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  • Java: immutability, overuse of stack -- better data structure?

    - by HH
    I overused hashSets but it was slow, then changed to Stacks, speed boost-up. Poly's reply uses Collections.emptyList() as immutable list, cutting out excess null-checkers. No Collections.emptyStack(). Combining the words stack and immutability, from the last experiences, gets "immutable stack" (probably not related to functional prog). Java Api 5 for list interface shows that Stack is an implementing class for list and arraylist, here. The java.coccurrent pkg does not have any immutable Stack data structure. The first hinted of misusing stack. The lack of immutabily in the last and poly's book recommendation leads way to list. Something very primitive, fast, no extra layers, with methods like emptyThing(). Overuse of stack and where I use it DataFile.java: public Stack<DataFile> files; FileObject.java: public Stack<String> printViews = new Stack<String>(); FileObject.java:// private static Stack<Object> getFormat(File f){return (new Format(f)).getFormat();} Format.java: private Stack<Object> getLine(File[] fs,String s){return wF;} Format.java: private Stack<Object> getFormat(){return format;} Positions.java: public static Stack<Integer[]> getPrintPoss(String s,File f,Integer maxViewPerF) Positions.java: Stack<File> possPrint = new Stack<File>(); Positions.java: Stack<Integer> positions=new Stack<Integer>(); Record.java: private String getFormatLine(Stack<Object> st) Record.java: Stack<String> lines=new Stack<String>(); SearchToUser.java: public static final Stack<File> allFiles = findf.getFs(); SearchToUser.java: public static final Stack<File> allDirs = findf.getDs(); SearchToUser.java: private Stack<Integer[]> positionsPrint=new Stack<Integer[]>(); SearchToUser.java: public Stack<String> getSearchResults(String s, Integer countPerFile, Integer resCount) SearchToUser.java: Stack<File> filesToS=Fs2Word.getFs2W(s,50); SearchToUser.java: Stack<String> rs=new Stack<String>(); View.java: public Stack<Integer[]> poss = new Stack<Integer[4]>(); View.java: public static Stack<String> getPrintViewsFileWise(String s,Object[] df,Integer maxViewsPerF) View.java: Stack<String> substrings = new Stack<String>(); View.java: private Stack<String> printViews=new Stack<String>(); View.java: MatchView(Stack<Integer> pss,File f,Integer maxViews) View.java: Stack<String> formatFile; View.java: private Stack<Search> files; View.java: private Stack<File> matchingFiles; View.java: private Stack<String> matchViews; View.java: private Stack<String> searchMatches; View.java: private Stack<String> getSearchResults(Integer numbResults) Easier with List: AllDirs and AllFs, now looping with push, but list has more pow. methods such as addAll [OLD] From Stack to some immutable data structure How to get immutable Stack data structure? Can I box it with list? Should I switch my current implementatios from stacks to Lists to get immutable? Which immutable data structure is Very fast with about similar exec time as Stack? No immutability to Stack with Final import java.io.*; import java.util.*; public class TestStack{ public static void main(String[] args) { final Stack<Integer> test = new Stack<Integer>(); Stack<Integer> test2 = new Stack<Integer>(); test.push(37707); test2.push(80437707); //WHY is there not an error to remove an elment // from FINAL stack? System.out.println(test.pop()); System.out.println(test2.pop()); } }

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  • Which are the fundamental stack manipulation operations?

    - by Aadit M Shah
    I'm creating a stack oriented virtual machine, and so I started learning Forth for a general understanding about how it would work. Then I shortlisted the essential stack manipulation operations I would need to implement in my virtual machine: drop ( a -- ) dup ( a -- a a ) swap ( a b -- b a ) rot ( a b c -- b c a ) I believe that the following four stack manipulation operations can be used to simulate any other stack manipulation operation. For example: nip ( a b -- b ) swap drop -rot ( a b c -- c a b ) rot rot tuck ( a b -- b a b ) dup -rot over ( a b -- a b a ) swap tuck That being said however I wanted to know whether I have listed all the fundamental stack manipulation operations necessary to manipulate the stack in any possible way. Are there any more fundamental stack manipulation operations I would need to implement, without which my virtual machine wouldn't be Turing complete?

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  • Confusion of the "stack" in Assembly-level programming

    - by Bigyellow Bastion
    What is the "stack" exactly? I've read articles, tried comprehending it through my understanding, experience, and educated guessing of programming and computers, but I'm a bit perplexed here. The "stack" is a region in RAM? Or is it some other space I'm uncertain of here? The processor pushes bits through registers on to the stack in RAM, or do I have it wrong here? Also, the processor moves the bits from the RAM to the register to "process" it, such as maybe a compare, arithmetic, etc. But what actually can help understand, in some visual or verbal description or both, of how to implement the idea of a "stack" here? Is the stack actually the same in terminology with a "machine stack" meaning it's in RAM? I'm sorry, I don't want to solicit debate or arguments, but I really could use some help here if anyone can straighten things out. TO ADD: I know what a software stack is. I know about LIFO, FIFO, etc. I just want to gain a better understanding of the Assembly-level stack, what it is, where it is, how exactly it works, etc. Thanks for reading!

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  • Assembly keep getting seg fault when working with stack [migrated]

    - by user973917
    I'm trying to learn assembly and have found that I keep getting segfaults when trying to push/pop data off of the stack. I've read a few guides and know how the stack works and how to work with the stack; but don't know why I keep getting the error. Can someone help? segment .data myvar: db "hello world", 0xA0, 0 myvarL: equ $-myvar segment .text global _start _start: push ebp mov ebp, esp push myvarL push myvar call _hworld _hworld: mov eax, 4 mov ebx, 1 mov ecx, [ebp+4] mov edx, [ebp+8] pop ebp int 0x80 ret I'm assuming that the +4 is 32 bits, then +8 is 64 bits. It isn't really clear to me why this way is being done on some of the guides I've read. I would assume that myvar is 13 bits?

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  • calculater by using reverse polish notation and using a stack

    - by programmer
    hello everyone I have a segmentation fault ,can you help please? if i have this operater "3 5 +" that mean 3+5 and like "9 8 * 5 + 4 + sin", "sin(((9*8)+5)+4)" so my idea is check if the first and second are numbers and push theem in the stack then when i have operator i pop the numbers and make the calculation then push the answer again. ` typedef struct st_node { float val; struct st_node *next; } t_node; typedef t_node t_stack; // a function to allocate memory for a stack and returns the stack t_stack* fnewCell() { t_stack* ret; ret = (t_stack*) malloc(sizeof(t_stack)); return ret; } // a function to allocate memory for a stack, fills it with value v and pointer n , and returns the stack t_stack* fnewCellFilled(float v, t_stack* n) { t_stack* ret; ret = fnewCell(); ret->val = v; ret->next =n; return ret; } //function to initialize stack void initstack(t_stack** stack) { fnewCellFilled(0,NULL); } // add new cell void insrtHead(t_stack** head,float val) { *head = fnewCellFilled(val,*head); } //function to push the value v into the stack s void push(t_stack **s, float val) { insrtHead(s,val); } //function to pop a value from the stack and returns it int pop(t_stack **s) { t_stack* tmp; int ret; tmp = (*s)->next; ret = (*s)->val; free(*s); (*s) = tmp; return ret; } int isempty (t_stack *t) { return t == NULL; } //function to transfer a string(str) to int (value) //returns -1 when success , i otherwise int str2int(char *str,int *value) { int i; *value = 0; int sign=(str[0]=='-' ? -1 : 1); for(i=(str[0]=='-' ? 1 : 0);str[i]!=0;i++) { if(!(str[i]>=48 && str[i]<=57)) // Ascii char 0 to 9 return i; *value= *value*10+(str[i]-48); } *value = *value * sign; return -1; } //a function that takes a string, transfer it into integer and make operation using a stack void function(t_stack *stack, char *str) { char x[10]=" "; int y,j,i=0,z; printf("++\n"); if(str[i] != '\0') { strcpy(x, strtok(str, " ")); z= str2int(x, &y); if(z == -1) { push(&stack,y); i=i+2; } } while(str[i] != '\0') { strcpy(x, strtok(NULL, " ")); z= str2int(x, &y); if(z == -1) { printf("yes %d",y); push(&stack,y); i=i+2; } else { y=pop(&stack); j=pop(&stack); if(x[0] == '+' ) push(&stack,y+j); else if (x[0] == '-' ) push(&stack,j-y); else if(x[0] == '*' ) push(&stack,j*y); else if(x[0] == '/') push (&stack ,j/y); } } } int main() { t_stack *s; initstack(&s); char *str="3 5 +"; function(s,str); return 0; } `

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  • Java: immutable Stack?

    - by HH
    I chose to use Stacks and Tables before knowing Collections has immutable empty things only for Set, Map and List. Because the size of table does not change after its init: Integer[] table = new Intger[0] I can use the zero-witdh table as an empty table. But I cannot use final or empty Stack to get immutable Stack: No immutability to Stack with Final import java.io.*; import java.util.*; public class TestStack{ public static void main(String[] args) { final Stack<Integer> test = new Stack<Integer>(); Stack<Integer> test2 = new Stack<Integer>(); test.push(37707); test2.push(80437707); //WHY is there not an error to remove an elment // from FINAL stack? System.out.println(test.pop()); System.out.println(test2.pop()); } } Java Api 5 for list interface shows that Stack is an implementing class for list and arraylist, here. The java.coccurrent pkg does not have any immutable Stack data structure. From Stack to some immutable data structure How to get immutable Stack data structure? Can I box it with list? Should I switch my current implementatios from stacks to Lists to get immutable? Which immutable data structure is Very fast with about similar exec time as Stack?

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  • Installing a new hardware enablement (HWE) stack in 64 bit Ubuntu

    - by Alexey
    I'd like to install 13.10 (Saucy) hardware enablement (HWE) stack to my Ubuntu 12.04 (64-bit) because I need a newer Linux kernel. This wiki page explains what "hardware enablement stacks" are. Among other things it says: Only the -generic x86 kernel flavor ... will be supported... Also, this answer says: ...This is only recommended for x86 hardware installations... Is x86 here synonymous to 32-bit/i386 architecture (but not 64-bit/AMD64), or is it i386/AMD64 (but not ARM)? Can I install this "hardware enablement stack" in a 64-bit/AMD64 Ubuntu? Will it be supported with future updates?

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  • Status of stack based languages

    - by Andrea
    I have recently become curious about Factor, which, as far as I understand, is the most practical stack based language around. Forth seems not to be used much these days - I think it is because it was meant to be used on its own, instead of inside an operating system, although ports of course exist. It is also pretty low level. Joy is essentially dead, as the author stated that it does not make sense to mantain it in spite of adopting Factor. The fact is that Factor itself does not seem much developed today. The GitHub repo does not seem very active, and a lot of stuff languishes in unmantained. So, are there any other languages of this type that are more actively mantained? Are any in production use?

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  • iTunes 9.0.2 hangs on launch on Mac OS X 10.6.2

    - by dlamblin
    My iTunes 9.0.2 hangs on launch in OS X 10.6.2. This doesn't happen all the time, only if I've been running for a while. Then it will recur until I restart. Similarly Safari 4.0.4 will hang in the flash player plugin when about to play a video. If I restart both these problems go away until later. Based on this crash dump I am suspecting Audio Hijack Pro. I will try to install a newer version of the driver involved, but so far I haven't had much luck. I have uninstalled the Flash Plugin (10.0.r42 and r32) but clearly I want it in the long run. This is iTunes' crash report. Date/Time: 2009-12-14 19:56:02 -0500 OS Version: 10.6.2 (Build 10C540) Architecture: x86_64 Report Version: 6 Command: iTunes Path: /Applications/iTunes.app/Contents/MacOS/iTunes Version: 9.0.2 (9.0.2) Build Version: 2 Project Name: iTunes Source Version: 9022501 Parent: launchd [120] PID: 16878 Event: hang Duration: 3.55s (sampling started after 2 seconds) Steps: 16 (100ms sampling interval) Pageins: 5 Pageouts: 0 Process: iTunes [16878] Path: /Applications/iTunes.app/Contents/MacOS/iTunes UID: 501 Thread 8f96000 User stack: 16 ??? (in iTunes + 6633) [0x29e9] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 6843) [0x2abb] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 11734) [0x3dd6] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 44960) [0xbfa0] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 45327) [0xc10f] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 2295196) [0x23159c] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 103620) [0x1a4c4] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 105607) [0x1ac87] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 106442) [0x1afca] 16 OpenAComponent + 433 (in CarbonCore) [0x972e9dd0] 16 CallComponentOpen + 43 (in CarbonCore) [0x972ebae7] 16 CallComponentDispatch + 29 (in CarbonCore) [0x972ebb06] 16 DefaultOutputAUEntry + 319 (in CoreAudio) [0x70031117] 16 AUGenericOutputEntry + 15273 (in CoreAudio) [0x7000e960] 16 AUGenericOutputEntry + 13096 (in CoreAudio) [0x7000e0df] 16 AUGenericOutputEntry + 9628 (in CoreAudio) [0x7000d353] 16 ??? [0xe0c16d] 16 ??? [0xe0fdf8] 16 ??? [0xe0e1e7] 16 ahs_hermes_CoreAudio_init + 32 (in Instant Hijack Server) [0x13fc7e9] 16 semaphore_wait_signal_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x9798e922] Kernel stack: 16 semaphore_wait_continue + 0 [0x22a0a5] Thread 9b9eb7c User stack: 16 thread_start + 34 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x979bbe42] 16 _pthread_start + 345 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x979bbfbd] 16 ??? (in iTunes + 4011870) [0x3d475e] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 84 (in CoreFoundation) [0x993497a4] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 452 (in CoreFoundation) [0x99343864] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 2079 (in CoreFoundation) [0x9934477f] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x9798e8da] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 9bc8b7c User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 30 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x979b4336] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 390 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x979b44f1] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 234 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x979b4a68] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 163 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x979b4cc3] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x979b50ea] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Binary Images: 0x1000 - 0xbecfea com.apple.iTunes 9.0.2 (9.0.2) <1F665956-0131-39AF-F334-E29E510D42DA> /Applications/iTunes.app/Contents/MacOS/iTunes 0x13f6000 - 0x1402ff7 com.rogueamoeba.audio_hijack_server.hermes 2.2.2 (2.2.2) <9B29AE7F-6951-E63F-616A-482B62179A5C> /usr/local/hermes/modules/Instant Hijack Server.hermesmodule/Contents/MacOS/Instant Hijack Server 0x70000000 - 0x700cbffb com.apple.audio.units.Components 1.6.1 (1.6.1) <600769A2-479A-CA6E-A214-C8766F7CBD0F> /System/Library/Components/CoreAudio.component/Contents/MacOS/CoreAudio 0x97284000 - 0x975a3fe7 com.apple.CoreServices.CarbonCore 861.2 (861.2) <A9077470-3786-09F2-E0C7-F082B7F97838> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreServices.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/CarbonCore.framework/Versions/A/CarbonCore 0x9798e000 - 0x97b32feb libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <D45B91B2-2B4C-AAC0-8096-1FC48B7E9672> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib 0x99308000 - 0x9947ffef com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <AE9FC6F7-F0B2-DE58-759E-7DB89C021A46> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation Process: AirPort Base Station Agent [142] Path: /System/Library/CoreServices/AirPort Base Station Agent.app/Contents/MacOS/AirPort Base Station Agent UID: 501 Thread 8b1d3d4 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in AirPort Base Station Agent + 5344) [0x1000014e0] 16 ??? (in AirPort Base Station Agent + 70666) [0x10001140a] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 8b80000 DispatchQueue 2 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Thread 6e3c7a8 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 __workq_kernreturn + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878869da] Kernel stack: 16 workqueue_thread_yielded + 562 [0x4cb6ae] Thread 8b0f3d4 User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 select$DARWIN_EXTSN + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878b09e2] Kernel stack: 16 sleep + 52 [0x487f93] Thread 8bcb000 User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 ??? (in AirPort Base Station Agent + 71314) [0x100011692] 16 ??? (in AirPort Base Station Agent + 13712) [0x100003590] 16 ??? (in AirPort Base Station Agent + 71484) [0x10001173c] 16 __semwait_signal + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a79ee] Kernel stack: 16 semaphore_wait_continue + 0 [0x22a0a5] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100016fff com.apple.AirPortBaseStationAgent 1.5.4 (154.2) <73DF13C1-AF86-EC2C-9056-8D1946E607CF> /System/Library/CoreServices/AirPort Base Station Agent.app/Contents/MacOS/AirPort Base Station Agent 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: AppleSpell [3041] Path: /System/Library/Services/AppleSpell.service/Contents/MacOS/AppleSpell UID: 501 Thread 999a000 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in AppleSpell + 5852) [0x1000016dc] 16 ??? (in AppleSpell + 6508) [0x10000196c] 16 -[NSSpellServer run] + 72 (in Foundation) [0x7fff81d3b796] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 8a9e7a8 DispatchQueue 2 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x1000a9fef com.apple.AppleSpell 1.6.1 (61.1) <6DE57CC1-77A0-BC06-45E7-E1EACEBE1A88> /System/Library/Services/AppleSpell.service/Contents/MacOS/AppleSpell 0x7fff81cbc000 - 0x7fff81f3dfe7 com.apple.Foundation 6.6.1 (751.14) <767349DB-C486-70E8-7970-F13DB4CDAF37> /System/Library/Frameworks/Foundation.framework/Versions/C/Foundation 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: autofsd [52] Path: /usr/libexec/autofsd UID: 0 Thread 79933d4 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in autofsd + 5340) [0x1000014dc] 16 ??? (in autofsd + 6461) [0x10000193d] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 75997a8 DispatchQueue 2 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100001ff7 autofsd ??? (???) <29276FAC-AEA8-1520-5329-C75F9D453D6C> /usr/libexec/autofsd 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: blued [51] Path: /usr/sbin/blued UID: 0 Thread 7993000 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in blued + 5016) [0x100001398] 16 ??? (in blued + 152265) [0x1000252c9] 16 -[NSRunLoop(NSRunLoop) run] + 77 (in Foundation) [0x7fff81d07903] 16 -[NSRunLoop(NSRunLoop) runMode:beforeDate:] + 270 (in Foundation) [0x7fff81d07a24] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 70db000 DispatchQueue 2 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Thread 84d2000 User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 select$DARWIN_EXTSN + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878b09e2] Kernel stack: 16 sleep + 52 [0x487f93] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100044fff blued ??? (???) <ECD752C9-F98E-3052-26BF-DC748281C992> /usr/sbin/blued 0x7fff81cbc000 - 0x7fff81f3dfe7 com.apple.Foundation 6.6.1 (751.14) <767349DB-C486-70E8-7970-F13DB4CDAF37> /System/Library/Frameworks/Foundation.framework/Versions/C/Foundation 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: check_afp [84504] Path: /System/Library/Filesystems/AppleShare/check_afp.app/Contents/MacOS/check_afp UID: 0 Thread 1140f000 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in check_afp + 5596) [0x1000015dc] 16 ??? (in check_afp + 12976) [0x1000032b0] 16 ??? (in check_afp + 6664) [0x100001a08] 16 ??? (in check_afp + 6520) [0x100001978] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 13ad8b7c DispatchQueue 2 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Thread 13ad6b7c User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 ??? (in check_afp + 13071) [0x10000330f] 16 mach_msg_server_once + 285 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878b2417] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 13ad87a8 User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 select$DARWIN_EXTSN + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878b09e2] Kernel stack: 16 sleep + 52 [0x487f93] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100004ff7 com.apple.check_afp 2.0 (2.0) <EE865A7B-8CDC-7649-58E1-6FE2B43F7A73> /System/Library/Filesystems/AppleShare/check_afp.app/Contents/MacOS/check_afp 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: configd [14] Path: /usr/libexec/configd UID: 0 Thread 704a3d4 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 start + 52 (in configd) [0x100001488] 16 main + 2051 (in configd) [0x100001c9e] 16 server_loop + 72 (in configd) [0x1000024f4] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 6e70000 DispatchQueue 2 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Thread 74a7b7c User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 plugin_exec + 1440 (in configd) [0x100003c5b] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 7560000 User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 _io_pm_force_active_settings + 2266 (in PowerManagement) [0x10050f968] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 75817a8 User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 select$DARWIN_EXTSN + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878b09e2] Kernel stack: 16 sleep + 52 [0x487f93] Thread 8b1db7c User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 __workq_kernreturn + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878869da] Kernel stack: 16 workqueue_thread_yielded + 562 [0x4cb6ae] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100026ff7 configd ??? (???) <58C02CBA-5556-4CDC-2763-814C4C7175DE> /usr/libexec/configd 0x10050c000 - 0x10051dfff com.apple.SystemConfiguration.PowerManagement 160.0.0 (160.0.0) <0AC3D2ED-919E-29C7-9EEF-629FBDDA6159> /System/Library/SystemConfiguration/PowerManagement.bundle/Contents/MacOS/PowerManagement 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: coreaudiod [114] Path: /usr/sbin/coreaudiod UID: 202 Thread 83b93d4 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in coreaudiod + 3252) [0x100000cb4] 16 ??? (in coreaudiod + 26505) [0x100006789] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 847e3d4 DispatchQueue 2 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Thread 854c000 User stack: 3 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 3 __workq_kernreturn + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878869da] Kernel stack: 3 workqueue_thread_yielded + 562 [0x4cb6ae] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x10001ffef coreaudiod ??? (???) <A060D20F-A6A7-A3AE-84EC-11D7D7DDEBC6> /usr/sbin/coreaudiod 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: coreservicesd [66] Path: /System/Library/CoreServices/coreservicesd UID: 0 Thread 7994000 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in coreservicesd + 3756) [0x100000eac] 16 _CoreServicesServerMain + 522 (in CarbonCore) [0x7fff8327a972] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread 76227a8 User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 read + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87877426] Kernel stack: 16 lo64_unix_scall + 77 [0x29e3fd] 16 unix_syscall64 + 617 [0x4ee947] 16 read_nocancel + 158 [0x496add] 16 write + 312 [0x49634d] 16 get_pathbuff + 3054 [0x3023db] 16 tsleep + 105 [0x4881ce] 16 wakeup + 786 [0x487da7] 16 thread_block + 33 [0x226fb5] 16 thread_block_reason + 331 [0x226f27] 16 thread_dispatch + 1950 [0x226c88] 16 machine_switch_context + 753 [0x2a5a37] Thread 7622b7c User stack: 16 thread_start + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5e41] 16 _pthread_start + 331 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a5f8e] 16 fmodWatchConsumer + 347 (in CarbonCore) [0x7fff8322f23f] 16 __semwait_signal + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a79ee] Kernel stack: 16 semaphore_wait_continue + 0 [0x22a0a5] Thread 79913d4 User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 244 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887286] 16 _dispatch_queue_invoke + 185 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8788775c] 16 kevent + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87885bba] Kernel stack: 16 kevent + 97 [0x471745] Thread 84d2b7c User stack: 16 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 16 __workq_kernreturn + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878869da] Kernel stack: 16 workqueue_thread_yielded + 562 [0x4cb6ae] Thread 9b643d4 User stack: 15 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 15 __workq_kernreturn + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878869da] Kernel stack: 16 workqueue_thread_yielded + 562 [0x4cb6ae] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100000fff coreservicesd ??? (???) <D804E55B-4376-998C-AA25-2ADBFDD24414> /System/Library/CoreServices/coreservicesd 0x7fff831cb000 - 0x7fff834fdfef com.apple.CoreServices.CarbonCore 861.2 (861.2) <39F3B259-AC2A-792B-ECFE-4F3E72F2D1A5> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreServices.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/CarbonCore.framework/Versions/A/CarbonCore 0x7fff86e3b000 - 0x7fff86faeff7 com.apple.CoreFoundation 6.6.1 (550.13) <1E952BD9-37C6-16BE-B2F0-CD92A6283D37> /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: cron [31] Path: /usr/sbin/cron UID: 0 Thread 75acb7c DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in cron + 2872) [0x100000b38] 16 ??? (in cron + 3991) [0x100000f97] 16 sleep + 61 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878f5090] 16 __semwait_signal + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a79ee] Kernel stack: 16 semaphore_wait_continue + 0 [0x22a0a5] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100006fff cron ??? (???) <3C5DCC7E-B6E8-1318-8E00-AB721270BFD4> /usr/sbin/cron 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: cvmsServ [104] Path: /System/Library/Frameworks/OpenGL.framework/Versions/A/Libraries/cvmsServ UID: 0 Thread 761f3d4 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 ??? (in cvmsServ + 4100) [0x100001004] 16 ??? (in cvmsServ + 23081) [0x100005a29] 16 mach_msg_server + 597 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878ea1c8] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Binary Images: 0x100000000 - 0x100008fff cvmsServ ??? (???) <6200AD80-4159-5656-8736-B72B7388C461> /System/Library/Frameworks/OpenGL.framework/Versions/A/Libraries/cvmsServ 0x7fff8786c000 - 0x7fff87a2aff7 libSystem.B.dylib ??? (???) <526DD3E5-2A8B-4512-ED97-01B832369959> /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib Process: DirectoryService [11] Path: /usr/sbin/DirectoryService UID: 0 Thread 70db7a8 DispatchQueue 1 User stack: 16 start + 52 (in DirectoryService) [0x10000da74] 16 main + 3086 (in DirectoryService) [0x10000e68a] 16 CFRunLoopRun + 70 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e859b6] 16 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 575 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e85c2f] 16 __CFRunLoopRun + 1698 (in CoreFoundation) [0x7fff86e867a2] 16 mach_msg_trap + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff8786ce3a] Kernel stack: 16 ipc_mqueue_receive_continue + 0 [0x210aa3] Thread <multiple> DispatchQueue 6 User stack: 17 start_wqthread + 13 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886a55] 17 _pthread_wqthread + 353 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87886bb8] 16 _dispatch_worker_thread2 + 231 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff87887279] 16 _dispatch_call_block_and_release + 15 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a8ce8] 16 syscall + 10 (in libSystem.B.dylib) [0x7fff878a92da] 1 _disp

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  • Stack data storage order

    - by Jamie Dixon
    When talking about a stack in either computing or "real" life we usually assume a "first on, last off" type of functionality. Because the idea of a stack is based around something in the physical world, does it matter how the data in the stack is stored? I notice in a lot of examples that the storage of the stack data is quite often done using an array and the newest item added to the stack is placed at the bottom of the array. (like adding a new plate to an existing stack of plates except putting it underneath the other plates rather than on top). As a paradigm, does it matter in what order the data is stored within the stack as long as the operation of the stack acts as expected?

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  • Getting to grips with the stack in nasm

    - by MarkPearl
    Today I spent a good part of my day getting to grips with the stack and nasm. After looking at my notes on nasm I think this is one area for the course I am doing they could focus more on… So here are some snippets I have put together that have helped me understand a little bit about the stack… Simplest example of the stack You will probably see examples like the following in circulation… these demonstrate the simplest use of the stack… org 0x100 bits 16 jmp main main: push 42h push 43h push 44h mov ah,2h ;set to display characters pop dx    ;get the first value int 21h   ;and display it pop dx    ;get 2nd value int 21h   ;and display it pop dx    ;get 3rd value int 21h   ;and display it int 20h The output from above code would be… DCB Decoupling code using “call” and “ret” This is great, but it oversimplifies what I want to use the stack for… I do not know if this goes against the grain of assembly programmers or not, but I want to write loosely coupled assembly code – and I want to use the stack as a mechanism for passing values into my decoupled code. In nasm we have the call and return instructions, which provides a mechanism for decoupling code, for example the following could be done… org 0x100 bits 16 jmp main ;---------------------------------------- displayChar: mov ah,2h mov dx,41h int 21h ret ;---------------------------------------- main: call displayChar int 20h   This would output the following to the console A So, it would seem that call and ret allow us to jump to segments of our code and then return back to the calling position – a form of segmenting the code into what we would called in higher order languages “functions” or “methods”. The only issue is, in higher order languages there is a way to pass parameters into the functions and return results. Because of the primitive nature of the call and ret instructions, this does not seem to be obvious. We could of course use the registers to pass values into the subroutine and set values coming out, but the problem with this is we… Have a limited number of registers Are threading our code with tight coupling (it would be hard to migrate methods outside of their intended use in a particular program to another one) With that in mind, I turn to the stack to provide a loosely coupled way of calling subroutines… First attempt with the Stack Initially I thought this would be simple… we could use code that looks as follows to achieve what I want… org 0x100 bits 16 jmp main ;---------------------------------------- displayChar: mov ah,2h pop dx int 21h ret ;---------------------------------------- main: push 41h call displayChar int 20h   However running this application does not give the desired result, I want an ‘A’ to be returned, and I am getting something totally different (you will to). Reading up on the call and ret instructions a discovery is made… they are pushing and popping things onto and off the stack as well… When the call instruction is executed, the current value of IP (the address of the instruction to follow) is pushed onto the stack, when ret is called, the last value on the stack is popped off into the IP register. In effect what the above code is doing is as follows with the stack… push 41h push current value of ip pop current value of ip to dx pop 41h to ip This is not what I want, I need to access the 41h that I pushed onto the stack, but the call value (which is necessary) is putting something in my way. So, what to do? Remember we have other registers we can use as well as a thing called indirect addressing… So, after some reading around, I came up with the following approach using indirect addressing… org 0x100 bits 16 jmp main ;---------------------------------------- displayChar: mov bp,sp mov ah,2h mov dx,[bp+2] int 21h ret ;---------------------------------------- main: push 41h call displayChar int 20h In essence, what I have done here is used a trick with the stack pointer… it goes as follows… Push 41 onto the stack Make the call to the function, which will push the IP register onto the stack and then jump to the displayChar label Move the value in the stack point to the bp register (sp currently points at IP register) Move the at the location of bp minus 2 bytes to dx (this is now the value 41h) display it, execute the ret instruction, which pops the ip value off the stack and goes back to the calling point This approach is still very raw, some further reading around shows that I should be pushing the value of bp onto the stack before replacing it with sp, but it is the starting thread to getting loosely coupled subroutines. Let’s see if you get what the following output would be? org 0x100 bits 16 jmp main ;---------------------------------------- displayChar: mov bp,sp mov ah,2h mov dx,[bp+4] int 21h mov dx,[bp+2] int 21h ret ;---------------------------------------- main: push 41h push 42h call displayChar int 20h The output is… AB Where to from here? If by any luck some assembly programmer comes along and see this code and notices that I have made some fundamental flaw in my logic… I would like to know, so please leave a comment… appreciate any feedback!

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  • Stack vs queue -based programming language efficiency [closed]

    - by Core Xii
    Suppose there are two programming languages; one where the only form of storage is one (preferred) or two (may be required for Turing-completeness) stacks, and another where the only form of storage is a single queue, with appropriate instructions in each to manipulate their respective storage to achieve Turing-completeness. Which one can more efficiently encode complex algorithms? Such that most given algorithms take less code to implement, less time to compute and less memory to do so. Also, how do they compare to a language with a traditional array (or unbounded tape, if you will) as storage?

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  • NPTL Default Stack Size Problem

    - by eyazici
    Hello, I am developing a multithread modular application using C programming language and NPTL 2.6. For each plugin, a POSIX thread is created. The problem is each thread has its own stack area, since default stack size depends on user's choice, this may results in huge memory consumption in some cases. To prevent unnecessary memory usage I used something similar to this to change stack size before creating each thread: pthread_attr_t attr; pthread_attr_init (&attr); pthread_attr_getstacksize(&attr, &st1); if(pthread_attr_setstacksize (&attr, MODULE_THREAD_SIZE) != 0) perror("Stack ERR"); pthread_attr_getstacksize(&attr, &st2); printf("OLD:%d, NEW:%d - MIN: %d\n", st1, st2, PTHREAD_STACK_MIN); pthread_attr_setdetachstate(&attr, PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED); /* "this" is static data structure that stores plugin related data */ pthread_create(&this->runner, &attr, (void *)(void *)this->run, NULL); EDIT I: pthread_create() section added. This did not work work as I expected, the stack size reported by pthread_attr_getstacksize() is changed but total memory usage of the application (from ps/top/pmap output) did not changed: OLD:10485760, NEW:65536 - MIN: 16384 When I use ulimit -s MY_STACK_SIZE_LIMIT before starting application I achieve the expected result. My questions are: 1-) Is there any portable(between UNIX variants) way to change (default)thread stack size after starting application(before creating thread of course)? 2-) Is it possible to use same stack area for every thread? 3-) Is it possible completely disable stack for threads without much pain?

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  • Search in Stack

    - by WPS
    Hi, I've a Java Stack created and some custom objects added to it. These objects contains unique id as one of their field. I need to get the index of that object in stack based on the unique name. Please find the example. class TestVO{ private String name; private String uniqueId; //getters and setters } public class TestStack{ public static void main(String args[]){ TestVO vo1=new TestVO(); TestVO vo2=new TestVO(); TestVO vo3=new TestVO(); vo1.setName("Test Name 1") vo1.setId("123") vo2.setName("Test name 2"); vo2.setId("234"); Stack<TestVO> stack=new Stack<TestVO>(); stack.add(vo1); stack.add(vo2); //I need to get the index of a VO from stack using it's unique ID } } Can someone please help me to implement this?

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  • Implementing arrays using a stack

    - by Zack
    My programming language has no arrays, no lists, no pointers, no eval and no variable variables. All it has: Ordinary variables like you know them from most programming languages: They all have an exact name and a value. One stack. Functions provided are: push (add element to top), pop (remove element from top, get value) and empty (check if stack is empty) My language is turing-complete. (Basic arithmetics, conditional jumps, etc implemented) That means, it must be possible to implement some sort of list or array, right? But I have no idea how... What I want to achieve: Create a function which can retrieve and/or change an element x of the stack. I could easily add this function in the implementation of my language, in the interpreter, but I want to do it in my programming language. "Solution" one (Accessing an element x, counting from the stack top) Create a loop. Pop off the element from the stack top x times. The last element popped of is element number x. I end up with a destroyed stack. Solution two: Do the same as above, but store all popped off values in a second stack. Then you could move all elements back after you are done. But you know what? I don't have a second stack!

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  • stack and heap issue for iPhone memory management

    - by Forrest
    From this post I got know that the Objective-C runtime does not allow objects to be instantiated on the stack, but only on the heap; this means that you don’t have “automatic objects”, nor things like auto_ptr objects to help you manage memory; Someone give one example in post Objective C: Memory Allocation on stack vs. heap NSString* str = @"hello"; but this NSString is also not allocated in stack. Feel odd that this str is static. (Who can explain this ? ) Question here is that why there is no heap ? even mixing c++ together with Object C ? /////////////////////////////// Clear my question /////////////////////////////// I am confused , so questions are not clear. Let me put in this way. 1) All Object C objects should be alloc in stack ? ( I think yes ) 2)In C++, there are stack for memory, so for iOS app, also have stack ? ( I think yes ) 3) for iOS app, if only use Object C, so what is the usage of stack ? what kind of objects should use stack then ?

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  • Write magic bytes to the stack to monitor its usage

    - by tkarls
    I have a problem on an embedded device that I think might be related to a stack overflow. In order to test this I was planning to fill the stack with magic bytes and then periodically check if the stack has overflowed by examining how much of my magic bytes that are left intact. But I can't get the routine for marking the stack to work. The application keeps crashing instantly. This is what I have done just at the entry point of the program. //fill most of stack with magic bytes int stackvar = 0; int stackAddr = int(&stackvar); int stackAddrEnd = stackAddr - 25000; BYTE* stackEnd = (BYTE*) stackAddrEnd; for(int i = 0; i < 25000; ++i) { *(stackEnd + i) = 0xFA; } Please note that the allocated stack is larger than 25k. So I'm counting on some stack space to already be used at this point. Also note that the stack grows from higher to lower addresses that's why I'm trying to fill from the bottom and up. But as I said, this will crash. I must be missing something here.

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  • Stack & heap understanding question

    - by Petr
    Hi, I would really appreciate if someone could tell me whether I understand it well: class X { A a1=new A() //reference on the stack, object value on the heap a1.VarA=5; //on the stack - value type A a2=new A() //reference on the stack, object value on the heap a2.VarA=10; //on the stack - value type a1=a2; //on the stack, the target of a1 reference is updated to a2 value on the heap //also both a1 and a2 references are on the stack, while their "object" values on the heap. But what about VarA variable, its still pure value type? } class A { int VarA; }

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  • Stack / base pointers in assembly

    - by flyingcrab
    I know this topic has been covered ad-naseum here, and other places on the internet - but hopefully the question is a simple one as I try to get my head around assembly... So if i understand correctly the ebp (base pointer) will point to the top of the stack, and the esp (stack pointer) will point to the bottom -- since the stack grows downward. esp therefore points to the 'current location'. So on a function call, once you've saved the ebp on the stack you insert a new stack frame - for the function. So in the case of the image below, if you started from N-3 you would go to N-2 with a function call. But when you are at N-2 - is your ebp == 25 and the esp == 24 (at least initially, before any data is placed on the stack)? Is this correct or am I of on a tangent here? Thanks!

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  • Determining the maximum stack depth

    - by Joa Ebert
    Imagine I have a stack-based toy language that comes with the operations Push, Pop, Jump and If. I have a program and its input is the toy language. For instance I get the sequence Push 1 Push 1 Pop Pop In that case the maximum stack would be 2. A more complicated example would use branches. Push 1 Push true If .success Pop Jump .continue .success: Push 1 Push 1 Pop Pop Pop .continue: In this case the maximum stack would be 3. However it is not possible to get the maximum stack by walking top to bottom as shown in this case since it would result in a stack-underflow error actually. CFGs to the rescue you can build a graph and walk every possible path of the basic blocks you have. However since the number of paths can grow quickly for n vertices you get (n-1)! possible paths. My current approach is to simplify the graph as much as possible and to have less possible paths. This works but I would consider it ugly. Is there a better (read: faster) way to attack this problem? I am fine if the algorithm produces a stack depth that is not optimal. If the correct stack size is m then my only constraint is that the result n is n = m. Is there maybe a greedy algorithm available that would produce a good result here?

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  • How to write Haskell function to verify parentheses matching?

    - by Rizo
    I need to write a function par :: String -> Bool to verify if a given string with parentheses is matching using stack module. Ex: par "(((()[()])))" = True par "((]())" = False Here's my stack module implementation: module Stack (Stack, push, pop, top, empty, isEmpty) where data Stack a = Stk [a] deriving (Show) push :: a -> Stack a -> Stack a push x (Stk xs) = Stk (x:xs) pop :: Stack a -> Stack a pop (Stk (_:xs)) = Stk xs pop _ = error "Stack.pop: empty stack" top :: Stack a -> a top (Stk (x:_)) = x top _ = error "Stack.top: empty stack" empty :: Stack a empty = Stk [] isEmpty :: Stack a -> Bool isEmpty (Stk [])= True isEmpty (Stk _) = False So I need to implement a 'par' function that would test a string of parentheses and say if parentheses in it matches or not. How can I do that using a stack?

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  • C++ stack in Objective-C++

    - by helixed
    I'd like to use a C++ stack type in Objective-C, but I'm running into some issues. Here's a sample of what I would like to do: #import <stack> #import <UIKit/UIKit.h> @interface A : NSObject { stack<SEL> selectorStack; } @end Unfortunately, this doesn't compile. After messing around with the code for a while and trying different things, I can't seem to find a way to accomplish this. Can somebody tell me the best way to use a C++ stack within an Objective-C object or if it's even possible? Thanks. UPDATE: Well, KennyTM's answer worked on my example file, but for some reason when I tried to rename the class it quit working. Here's the code I have right now: #import <stack> #import <UIKit/UIKit.h> @interface MenuLayer : NSObject { std::stack<SEL> selectorStack; } @end The compiler spits out the following errors: stack: No such file or directory expected specifier-qualifier-list before 'std'

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  • how to know location of return address on stack c/c++

    - by Dr Deo
    i have been reading about a function that can overwrite its return address. void foo(const char* input) { char buf[10]; //What? No extra arguments supplied to printf? //It's a cheap trick to view the stack 8-) //We'll see this trick again when we look at format strings. printf("My stack looks like:\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n% p\n\n"); //%p ie expect pointers //Pass the user input straight to secure code public enemy #1. strcpy(buf, input); printf("%s\n", buf); printf("Now the stack looks like:\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n%p\n\n"); } It was sugggested that this is how the stack would look like Address of foo = 00401000 My stack looks like: 00000000 00000000 7FFDF000 0012FF80 0040108A <-- We want to overwrite the return address for foo. 00410EDE Question: -. Why did the author arbitrarily choose the second last value as the return address of foo()? -. Are values added to the stack from the bottom or from the top? apart from the function return address, what are the other values i apparently see on the stack? ie why isn't it filled with zeros Thanks.

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  • Is this good code? Linked List Stack Implementation

    - by Quik Tester
    I have used the following code for a stack implementation. The top keeps track of the topmost node of the stack. Now since top is a data member of the node function, each node created will have a top member, which ideally we wouldn't want. Firstly, is this good approach to coding? Secondly, will making top as static make it a better coding practice? Or should I have a global declaration of top? #include<iostream> using namespace std; class node { int data; node *top; node *link; public: node() { top=NULL; link=NULL; } void push(int x) { node *n=new node; n->data=x; n->link=top; top=n; cout<<"Pushed "<<n->data<<endl; } void pop() { node *n=new node; n=top; top=top->link; n->link=NULL; cout<<"Popped "<<n->data<<endl; delete n; } void print() { node *n=new node; n=top; while(n!=NULL) { cout<<n->data<<endl; n=n->link; } delete n; } }; int main() { node stack; stack.push(5); stack.push(7); stack.push(9); stack.pop(); stack.print(); } Any other suggestions welcome. I have also seen codes where there are two classes, where the second one has the top member. What about this? Thanks. :)

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