (n < 0) { fprintf(stderr, "error creating %s\n", fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv); fprintf(stderr, "errno: %d\n", errno); exit(5); } //envia ao cliente a resposta ao commando /CONNECT fd_info_srv_to_cli = open(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli, O_WRONLY); write_to_fifo(fd_info_srv_to_cli, fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv); free(logfile); free(fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv); close(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv); unlink(fifo_name_cmd_cli_to_srv); unlink(fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv); unlink(fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli); unlink(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); printf("fim\n"); return 0; } client.c: #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <errno.h> #define MAX_INPUT_LENGTH 100 #define PID_BUFFER_LEN 10 #define FIFO_NAME_CMD_CLI_TO_SRV "lrc_cmd_cli_to_srv" #define FIFO_NAME_INFO_SRV_TO_CLI "lrc_info_srv_to_cli" #define FIFO_NAME_MSG_SRV_TO_CLI "lrc_msg_srv_to_cli" #define COMMAND_MAX_LEN 100 #define FIFO_DIR "/tmp/" typedef enum { false, true } bool; char* nickname; char* name; char* email; void write_to_fifo(int fd, char* data) { int n_bytes = (strlen(data)+1) * sizeof(char); write(fd, &n_bytes, sizeof(int)); //primeiro envia o numero de bytes que a proxima instrucao write ira enviar write(fd, data, n_bytes); printf("writing %d bytes '%s'\n", n_bytes, data); } void read_from_fifo(int fd, char** var) { int n_bytes; read(fd, &n_bytes, sizeof(int)); *var = (char *) malloc (n_bytes); printf("read '%s'\n", *var); read(fd, *var, n_bytes); } int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { pid_t pid = getpid(); //CRIA FIFO INFO_SRV_TO_CLIXXX char pid_string[PID_BUFFER_LEN]; sprintf(pid_string, "%d", pid); char* fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli; fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli = (char *) malloc ( (strlen(FIFO_DIR) + strlen(FIFO_NAME_INFO_SRV_TO_CLI) + strlen(pid_string) + 1 ) * sizeof(char) ); strcpy(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli, FIFO_DIR); strcat(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli, FIFO_NAME_INFO_SRV_TO_CLI); strcat(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli, pid_string); int n = mkfifo(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli, 0660); if (n < 0) { fprintf(stderr, "error creating %s\n", fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); fprintf(stderr, "errno: %d\n", errno); exit(6); } int fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, fd_info_srv_to_cli; fd_cmd_cli_to_srv = open("/tmp/lrc_cmd_cli_to_srv", O_WRONLY); char command[COMMAND_MAX_LEN]; printf("> "); scanf("%s", command); while (strcmp(command, "/CONNECT")) { printf("O primeiro comando deverá ser \"/CONNECT\"\n"); printf("> "); scanf("%s", command); } //CRIA FIFO MSG_SRV_TO_CLIXXX char* fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli; fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli = (char *) malloc ( (strlen(FIFO_DIR) + strlen(FIFO_NAME_MSG_SRV_TO_CLI) + strlen(pid_string) + 1) * sizeof(char) ); strcpy(fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli, FIFO_DIR); strcat(fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli, FIFO_NAME_MSG_SRV_TO_CLI); strcat(fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli, pid_string); n = mkfifo(fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli, 0660); if (n < 0) { fprintf(stderr, "error creating %s\n", fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); fprintf(stderr, "errno: %d\n", errno); exit(7); } // ENVIA COMANDO /CONNECT write_to_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, pid_string); //envia pid do processo cliente write_to_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, command); //envia commando /CONNECT write_to_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); //envia nome de fifo INFO_SRV_TO_CLIXXX write_to_fifo(fd_cmd_cli_to_srv, fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli); //envia nome de fifo MSG_TO_SRV_TO_CLIXXX // recebe do servidor a resposta ao comanddo /CONNECT printf("msg1\n"); printf("vamos tentar abrir %s\n", fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); fd_info_srv_to_cli = open(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli, O_RDONLY); printf("%s aberto", fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); if (fd_info_srv_to_cli < 0) { fprintf(stderr, "erro ao criar %s\n", fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); fprintf(stderr, "errno: %d\n", errno); } printf("msg2\n"); char* fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv; printf("msg3\n"); read_from_fifo(fd_info_srv_to_cli, &fifo_name_msg_cli_to_srv); printf("msg4\n"); free(nickname); free(name); free(email); free(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); free(fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli); unlink(fifo_name_msg_srv_to_cli); unlink(fifo_name_info_srv_to_cli); printf("fim\n"); return 0; } makefile: CC = gcc CFLAGS = -Wall -lpthread -fno-stack-protector all: client server client: client.c $(CC) $(CFLAGS) client.c -o client server: server.c $(CC) $(CFLAGS) server.c -o server clean: rm -f client server *~

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  • free() on stack memory

    - by vidicon
    I'm supporting some c code on Solaris, and I've seen something weird at least I think it is: char new_login[64]; ... strcpy(new_login, (char *)login); ... free(new_login); My understanding is that since the variable is a local array the memory comes from the stack and does not need to be freed, and moreover since no malloc/calloc/realloc was used the behaviour is undefined. This is a real-time system so I think it is a waste of cycles. Am I missing something obvious?

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  • Stack calling convention between .NET & C on WinCE 6.0

    - by bernard
    Hi there. I'm porting a DLL written in C from WinCE 5.0 to WinCE 6.0 on an ARM target. This DLL is called by a .NET software. On WinCE5.0, everything runs fine. On WinCE6, I have the following problem: on InitInstance() of my DLL, I can call anything without problem (for example MessageBox()) or uses recursivity. Passed that point, the DLL is called by .NET code. And then it fails: even the arguments passed by .NET code seem weird. I can call MessageBox() once, but I can't call a function that calls MessageBox() and then that calls itself: recursivity is broken. It seems that the .NET code uses the stack in a different way than my C code. I'm very unfamillar with the Windows world and the company that gives me the .NET application does not understand yet why there is such a failure. Any pointer/hint/advice welcome! Thanks!

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  • Are stack based arrays possible in C#?

    - by Bob
    Let's say, hypothetically (read: I don't think I actually need this, but I am curious as the idea popped into my head), one wanted an array of memory set aside locally on the stack, not on the heap. For instance, something like this: private void someFunction() { int[20] stackArray; //C style; I know the size and it's set in stone } I'm guessing the answer is no. All I've been able to find is heap based arrays. If someone were to need this, would there be any workarounds? Is there any way to set aside a certain amount of sequential memory in a "value type" way? Or are structs with named parameters the only way (like the way the Matrix struct in XNA has 16 named parameters (M11-M44))?

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  • How to implement a graph-structured stack?

    - by Emil
    Ok, so I would like to make a GLR parser generator. I know there exist such programs better than what I will probably make, but I am doing this for fun/learning so that's not important. I have been reading about GLR parsing and I think I have a decent high level understanding of it now. But now it's time to get down to business. The graph-structured stack (GSS) is the key data structure for use in GLR parsers. Conceptually I know how GSS works, but none of the sources I looked at so far explain how to implement GSS. I don't even have an authoritative list of operations to support. Can someone point me to some good sample code/tutorial for GSS? Google didn't help so far. I hope this question is not too vague.

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  • Stack memory in Android

    - by Matt
    I'm writing an app that has a foreground service, content provider, and a Activity front end that binds to the service and gets back a List of objects using AIDL. The service does work and updates a database. If I leave the activity open for 4-8+ hours, and go to the "Running Services" section under settings on the phone (Nexus One) an unusually large amount of memory being used is shown (~42MB). I figure there is a leak. When I check the heap memory i get Heap size:~18MB, ~2MB allocated, ~16MB free. Analyzing the hprof in Eclipse MAT seems fine, which leads me to theorize that memory is leaking on the stack. Is this even possible? If it is, what can I do to stop or investigate the leak? Is the reported memory usage on the "Running Services" section of android even correct (I assume it is)? Another note: I have been unable to reproduce this issue when the UI is not up (with only the service running)

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  • What is the effect of running an application with "Unlimited Stack" size

    - by NSA
    Hello All, I have inherited some code that I need to maintain that can be less than stable at times. The previous people are no longer available to query as to why they ran the application in an environment with unlimited stack set, I am curious what the effects of this could be? The application seems to have some unpredictable memory bugs that we cannot find and running the application under valgrind is not an option because it slows the application down so much that we cannot actually run it. So any thoughts on what the effects of this might be are appreciated. Thank you.

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  • C++ stack memory still valid?

    - by jbu
    Hi all, If I create an object on the stack and push it into a list, then the object loses scope (outside of the for loop in the example below) will the object still exist in the list? If the list still holds the object, is that data now invalid/possibly corrupt? Please let me know, and please explain the reasoning.. Thanks, jbu class SomeObject{ public: AnotherObject x; } //And then... void someMethod() { std::list<SomeObject> my_list; for(int i = 0; i < SOME_NUMBER; i++) { SomeObject tmp; my_list.push_back(tmp); //after the for loop iteration, tmp loses scope } my_list.front(); //at this point will my_list be full of valid SomeObjects or will the SomeObjects no longer be valid, even if they still point to dirty data }

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  • Adding "this" to the parents stack for "each" in jQuery

    - by Matrym
    This question is a bit of a two-parter. First, the title question. Here's what I've got: // Report all of the parents $(this).parents().each(function(i){ // Collect the parts in a var var $crumb = ''; // Get the tag name of the parent $crumb += "<span class='tagName'>"+this.tagName+"</span>"; // And finally, report it $breadcrumbs.prepend($crumb); }); Unfortunately, this doesn't include the actual element itself, only the parents. Is there any way of saying something like "this and parents"? Now, the second question. If I were unable to add to the stack, how would I separate the guts of that function into another function, while retaining the "this" ability of it? Would it be something like: // Function to report the findings function crumble(e){ // Collect the parts in a var var $crumb = ''; // Get the tag name of the parent $crumb += "<span class='tagName'>"+this.tagName+"</span>"; // And finally, report it $breadcrumbs.prepend($crumb); }; $(this).parents().each(crumble()); Thanks in advance for your time!

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  • Stack and Hash joint

    - by Alexandru
    I'm trying to write a data structure which is a combination of Stack and HashSet with fast push/pop/membership (I'm looking for constant time operations). Think of Python's OrderedDict. I tried a few things and I came up with the following code: HashInt and SetInt. I need to add some documentation to the source, but basically I use a hash with linear probing to store indices in a vector of the keys. Since linear probing always puts the last element at the end of a continuous range of already filled cells, pop() can be implemented very easy without a sophisticated remove operation. I have the following problems: the data structure consumes a lot of memory (some improvement is obvious: stackKeys is larger than needed). some operations are slower than if I have used fastutil (eg: pop(), even push() in some scenarios). I tried rewriting the classes using fastutil and trove4j, but the overall speed of my application halved. What performance improvements would you suggest for my code? What open-source library/code do you know that I can try?

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  • segmentation fault on Unix - possible stack corruption

    - by bob
    hello, i'm looking at a core from a process running in Unix. Usually I can work my around and root into the backtrace to try identify a memory issue. In this case, I'm not sure how to proceed. Firstly the backtrace only gives 3 frames where I would expect alot more. For those frames, all the function parameters presented appears to completely invalid. There are not what I would expect. Some pointer parameters have the following associated with them - Cannot access memory at address Would this suggest some kind of complete stack corruption. I ran the process with libumem and all the buffers were reported as being clean. umem_status reported nothing either. so basically I'm stumped. What is the likely causes? What should I look for in code since libumem appears to have reported no errors. Any suggestions on how I can debug furhter? any extra features in mdb I should consider? thank you.

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  • How to debug anomalous C memory/stack problems

    - by EBM
    Hello, Sorry I can't be specific with code, but the problems I am seeing are anomalous. Character string values seem to be getting changed depending on other, unrelated code. For example, the value of the argument that is passed around below will change merely depending on if I comment out one or two of the fprintf() calls! By the last fprintf() the value is typically completely empty (and no, I have checked to make sure I am not modifying the argument directly... all I have to do is comment out a fprintf() or add another fprintf() and the value of the string will change at certain points!): static process_args(char *arg) { /* debug */ fprintf(stderr, "Function arg is %s\n", arg); ...do a bunch of stuff including call another function that uses alloc()... /* debug */ fprintf(stderr, "Function arg is now %s\n", arg); } int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { char *my_arg; ... do a bunch of stuff ... /* just to show you it's nothing to do with the argv array */ my_string = strdup(argv[1]); /* debug */ fprintf(stderr, "Argument 1 is %s\n", my_string); process_args(my_string); } There's more code all around, so I can't ask for someone to debug my program -- what I want to know is HOW can I debug why character strings like this are getting their memory changed or overwritten based on unrelated code. Is my memory limited? My stack too small? How do I tell? What else can I do to track down the issue? My program isn't huge, it's like a thousand lines of code give or take and a couple dynamically linked external libs, but nothing out of the ordinary. HELP! TIA!

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  • Why is my Pre to Postfix code not working?

    - by Anthony Glyadchenko
    For a class assignment, I have to use two stacks in C++ to make an equation to be converted to its left to right equivalent: 2+4*(3+4*8) -- 35*4+2 -- 142 Here is the main code: #include <iostream> #include <cstring> #include "ctStack.h" using namespace std; int main (int argc, char * const argv[]) { string expression = "2+4*2"; ctstack *output = new ctstack(expression.length()); ctstack *stack = new ctstack(expression.length()); bool previousIsANum = false; for(int i = 0; i < expression.length(); i++){ switch (expression[i]){ case '(': previousIsANum = false; stack->cmstackPush(expression[i]); break; case ')': previousIsANum = false; char x; while (x != '('){ stack->cmstackPop(x); output->cmstackPush(x); } break; case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4': case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9': cout << "A number" << endl; previousIsANum = true; output->cmstackPush(expression[i]); break; case '+': previousIsANum = false; cout << "+" << endl; break; case '-': previousIsANum = false; cout << "-" << endl; break; case '*': previousIsANum = false; cout << "*" << endl; break; case '/': previousIsANum = false; cout << "/" << endl; break; default: break; } } char i = ' '; while (stack->ltopOfStack > 0){ stack->cmstackPop(i); output->cmstackPush(i); cout << i << endl; } return 0; } Here is the stack code (watch out!): #include <cstdio> #include <assert.h> #include <new.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <iostream> class ctstack { private: long* lpstack ; // the stack itself long ltrue ; // constructor sets to 1 long lfalse ; // constructor sets to 0 // offset to top of the stack long lmaxEleInStack ; // maximum possible elements of stack public: long ltopOfStack ; ctstack ( long lnbrOfEleToAllocInStack ) { // Constructor lfalse = 0 ; // set to zero ltrue = 1 ; // set to one assert ( lnbrOfEleToAllocInStack > 0 ) ; // assure positive argument ltopOfStack = -1 ; // ltopOfStack is really an index lmaxEleInStack = lnbrOfEleToAllocInStack ; // set lmaxEleInStack to max ele lpstack = new long [ lmaxEleInStack ] ; // allocate stack assert ( lpstack ) ; // assure new succeeded } ~ctstack ( ) { // Destructor delete [ ] lpstack ; // Delete the stack itself } ctstack& operator= ( const ctstack& ctoriginStack) { // Assignment if ( this == &ctoriginStack ) // verify x not assigned to x return *this ; if ( this -> lmaxEleInStack < ctoriginStack . lmaxEleInStack ) { // if destination stack is smaller than delete [ ] this -> lpstack ; // original stack, delete dest and alloc this -> lpstack = // sufficient memory new long [ ctoriginStack . lmaxEleInStack ] ; assert ( this -> lpstack ) ; // assure new succeeded // reset stack size attribute this -> lmaxEleInStack = ctoriginStack . lmaxEleInStack ; } // copy original to destination stack for ( long i = 0 ; i < ctoriginStack . lmaxEleInStack ; i ++ ) *( this -> lpstack + i ) = *( ctoriginStack . lpstack + i ) ; this -> ltopOfStack = ctoriginStack . ltopOfStack ; // reset stack position attribute return *this ; } long cmstackPush (char lplaceInStack ) { // Push Method if ( ltopOfStack == lmaxEleInStack - 1 ) // stack is full can't add element return lfalse ; ltopOfStack ++ ; // acquire free slot *(lpstack + ltopOfStack ) = lplaceInStack ; // add element return ltrue ; // any number other than zero is true } long cmstackPop (char& lretrievedStackEle ) { // Pop Method if ( ltopOfStack < 0 ) { // stack has no elements lretrievedStackEle = -1 ; // dummy element return lfalse ; } lretrievedStackEle = *( lpstack + ltopOfStack ) ; // stack has element -- return it ltopOfStack -- ; // stack is pop'd return ltrue ; // any number other than zero is true } long cmstackLookAtTop (char& lretrievedStackEle ) { // Pop Method if ( ltopOfStack < 0 ) { // stack has no elements lretrievedStackEle = -1 ; // dummy element return lfalse ; } lretrievedStackEle = *( lpstack + ltopOfStack ) ; // stack has element -- return it return ltrue ; // any number other than zero is true } long cmstackHasAnEle (char& lretrievedTopOfStack ) { // Has element method lretrievedTopOfStack = ltopOfStack ; return ltopOfStack < 0 ? lfalse : ltrue ; // 0 - false stack does not have any ele } // 1 - true stack has at least one element long cmstackMaxNbrOfEle (char& lretrievedMaxStackEle ) { // Maximum element method lretrievedMaxStackEle = lmaxEleInStack ; // return stack size in reference var return ltrue ; // Return Maximum Size of Stack } } ; Thanks, Anthony.

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